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THIS BOOK LIAY NOT BE HiOTOCCTIED 





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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THB 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



OP THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON 

FOR THE YEAR 

1896. 



_^>^m^^. 

# ^ tV i PART I. 

' ^r-, ..oSiijin^AINING PAPERS TIEAD IN 

JANUAEY AND FEBRUAUY. 



JUNE 1st, 1896. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
SOi-D AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

LONDON : 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, AND 0., 



PATERH08TER-R0W. 



[Price Twelve Shillings.'] 




LIST OF CONTENTS. 
PART I.— 1896. 



January 14, 1896. 

Page 

The Sec Jn the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in December 1895 1 

Mr. W. •.'tmeier. Exhibition of some drawings of two young King-Penguins (Apteno- 

r.' v.. ri) 1 

1. A i ■ iunry Eevisiou and Synonymic Catalogue of the Hefperiidts of Africa and the 

adj. nt Lslaiids, witli Descriptions of some apparently new Species. By W. J. Holland, 
Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S., &c., Chancellor of the Western University of Pennsylvania. 
(Plates I.-V.) 2 

2. On a Collection of Butterflies obtained by Mr. Richard Crawshay in Ifyasa-land, between 

the Months of January and April 1895. By Arthl-u G. Butler, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c. 
(Plate VI.) •••••• 108 

3. On the Intestinal Tract of Birds. By P. Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.Z.S 136 

4. Myology of Rodents.— Part II. An Account of the Myology of the Myomorpha, together 

with a Comparison of the Muscles of the -various Suborders of Rodents. By F. G. 
Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z S., F.L.S., Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy at St Thomas's 
Hospital ' ■ • 159 

5. Description of a new Species of Antelope from East Africa. By Oscar Neuma.vn 192 

6. On some Earthworms from the Sandwich Islands collected by Mr. R. L. Perkins ; with 

an Appendix on some new Species of PerichcBta, &c. By Frank E. Beudard, F.R.S., &e. 194 

February 4, 1896. 

The Secretary. On the Additions to the Society's Menagerie Iti January IS9t5 212 

1. Second Report on the Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith 

during his Exiiedition to Lake Rudolf. Bv G. A. BouLESGEii, F.E.S. (Plates VII. & 
VIII.) . . ; .i : 212 

2. Report on a Collection of Fishes made by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition 

to Lake Rudolf. By Dr. Albert Gt:NTUER, F.R.S. (Plate IX.) . 217 

3. Remarks on the System of Coloration and Punctuation in the Beetles jof the Genus 

Calligraplm. By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S 224 

4. On the Oblique Septa (" Diaphragm " of Owen) in the Passerines and in some other 

Birds. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A^, F.R.S. , Prosector to the Society, Examiner in 
Zoologj- and Comparative Anatomy in the University of London 225 

5. A Note upon I}issura episcopus, with Remarks upon the Classification of the Herodiones. 

By Fra.nk E. Beddaud, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society 231 

6. Additional Note on the Sea-Otter. By R. Lydekker, F.R.S 235 

7. On the Hyoid Bones of Nestor meridionalis and Nanodes discolor. By St. George 

Mivakt, M.A., F.R.S 236 

February 18, 1896. 
Mr. A. Thomson. Report on the Insect-house for 1895 240 

1. On the Butterflies obtained in Arabia and Somalilaud by Capt. Chas. G. Nurse and 

Col. J. \V. Yerbury in 1&94 and 189.'i. By Abthvr G. Bitleh, Ph.D., Senior Assistant- 
Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Museum. (Plate X.) 242 

2. On Moths collected at Aden and in Somaliland. By Lord VTALSiNOnAM, M.A., LIi.D., 

F.R.S., and G. F. Hami'son, B.A., &c. (Plate X.) ......: 257 

3. Observations on the Metallic Colours of the Trochilida and the Nectariniids. By Miss 

Maision I. Newbioin, .B.Sc. (Plates XI. & XII.) 283 

4. On a Skull of Orycteropiis gaudryi, Forsyth ilajor, from Samos. By C. V\^ Andrews, 

F.G.S., Assistant in the British Museum (Natural History) 296 

5. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Anatomy of Bhynchops. By Frank E. 

Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society 299 

March 3, 1896. 
The Secretary. On the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in February 1896 303 

Mr. G. E. H. Barrel t-Ham.iltnii, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, remains of the 

Norway Lemming (Mi/odes lemmus) from Portugal 304 



PROCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON 

FOR THE YEAE 

1896. 






PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AND SOLD AT THEIE HOUSE IN HANOVER-SQUAEE 

LONDON : 

MESSES. LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO., 

PATEB.KOSTEB ROW. 



LIST 



OF THE 



COUNCIL AND OFFICEKS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



1896. 



COUNCIL. 

{Elected April 29, 1896.) 
SieW. H. Flower, K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., Sc.D., F.R.S., President 

Vice- 



De. John Anderson, F.E.S., 

Vice-President. 
William T. Blanford, Esq., 

F.R.S., Vice-President. 
George A. Botjlenker, Esq., 

F.R.S. 
The Rt. Hon. George Denman, 

P.C. 
Herbert Deuce, Esq., F.L.S. 
Charles Drummonb, Esq., Trea- 
surer. 
Gen. The Hon. Sir Percy 

Feilding, K.C.B. 
F. DuCane Godman, Esq.,F.R.S., 

Vice-President. 
Lt.-Col, H. H. Gobwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., Vice-President. 



Dr. Edwabd Hamilton, 

President. 
Professor George B. Howes. 
Lt.-Col. Leonard H. Irbt. 
Sir Hugh Low, G.C.M.G. 
Dr. St. George Mivart, F.R.S., 

Vice-President. 
Professor Alfred Newton, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Thomas Paine. 
E. Lort Phillips, Esq. 
Hoayaed Saunders, Esq. 
Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., 

M.A.,Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary. 
The Lord Walsingham, F.R.S. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary. 
Frank E. Beddard, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector. 
Mr. a. D. Bartlett, Superintendent of tlie Oardens. 
Me. F. H. Waterhouse, Librarian. 
Mr. John Barrow, Accountant. 
Mr. W. J. Williams, Cliief Cleric. 



LIST 



OF THE 



CONTRIBUTORS, 



With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Page 
Andrews, C. W,, F.G.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the British 

Museum (Natural History). 

On a Skull of Orycterojms gaudryi, Forsyth Major, from 

Samos 296 

AiJSTEiJ-, E. E., Assistant in the British Museum (Natural 
History). 
Notes on a Eecent Zoological Expedition on the Lower 
Amazon 768 

BAEEETT-HAMiLTOisr, G. E. H. See Hamilton, G. E. H. 
Babkett-. 

Baetlett, a. D., Superintendent of the Society's Gardens. 

Notes on the Breeding of the Surinam Water-Toad 

(Pipa americcma) in the Society's Gardens 595 

a'i 



IV 

Page 
Bateson, William, M.A., T.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, three Pigeons showing 
webbing between the toes 989 

Beddaed, Feank E., M.A., F.E.S,, Prosector to the 
Society. 

On some Earthworms from the Sandwich Islands col- 
lected by Mr. E. L. Perkins ; with an Appendix on some 
new Species of Perichceta, &c 194 

On the Oblique Septa (" Diaphragm " of Owen) in the 
Passerines and in some other Birds 225 

A Note upon Dissura epismpus, with Remarks upon the 
Classification of the Herodiones 231 

A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Anatomy of 
Bhynchops 299 

On the Anatomy of a Grebe {^chmoplwrus major), vdih. 
Eemarks upon the Classification of some of the Schizo- 
snathous Birds 538 



o 



Contributions to the Anatomy of Picarian Birds. — 
Part II. A Note upon the Pterylosis of the Barbets and 
Toucans 555 

Contributions to the Anatomy of Picarian Birds. — 
Part III. On some Points in the Anatomy of the King- 
fishers 603 

Beelepsch, Graf Hans ton, C.M.Z.S. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature 319 

Beelepsch, Graf Hans ton, C.M.Z.S., and Stolzmann, 
Jean. 

On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jean Kalinowski 
in Central Peru. (Plates XIII. & XIV.) 322 



V 

Page 
Bingham, Lt.-Col. C. T., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

A Confcributiou to the Knowledge of the Hymenopterous 
Fauua of Ceylon. (Plate XV.) 401 

BLAifFOED, W. T., LL.D., F.E.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 321 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, four heads of Ovis 
ammon from the North-west Altai, Central Asia, obtained 
by Major Cumberland 786 

BoijLENGEE, Geoese Albeet, F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

Second Eeport on the Eeptiles and Batrachians collected 
by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to 
Lake Eudolf. (Plates VII. & VIII.) 212 

On some little-known Batrachians from the Caucasus. 
(Plates XXI. & XXII.) 548 

Eemarks on the Dentition of Snakes and on the Evolu- 
tion of the Poison-fangs 614 

On the Occurrence of Schlegel's Gavial {Tomistomia 
schlegeli) in the Malay Peninsula, with Eemarks on the 
Atlas and Axis of the Crocodilians 628 

On a new Gecko from Penang. (Plate XXXVI.) .... 767 

Descriptions of new Fishes from the Upper Shire Eiver, 
British Central Africa, collected by Dr. Percy Eendall, 
and presented to the British Museum by Sir Harry H. 
Johnston, K.C.B. (Plate XLVII.) 915 

On the Lizards of the Genus Eremias, Section Boulen- 
geria 920 

Beowne, Edwaed T., B.A., F.Z.S., Zoological Eesearch 
Laboratory, University College, London. 

On British Hydroids and Medusae. (Plates XVI. & 
XVn.) 459 



VI 

Page 

BuxLEE, ABTH0K G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c., Senior 

Assistant Keeper of Zoology, Natural History 

. Museum. 

On a Collection of Butterflies obtained by Mr. Eichard 

Crawshay in Nyasa-land, between the months of January 

and April 1895. (Plate VI.) 108 

On the Butterflies obtained in Arabia and Somaliland 
by Capt. Chas. G. Nurse and Col. J. W. Terbury in 1894 
and 1895. (Plate X.) 242 

On two Collections of Lepidoptera made by Mr. E. 
Crawshay in Nyasaland. (Plates XLI. & XLII.) 817 

On a Collection of Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land pre- 
sented to the Museum by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., 
and collected by Mr. J. B. Tule. (Plate XLIII.) 851 

Cambridge, Feederick O. Pickard, B.A. 

On the Therapliosidce of the Lower Amazons : being an 
Account of the new Genera and Species of this Group of 
Spiders discovered during the Expedition of the Steam- 
ship ' Paraday ' up the Eiver Amazons. (Plates XXXIIL- 
XXXV.) 716 

Cambridge, Eev. O. Pickard, M.A., F.E.S., &c. 

On some new and little-known Spiders (Araneidea). 
(Plate Lll.) 1006 

Crawshay, Eichard. 

Eemarks upon the Gnu of Nyasa-land 617 

CrNNiNGHAM, Egbert O., M.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., 
Professor of Natural History, Queen's CoUege, Belfast. 

On the Occurrence of a Pair of Supernumerary Bones 
in the Skull of a Leuiur, and on a Peculiarity in the Skull 
of a young Orang 996 



vu 

Page 
boLLFUS, AdEIEK. 

On West-Indian Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans 388 

Dressee, H. E., Y.Z.S., &c. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of Pallas's 
Willow-Warbler shot at Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk .... 856 

Deuce, Hamilton H., F.Z.S., E.E.S. 

Further Contributions to tlie Knowledge of the Bornean 
Lijccemdce. (Plates XXIX.-XXXI.) 650 

Dubois, Dr. Alphonse, Conservator of the Eoyal Museum 
of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium. 

Description d'un nouveau Couroucou africain 999 

DuEHAM, Miss M. Edith. 

Notes on the Mode of Feeding of the Egg-eating Snake 
{Dasypdtis scabra). (Plate XXXII.) 715 

Edwaeds, James, F.E.S., and Elwes, H. J., F.L.S., F.Z.8. 
Notice of a Memoir containing a Revision of the 
European and Asiatic Butterflies of the Family Hesperiidce. 609 

Elwes, Henex John, F.L.S., F.Z.tS. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 320 

Elwes, Heset John, F.L.S., F.Z.S., and Edwaeds, James, 
F.E.S. 
Notice of a Memoir containing a Eevision of the 
European and Asiatic Butterflies of the Family Hes2oeriidce. 609 

Flowee, Stanley Smyth, 5th Fusiliers. 

Notes on a Collection of Eeptiles and Batrachians made 
in the Malay Peninsula in 1895-96; with a List of 
the Species recorded from that Eegion. (Plates XLIY.- 
XLVI.) 856 



VIU 

Page 
i'LOWEE, Sir William Henkt, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., 

President of the Society. 
Eemarks on the Rules of Zoological Noraenclature .... 319 



FoEBES, Henry Ogg, LL.D., T.Z.S. 

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 322 

FowLEE, G. Heebeet, B.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of 
Zoology, University College, London. 

Contributions to our Knowledge of the Plankton of the 
Paeroe Channel.— No. I. (Plate L.) 991 



Gadow, Dr. Hans, F.Z.S. 

Remarks on Bone-caves in Estremadura, explored in 
1886 306 



GoDMAN, F. DuCane, F.R.S., and Saltin, Osbeet, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

On the Butterflies of St. Vincent, Grenada, and the 
adjoining Islands of the West Indies 513 

Geegoet, J. W., D.Sc, F.G.S., Assistant in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

On Lysecliinus, a new Genus of Fossil Echinoderms 
from the Tyrolese Trias. (Plate LI.) 1000 

On the Classification of the Palaeozoic Echinoderms of 
the Group Ophiuroidea 1028 

Gunthee, Albeet C. L. G., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Report on a Collection of Fishes made by Dr. A. 
Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to Lake Rudolf. 
(Plate IX.) 217 



Page 
Hamilton, G. E. H. Baeeext-, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, remains of the Norway 
Lemming {Myodes lemmus) from Portugal 304 

On a Variation in the Pattern of the Teeth of a 
specimen of the Common Field Vole 598 

On the Existence in Europe of Two G-eographical Eaces, 
or Subspecies, of the Common Field Vole 599 

Hampson, G. F., B.A., &c., and Walsingham, Lord, M.A., 
LL.D., F,E.S,, F.Z.S. 

On Moths collected at Aden and in SomaUland. 
(Plate X.) 257 

Hansen, Dr. H. J. (Copenhagen). 

On the Development and the Species of the Crustaceans 
of the Genus Sergestes 936 

Haeteet, Eenst. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 319 

Hill, Leonaed, M.B. 

Eemarks on some Experiments on supposed cases of the 
Inheritance of Acquired Characters 785 

Holding, E. E. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, an Antler of the Cir- 
cassian Eed Deer, and a pair of Antlers of the Malayan 
Sambur abnormally developed 618 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the head of a three- 
horned Fallow Deer and a pair of Eoebuck's horns 855 

Holland, TV. J., Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S., &c., Chancellor of 
the "Western University of Pennsylvania. 

A Preliminary Eevision and Synonymic Catalogue of 
the Hesperiidce of Africa and the adjacent Islands, 
with Descriptions of some apparently new Species. 
(Plates I.-V.) 2 



Page 
HoTLE, William Evans, M.A,, F.E.S.E. 

Exhibition of, aud remarks upon, some Photographs of 
a Snake in the act of swallowing a Mouse 547 

Jacobt, Maetiw, F.E.S. 

Eeraarks on the System of Coloration and Punctuation 
in the Beetles of the Grenus Calligraplia 224 

KiEBT, r. W., E.L.S., P.E.S. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 322 

On some Dragonflies obtained by Mr. and Mrs. Lort 
PhiUipa in Somali-land 521 

Lankestee, Prof. E. Eay, M.A., LL.D., E.E.S., &c. 

Eemarks on the Eules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 320 

Littleton, The Hon. H. S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a life-sized model of the 
Australian Lung-lish (Oeratodus forsteri) 786 

Lydekkee, Eichaed, B.A., P.E.S., E.G.S., E.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Additional Note on the Sea-Otter 235 

On an apparently New Deer from North China, in the 
Menagerie of the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. 
(Plates XL VIII. & XLIX.) 930 

MaJOE, C. I. EOESYTH, C.M.Z.S. 

On the General Eesults of a Zoological Expedition to 
Madagascar in 1894-96 971 

Mitchell, P. Chalmees, M.A., P.Z.S. 

On the Intestinal Tract of Birds 136 

A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Hoatzin (Opw- 
ihocomus cristaUis) 618 

Eemarks on a supposed case of Telegony shown by a 
Fox-terrier puppy ....•.: 785 



XI 

Page 
MivAET, St. George, Ph.D., M.D., E.E.S., &e. 

On the Hyoid Bones oi Nestor mendionalis and Nanodes 
discolor ;i(3t) 

Netoiakn, Oscae. 

Description of a new Species of Antelope frpm East 
Afi-ica 192 

Newbigin, Miss MARioif I., B.Sc. 

Observations on the Metallic Colours of the Trochilidce 
and the Nectar iniidce. (Plates XI. & XII.) 283 

Newton, Alfeed, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Zoology 
and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cam- 
bridge. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the type specimen of 
HeterorJiynchus olivaceits 990 

NoETH, AiFEED J., C.M.Z.S., Ornithologist to the Australian 
Museum, Sydney. 

On the Habits of a Cuckoo in the Gilbert Islands .... 934 

Paesons, E. G., P.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S., Lecturer on Com- 
parative Anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital. 

The Myology of Eodents. — Part II. An Account of the 
Myology of the Myomorpha, together with a Comparison 
of the Muscles of the various Suborders of Eodents .... 159 

On the Anatomy of Petrogale xanthopus, compared with 
that of other Kangaroos . . 683 

'€*EASE, Alfeed E. 

On the Antelopes of the Aures and Eastern Algerian 
Sahara 809 



xu 

Page 
Salvin, Osbekt, M.A., F.E.S., and GtODMan, F. DdCane, 

r,E.s. 

On the Butterflies of St. Vincent, Grenada, and the 
adjoining Islands of the West Indies 513 

ScHAUs, William, F.Z.S. 

On Walker's American Types of Lepidoptera in the 
Oxford University Museum 634 

ScLATEE, Philip Lutlet, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to 
the Society. 

Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
December 1895 1 

Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
January 1896 212 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
February 1896 303 

Remarks on the Divergencies between the " Rules for 
naming Animals " of the German Zoological Society and 
the Stricklandian Code of Nomenclature 306 

Remarks upon the prospectus of ' Das Tierreich ' .... 400 

Remarks on the ap])ointment of an International 
Committee on Zoological Nomenclature 401 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
March 1896 505 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some specimens from 
Nyasaland, sent home by Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B. . . 506 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a pair of Horns of 
the so-called Antilope triangularis 506 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
April 1896 547 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a Daguerreotype 
Portrait of what was believed to have been the first 
Gorilla that was ever brought alive to Europe 597 



XUl 

Page 
Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
May 1896 .* 608 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a skin of Cercojnthecus 
stairsi from Mombasa 609 

Exhibition of some Water-colour Drawings of African 
Antelopes, executed by Mr. E. Caldwell 609 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a drawing of the Gnu 
of Nyasaland. (Plate XXVin.) 616 

Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie 
in June, July, August, September, and October 1896 780 

Remarks on some of the principal Animals recently 
noticed in the Zoological Gardens of Antwerp, Cologne, 
Dusseldorf, Hanover, Amsterdam, The Hague, and 
Rotterdam. (Plate XXXVII.) 783 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
November 1896 981 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, two Volumes of 
original Water-colour Drawings by Wolf and Waterhouse 
Hawkins, from the Knowsley Library 981 

Shaep, Dr. David, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Remarks on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature .... 321 

Shabpe, Emilt Makt. 

List of Lepidoptera collected in SomaU-land by Mrs. E. 
Lort PhilUps 523 

List of Lepidoptera obtained by Dr. A. Donaldson 
Smith during his recent Expedition to Lake Rudolf .... 530 

Sherboen, C. Davies, F.Z.S. 

Explanation of the Plan adopted for preparing an 
' Index Generum et Specierum Animalium ' 610 



XIV 

Page 
Stolzmants-, Jean, and Beelepsch, Graf Hans von, C.M.Z.S. 

On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jean Kalinowski 
in Central Peru. (Plates XIII. & XIV.) 322 

Tegetmeieb, "W. B,, r.Z.S. 

Exhibition of some drawings of two young King- 
Penguins {Aptenodytes forsteri) 1 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, an actinograph of a 
" towered " Partridge 991 

Thomas, Oldfield, E.Z.S., Natural History Museum. 

On the Mammals of Nyasa-land : fourth Notice. 
(Plates XXXVIII. & XXXIX.) 788 

On the Genera of Rodents : an Attempt to bring up to 
Date the current Arrangement of the Order 1012 

Thomson, Aethub, Head-Keeper of the Society's Menagerie. 

Eeport on the Insect-house for 1895 240 

Walsingham, Lord, M.A., LL.D., E.E.S., E.Z.S., and 
Hampson, G. F., B.A., &c. 

On Moths collected at Aden and in Somaliland. 
(Plate X.) 257 

Whitaker, Joseph S., P.Z.S. 

On the Gazelles of Tunisia 815 

WiNTON, W. E. DE, F.Z.S. 

On some Mammals from Ecuador. (Plates XIX. & XX.) 507 

On a new Rodent of the Genus LopTiuromys from 
British East Africa. (Plate XXVII.) 607 

On Collections of Eodents made by Mr. J. ffolliott 
Darling in Mashunaland, and Mr. E. C. Selous in 
Matabeleland, with short Field-Notes by the Collectors. 
(Plate XL.) 798 



XV 

Page 
WooDWAED, A. Smith, F.Z.S. 

On some Extinct Fishes of the Teleostean Family 
Gonorhynchidce. (Plate XVIII.) 500 

WooDWAED, M. F., Demonstrator of Zoology, Eoyal 
College of Science, London. 

Contributions to the Study of Mammalian Dentition. — 
Part II. On the Teeth of certain Insectivora. (Plates 
XXIII.-XXVI.) 557 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1896. 



African Hesperiida3 2 



Plate Page 

ir 
II. 

in. 

IV. i 

V.J 

VI. New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land 108 

VII. Agama smithii 1. oi o 

VIII. At/ania lionoUts J" 

IX. Synodontis smithii ' 217 

X. Lepidoptera from Arabia and Somaliland 243 

XI I 

■ ) Metallic colours of Trochilidse and Nectariniidae .... 283 



XII. i 

xni. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

xxn. 
xxm. 

XXIV 



Dubusia stictocephala 1 0.90 

Tyranniscus frontalis ) 

Ceylonese Hymenoptera 401 

British Medusae 459 



Extinct Gonorhynchid Fislies 500 

Pudua mephistophiles ^ 

Ichthyomys soderstromi ! 

Fig. 1, Rana earner ani ; Fig. 2. Pelodytes caucasicus. •> ^ 
Fig. 1, Salaynandra caucasica ; Fig. 2. Molge vittata. J ^ 



507 



.y-Y-vr' f Development of the Teeth in the Insectivora 557 



XXVI. 
XXVII. 

xxvm. 

XXIX. 
XXX. 

xxxi. 

xxxn. 

xxxm. 

xxxrv. 

XXXV. 

Peoc. Zooi, Soo, 



Lophiromys ansorgei 607 

Connochcetes taurinusjoknstmii 616 

Bornean Lycsenidae 650 

Dasypeltis scahra 715 

New Theraphosidae from the Lower Amazons 716 

1896, 6 



i 



788 



817 



XVIU 
Plate Page 

XXXVI. Mimetozoon fimveri 767 

XXXVII. Haliaetus branickii 784 

XXXVIII. Papio pi'uinosus 

XXXIX. Raphiceros sharpei 

XL. Fig. 1. Georychus darlingi ; Fig. 2. Acomys selousi .. 798 
XLI. New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land. (Collected by 

Mr. Crawshay.) 

XLII. New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land. (Collected by 

Mr. Crawshay.) 

XLIII. New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land. (Collected by 

Mr. Yule.) 851 

XLIV. Malay Eeptiles and Batrachians. Fig. 1. Gonatodes 
penangensis ; Fig. 2. Shacophorus leucomystax ; 

Fig. 3. Bufo mekmostictus 

XLV. Malay Batrachians. Fig. 1. Jtana macrodon ; Fig. 2. 

R. erythrtea ; Fig. 3. R. hbialis i 

XLVI. Malay Batrachians. Rana luduosn J 

XLVII. Barilius guentheri 915 

XLVIII. Deer from North China (in Summer pelage) i 

XLIX. Duer from North China (in Winter pelage) . j 

L. Plankton of the Faeroe Channel 991 

LI. Lysechinus and TiarecMnus , 1000 

LII. New or little-known Spiders 1006 



^856 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 

1896. 



Page 

Gorgyra ahura, S , Head and neuration of -^l 

Gastrochceta meza, Neuration and palpi of ^' 

Teinorhinus tcat.soni, (S , Neuration of 40 

Rhabdomantis c/alatia, Neuration of '^ 

Semalea jmlvina, Neuration of °'^ 

Andromjmus ijhilander, Neuration of °1 

Chofistoneura apicalis, Nenration of °^ 

Gamia yalua, Antennte and palpi of 84 

Ccenides dacela, Neui-atiou of °" 

Artitropa erinnys, S , Neuration of ^^ 

Acallopistea holocausta, J , Head and neuration of 96 

Alligator jnississipiemis, Intestinal tract of • • 137 

Argus giganteus, Intestinal tract of, from a chick after incubation for 

thirty days l'^^ 

Casuarius, Intestinal tra^t of 1*^ 

Struthio camelm, Intestinal tract of 1*1 

Colyjnbus septetitrionalis, Intestinal tract of 1-1^ 

Eudyptes chrysocome, Intestinal tract of I'l- 

Fiilmarus ylacialis. Intestinal tract of 1*'^ 

Platalea leucorodia, Intestinal tract of 1*14 

Ciconia nigra, Intestinal tract of 1^^ 

Chauna chavaria, Intestine of l^o 

Cyynus atratus, Intestinal tract of 147 

Haliaetus albicilla, Intestinal tract of 148 

Crex pratensis, Intestinal tract of 149 

Cariama cristata, Intestinal tract of 1^0 

Numetiitifi arquata, Intestinal tract of 1^1 

Scolopax rmticola, Intestinal ti'act of lol 

Larus marinus, Intestinal tract of 1^^ 

Pterocles bicinctus, Intestinal tract of 153 

Columba livia, Intestinal tract of 1^3 

Corythaiv chlorochlamys, Intestinal tract of 154 

Ara ararauna, Litestinal tract of 1"5 

Bubo maximus, Intestinal tract of 15o 

Rhytidoceros pUcatus, Intestinal tract of 157 



XX 

Page 

Coitus cajiensis, Intestinal tract of 157 

Parus major, Intestinal tract of 158 

Vole, Masticatory muscles of 160 

Hamster's masseter, Superficial dissection of 161 

Hamster's masseter, Deep dissection of 162 

Heteromys, Masseter of 162 

Bathyergus, Face-muscles of 163 

Rhizomys, Scalene muscles of 166 

Ehizomys, Shoulder-muscles of 168 

Heteromys, Pouch-muscles of 1 74 175 

Hamster, Neck-muscles of 176 

Periclueta perlcinsi, Spermiducal gland of 200 

Perichceta insulce, Oviducal pore of 205 

Benhamia mdica 210 

Clarias smithii. Teeth of 219 

Synodontis geledensis 220 

Synodontis schal 221 

Duck, Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a ... . 227 
Crow, Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a. . . . 227 
Eook, Abnormal and thoracic viscera of, displayed by removal of 

abdominal muscles 229 

Dissura episcoj^us, Syrinx of 232 

Abdimia sphenorhynclm. Syrinx of 233 

Leptoptilus, Diagram of the syrinx of 234 

Sea-Otter in walking posture 235 

Nestor meridionalis, Hyoid of 237 

Lathamus discolor, Hyoid of 239 

Orycteropus gaudryi. Skull of 297 

Rhtjnchops, Muscles of the patagium of 300 

Larus argentatus, Patagial tendons of 301 

Khynchops, Syi'inx of 3O2 

Armadillo tenuipunctatus. Upper and underside of cephalon and first 
two segments of pereion, and of fifth segment of pleon, pleotelson, 

uropoda of ggg 

Armadillo dejjressus, ditto 39O 

Armadillo dumorum, ditto .■ 39I 

Armadillo cinctus, ditto 392 

Armadillo grenadensis, ditto 393 

Armadillo silvarum, ditto 394 

Armadillo zigzag, ditto 305 

Armadillo perlatus, ditto 395 

Armadillo viticola, ditto 39g 

Mesarmadillo modestus, ditto , , 397 

Mesarmadillo americanus, ditto 393 

Mesarmadillo reflexus, ditto 399 

Saplarmadillo monocellatus, ditto 4OO 

Gorilla, Head of female 5Qg 

Pudua humilis, Side and palatal views of the skull of 510 



XXI 

Page 

Pudua mepMstojihiles, Side and palatal views of the skull of 610 

JEch7no2}honis, Syrinx of 541 

Tachybaptes, Syrinx of ^41 

Si/nthliborhamphus antiquus, Tensores patagii of 544 

Lunda cirrhata, Tensores patagii of 545 

Ceratorhina monocerata, Tensores patagii of 545 

Ceratorhina monocerata, Syrinx of 546 

Lomvia troile, Syrinx of 546 

Pelodytes caucasicus, Skeleton of, from a sciagraph, upper and lower 

view 552 

Meyalcema asiatica. Feather-tracts of 556 

Diagram of the tooth-succession in a polyphyodont reptile 683 

Diagram illustrating the relation of a molar tooth-germ to the dental 

lamina 583 

Surinam Water-Toads in copula 595 

Surinam Water-Toad, after deposition of eggs 596 

Microfus ayredis, First upper molars of: diagram of typical and 

abnormal . .' 598 

Halcyon rufa, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of 605 

Ccvyle alcyon, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of 005 

Sauropatis albicilla, Tendons of tensor patagii brevis of 605 

Abnormal horns of Wild Goat from the Caucasus 618 

Opisthoconms cristattis, Intestinal convolutions of 619 

Opisthocomus cristatus, Dissection of hyoidean muscles of 622 

Opisthocoimis cristatus, Thigh-muscles of 625 

Opisthocomus cristatus, Leg-muscles of 626 

Tomistoma, Atlas and axis of 630 

Metriorhynclms, Atlas and axis of 633 

Petroyale, Skull of, showing os antiepilepticum 685 

Petroyale, Axis of 686 

Petroyale, First lumbar vertebra of, with hypapophysis 687 

Petroyale, Knee-joint of = 690 

Petroyale, Lower end of femur of, with ligaments attached 691 

Petroyale, Ankle-joint of 692 

Petroyale, Pectoral muscles of 696 

Petroyale, Muscles of the sole of 703 

Petroyale, Cervical and brachial plexuses of 707 

Petroyale, Lumbo-sacral plexus of 711 

Loder's Gazelle, $ , Head of 781 

Ovis amnion. Head of 787 

Adax, Horns of, front view 811 

" Khime," Horns of 814 

" Adami," Horns of 814 

Fallow-deer, Head of Three-horned 855 

Chromis rendalli 015 

Oreochromis shiranus 917 

Docimodus jolin^toni 018 

Corematodus shirantis • 019 



Page 
Ereintas mucronata 922 

Eremias erythrosticta 924 

Eremias sniithi 925 

Eremias striata 927 

Eremias brenneri 929 

Lemur, Skull of, from above 997 

Orarg, SLull of (left side) 998 

Oraug, Skull of (right side) 998 

Frotaster sedgwicki, Forbes, Structure of the arm of 1031 

Protaster biforis : a, outline of disc of arms ; b, pair of syngnaths. . 1033 

Frotaster biforis, Diagram of the arm-structure of 1033 

Bmidenbachia, Arm-structure of 1034 

La2m-orthvra, Diagram of the arm-structui-e of, seen from ventral 

side 1037 

Eucladia, Articular surface of vertebral ossicles of 1041 



LIST OF NEW GENERIC TERMS. 



1896. 



Page 

Acallopistes (Lep.) 95 

Acidaliastis (Lep. ) 267 

Aetius (Arachn.) 1000 

Andronymus (Lep.) 80 

Anisaspoides (Arachn.) 726 

Aplectropus (Lep. ) 275 

Archinola (Lep.) 258 

Artitropa (Lap.) 92 

Caenides (Lep.) 85 

Corematodus (Pisces) 918 

Crinipus (Lep.) 277 

Cyclj'rius (Lep.) 830 

Dictenus (Lep.) 846 

Docimodus (Pisces) 917 

Eospondylus (Echinod.) 1039 

Friula (Arachn.) 1008 

Gamia (Lep.) 84 

Glastrochseta (Lep.) 37 

Gorgyra (Lep.) 31 

Haplarmadillo (Crustacea) . . . 399 
Parmonicon (Arachn.) 755 



Page 

Lapworthura (Echinod.) 1037 

Lysechinus (Echinod.) 1001 

Mantoides (Lep.) 677 

Melodeus (Arachn.) 758 

Minietozoon (Kept.) 767 

Miospondylus (Echinod.) 1039 

Neodiplura (Arachn.) 755 

Osphantes (Lep.) 46 

Parosmodes (Lep.) 45 

Phthoropoea (Lep.) 282 

Platylesches (Lep.) 72 

Prosopalpus (Lep.) 53 

Ehabdomantis (Lep.) 44 

Santaremia ( Arach n . ) 746 

Scotinochroa (Lep.) 845 

Semalea (Lep.) 64 

Sturtzura (Echinod.) 1034 

Tseniura (Echinod.) 1035 



2 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

The following papers were read : — 

1. A Preliminary Revision and Synonymic Catalogue of 
the Hesperiidce of Africa and the adjacent Islands, with 
Descriptions of some apparently new Species. By W. 
J. Holland, Ph.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S., &c.. Chancellor of 
the Western University of Pennsylvania. 
[Received NoTember 6, 1895.] 

(Plates l.-V.) 

Having been for a number of years past engaged in the diligent 
study of the Lepidoptera of Tropical Western Africa, and having 
been compelled in the prosecution of these studies to acquaint 
jiiyself with the entire literature of the subject, it has occurred to 
me that it might facilitate the labours of others, who may be 
tempted to embark upon the same line of investigation, or who 
may already be involved in the tangled mazes of the subject, if 
I should at least attempt to bring together into one paper the 
scattered references to the various species. I have therefore 
begun a synonymic catalogue of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of the 
African Continent and the adjacent Islands, but am led by the 
advice of trusted friends to anticipate the publication of the more 
extended catalogue by the following paper, in which is contained 
a list of a very difficult group of Butterflies included iu the 
fauna. I am led the more readily to take this step in view of the 
results of the recent labours of Lieut. E. T. Watson, who, in a paper 
recently published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society upon 
the Classification of the Hesperiidce (P. Z. S. 1893, p. 3), has laid 
sohd foundations for the prosecution of systematic researches in 
the future. I have in the main followed the classification which 
he has suggested in his valuable paper, which, while confessedly 
incomplete, and leaving some things to be desired, is, nevertheless, 
one of the most notable contributions to the literature of the 
subject which has recently appeared. Based, as it is, upon an 
accurate and painstaking examination of the anatomical details 
and structural peculiarities of the various species represented in 
the collections of the British Museum and the magnificent coUec- 
tion of Messrs. Godman and Salvin, it may in the main be accepted 
n,s free from the blemishes which characterize much of the work 
done in this group by authors, who have rehed almost wholly upon 
superficial resemblances. In the few cases in which I have 
departed from the classification of Lieut. Watson, it has been 
because I have been able to make more careful anatomical investi- 
gations than it was possible for him to do vdth the material at bis 
command. A private collector may do as he wUl with his own, 
and may bleach and dissect specimens, when it would be httle less 
than a crime for the authorities of a Museum hke that at South 
Kensington to allow such treatment to be bestowed upon the 



1896.] BUXTEBFLIBS OP THE FAMILY HESPEIIIID.5:. 3' 

precious types o£ Hewitson and other great naturalists, who have 
placed their collections in the care of the institution. 

In following up my labours I have been greatly aided by the 
possession of a large mass of well determined Indian material, 
which I have been accumulating for many years past, and particu- 
larly by the possession of the Knyvett collection, for which I am 
indebted to the generous kindness of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, my 
distinguished fehow-townsman, whose interest in all things relating 
to the advancement of science is well known. I have derived 
much assistance from the collections which I have received from 
Mr. WilUam Doherty, the well-known naturahst explorer of the 
far East, and from the collections for which I am indebted to Mr. 
L. de Niceville, of Calcutta, whose great work upon the Lepidoptera 
of India is a monument to his painstaking diligence and scientific 
acumen. I am no less indebted to Mr. Eoland Trimen, the late 
learned Curator of the South- African Museum at Capetown, whose 
labom-s upon the fauna of extra-tropical Africa are classic, and who 
with the most engaging kindness has presented me \\-ith authenti- 
cally determined specimens of most of the species named by him. 
It is much to be wished that all authors might acquire those habits 
of exact observation and clear description which are possessed by 
this Nestor among lepidopterists, whose diagnoses of the various 
species contained in his last work upon the Butterflies of South 
Africa are so exact as almost to make the work of pictorial repre- 
sentation superfluous. I am under very special obligations to the 
authorities of the Britisli Natiu-al History Museum not only for 
permission to freely study the collections in their possession, but 
for permission to have drawings made of the hitherto unpublished 
types of the late Mr. Hewitson and of Dr. Butler. I have to 
thank Dr. Karsch of the Berlin Museum, and Dr. Eogenhofer of 
the Imperial Museum at Vienna, for similar kindnesses. From 
Mens. Mabille of Paris I have received most distinguished 
courtesies, and I am indebted to him for the opportunity to ex- 
amine personally the types of many of his recently described species, 
and for the use of a number of copies of the unpubhshed figures of 
Ploetz. Ploetz made no collection of specimens during his Hfetime, 
but contented himself with making drawings, not always very 
accurate, of the species which he described in the collection of 
others, or which he found figured in various works. These figures 
are in many cases our only safe clue to a knowledge of the species 
he named, for his descriptions are in many instances very unsatis- 
factory. I cannot fail in this connection to express my indebtedness 
to Lieut. Watson, who compared many of the species in my 
collection with the types in the British Museum, and assigned 
them to the respective genera to which they belong in his classi- 
fication, and to Dr. Butler and Mr. Herbert Druce for their 
generous assistance at all times freely given. Among American 
entomologists, I am especially indebted to Dr. S. H. Scudder of 
Cambridge, who, upon the occasion of his last visit to Europe, did 
me the great favom' of comparing a series of drawings of the species 



4: J>B.. W. J. HOLLAlfD ON THE AFEICAN [Jan. 14, 

in my collection with the types in the Berlin Museum and in the 
Museums of Paris and London. But great as is the debt of 
gratitude I owe to these valued friends and colabonrers, it is even 
exceeded by my obligations to Dr. Otto Staudinger of Dresden, 
who entrusted to the ocean all the types of African Hesperiidm 
and all the unnamed material in his vast collection, and freely 
sent them to me for purposes of study and comparison. For this 
act of great generosity I cannot sufficiently thank him. 

In submitting the following pages to the attentive consideration 
of specialists, it is vtith a sense of the manifold defects which must 
in the lapse of time be found to be contained therein. With the 
exercise of the utmost care, and with all the help of the learned, 
errors are unavoidable. In all cases where doubt attaches in my 
mind to a generic reference, it is indicated. Absolute certainty in 
this respect is not easily attained in some cases. WhUe two-thirds 
of the species accredited to the African fauna are represented in 
my own collection, in some cases by enormously large series of 
specimens, and I have seen in nature probably four-fifths of the 
species of the Hesperiidce which have been described as coming from 
Africa, nevertheless in not a few cases I have been compelled to 
rely wholly upon illustrations and the suggestions of resemblance 
made by authors for an approximate location of the species. Tet, 
in spite of the defects which must of necessity exist in this work, 
I venture to express the confident belief that it will be found to 
mark a distinct advance in our knowledge of the subject. 

RHOPALOCEEA. 

Fam. HESPEEIID.S;. 

Subfam. HespeeiinjE. 

Saeangesa, Moore. 
{Hyda, Mab. ; Eretis, Mab. ; Sape, Mab.) 

The differences of a structural character between the species 
assigned to the genus Eretis, Mab., and Sarangesa, Moore, are so 
slight as in my estimation not to justify a separation, except 
subgenerically. The principle difference is in the waved outline 
of the secondaries and the relatively longer fringes in the form 
Eretis. 

* Eeetis, Mab. 

1. S. DJ^L^L^, Wallgr. 

. Pterijgospidea djcelcelce, Wallgr. K. S. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep. Rhop. Caffr. p. 54, no. 5. 

Nisoniades umbra. Trim, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. 
p. 289 (1862). ^ ^ 

Nison. djcelcelce, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 311, no. 204 
(1866). ^ 



1896.] BUTIEKFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEKIID^, 5 

Pterygos. djcelcelce, S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 254, pL xii. fig. 7, $ 
(1889). 

Hah. S. Africa. 

Lieut. Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 48, calls attention to the fact 
that the species in the British Museum which has been identified 
by Mr. Butler from various localities in Northern and Eastern 
Africa as S. djcelcelce, Wallgr., is not that species, and is apparently 
unnamed. This form, which is common in Abyssinia and elsewhere, 
is more closely related to S. motozi, Wallgr., and falls into the sub- 
genus Sape of Mabille. Mons. Mabille, I discover, has labelled it 
as S. nerva, i'abr., in the collection of Dr. Staudiuger, and so also 
has labelled it for me. It certainly is not the insect described 
under this name by Fabricius, and I have therefore ventured else- 
where to name and describe it (vide S. elimhmta, HoU., p. 9). 

2. S. LtTGENS, Eogenhfr. (Plate II. fig. 10.) 

5 ( (J sec. Eghfr., sed non sec, Eebel). Ptenjc/ospidea {Tagiades, 
Ploetz) luyens, Eogenhfr. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, vol. vi. p. 46 
(1891). 

cJ . Pterygospidea wiorosa, Eogenhfr. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, vol. vi. 
p. 463 (1891). 

Hab. Marangu, Tropical Africa ( Von Hoehnel). 

I am under profound obligations to Dr. Eogenhofer, of the 
Imperial Museum in Vienna, and to Dr. Eebel, his assistant, for 
having kindly furnished me with most carefully executed drawings 
of the two forms characterized as above by Dr. Eogenhofer. Dr. 
Eebel writes me as follows :^" I have taken occasion to critically 
examine the two unique types of P. lugem, Eghfr., and P. morosa, 
Eghfr., and have positively ascertained that both names apply to 
one species. The name lugens, Eghfr., must stand, inasmuch as 
it is the first in the order of publication. Eogenhofer is in error 
in regarding the type of lugens as a male ; it is most positively 
a female. The name morosa must therefore sink as a synonym 
(= cJ of lugens)." 

3. S. MELANIA, Mab. 

Eretis melania, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixxi ; 
Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 48 ; Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. Bd. xxxviii. 
p. 264, 2 ? (1893). 

Hah. Gaboon; Togoland? 

Dr. Karsch refers a female before him -with doubt to the species 
described by Mabille. In the vast series of specimens which I 
have received from Gaboon, I have never found one which tallies 
exactly with the type or description of Mons. Mabille. I thought 
that the following species might be the same, but having compared 
my type with the original type of E. melania in the collection of 
Dr. Staudinger, I am quite sure of the distinctness of the t^n o 
species. S. melania may be readily distinguished from S.perpattpera, 
which it closely resembles at first sight, by the fact that the fringes 



6 . DR. W. J. nOLLAND ON THE AFEICAN [Jan, 14, 

of the primaries, which are fuscous, are checkered with black at the 
ends of the nervules, and are conspicuously white at the apex and 
at the inner angle. The specimen in Dr. Staudinger's collection 
is labelled " melanina " in the handwriting of Mons. Mabille. The 
published name is melania, and this of course stands. 

4. S. PEEPAUPEEA, Holl. 

Sarangesa perpaupera, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, (6) 
vol. X, p. 288 (1892); Ent. News, Jan, 3 894, pi. i. fig. 1, c? • 

Hah. Upper Valley of the Ogove Eiver (G'oorf) ; Angola (/Sf^aw - 
dmger). 

5. S, EXPEOMPTA, Holl, 

Sarangesa exprompta, Holl, Ent. News, Jan, 1894, p, 26, pi. i, 
fig, 3, (S . 

Hah. Accra. 

The type was purchased from Doncaster with a lot of other 
African material. Whether the locality label attached to the 
specimen is correct I cannot be positively certain, as some of the 
things bought at the time were plainly not from the localities 
indicated upon the labels. 

6. S, ASTEiGEEA, Butl, (Plate II, fig. 8.) 
S. astHgera, Butl, P, Z, S, 1893, p, 669. 
Hah. Zomba, British Central Africa. 

I only know this species by the description given by the author, 
and the figure prepared by Mr. Horace Knight, which is reproduced 
upon the plate. I place it in this section of the genus with much 
doubt, but it plainly belongs here, rather than elsewhere. 

** Hyda, Mab. 

7. S. GEisEA, Hew. 

Pterygospidea grisea. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. i. 
p. 344 (1878), 

Hyda micacea, Mab, Bull. Soc, Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. p. clxvii 
(1889) ; Novit. Lepidopt. p. 93, pi. xiii. fig. 3 (1893). 

Hah. Gaboon, Liberia. 

Weymer in Stiibel's ' Eeise,' p. 126, pi. iv. fig. 5, describes and 
illustrates a species from Ecuador as Hesperia micacea. Inasmuch 
as Mabille's name drops as a synonym in the case of the present 
species, that of Weymer should be allowed to stand for the species 
he named. 

8. S. TEICEEATA, Mab. 

Hyda tncerata, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. evi; Novit. 
Lepidopt. p. 92, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

Hab. Sierra Leone, Cameroons, Gaboon, 



1896.] BrTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEUIID.i;. 7 

9. S. MAJOBELLA, Mab. 

Hyda majorella, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. cvii ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 92, pi. xiii. fig. 1 (1893). 

Eretis motozi, AVallgr. (?), Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. 
p. 264, pi. vi. fig. 11 (1893). 

Hab. Sierra Leone {Mahille) ; Togolaud {Karsch), 

*** Sape, Mab. 

10. S. lucidella, Mab. (Plate II. fig. 22.) 

JRapelucidella, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, pi. Ixvii. 

The tj'pe specimen in the collection of Dr. Staudinger is some- 
what worn, but shows that the insect is abundantly distinct from 
the other species herein enumerated. This is brought out clearly 
in the figure given. 

11. S. MOTOZI, Wallgr. 

5 . Pterygospidea motozi, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
1857; Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 53 ; $, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. 
vol. ii. p. 313, no. 206, pi. vi. fig. 3 ; 6 and $ , Trim. S. Afr. 
Butt. vol. iii. p. 356 (1889). 

5 . Nisoniades pato. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. 
p. 404 (1862). . ■ 

Hah. South Africa. 

12. S. MOXOZIOIDES, Holl. 

Sarangesa motozioides, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. x. 
p. 288 (1892) ; Ent. News, Jan. 1894, pi. i. fig. 5, ? ; Butl. (?), 
P. Z. S. 1893, p. 668. 

Bab. Transvaal (in Staudinger^ collection) ; (Jaboon ( Good). 

The male described by me in the * Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History,' and subsequently figured in the ' Entomological 
News,' turns out to be the male of the species described by Mabille 
as Pterygospidea houvieri, if thorough reliance may be placed upon 
the identification made in the collection of Dr. Staudinger by 
Mons. Mabille, the author of the species. So far I have not been 
able to find in any collection a true male of S. motozioides, Holl. 
The female may be separated at a glance from the female of 
S. motozi by the absence of the conspicuous translucent spot in 
the cell of the secondaries, which is characteristic of motozi, 
Wallgi'., and by the fact that the translucent spots in the primaries 
are much smaller than in typical motozi. 

13. S. sxnestalmeiots, Karsch. 

Antigonus synestalmenus, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. 
p. 263,pl.vi. fig. 8(1893). 

This species is very closely allied upon the upper surface to 



8 DK. W. J. HOLIANB ON THE AFEICAIT [Jan. 14, 

S.bouvien,Mah., and S. pertusa, Mah., but upon the underside 
reveals great differences. 
Hub. Togoland (Karsch). 

14. S. PERTUSA, Mab. 

Sape pertusa, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixviii. 

Hah. Transvaal. 

The type would seem to indicate that this is only a slight varietj' 
of motozi, "Wallgr. 

15. S. BOTJViERi, Mab. 

Pterygospidea louvieri, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, 
p. 239.' 

Sarangesa motozioicles, cj, HoU. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 
vol. X. p. 288 (1892); Ent. News, Jan. 1894, pi. i. fig. 4, d . 

For the determination of this species I am indebted to Dr. 
Staudinger, who has loaned me a male and female determined for 
him by the author of the species. By the description originally 
given by Mens. Mabille, I should not have been able to reach a 
positive conclusion, as the description seems to be somewhat 
inadequate. 

16. S. THECLA, Ploetz. (Plate V. fig. 14.) 

Antigomis thecla, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. si. p. 361 (1879). 
Sape semialba, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. ixvii ; 
Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 262. 

By comparison of the type of Mons. Mabille Avith a figiu-e of 
the type of Ploetz, which is reproduced in the plates accompany- 
ing this article, I am able to positively affirm the identity of the 
two. 

Hah. Aburi (PZoete) ; W.Africa {Mabille); Cameroons (Good) ; 
Togoland (Karsch). 

17. S. THECLiDES, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 3.) 

cJ . Antennae black, slightly lighter on the underside, the upper- 
side of the palpi, thorax, and abdomen is fuscous. The lower side 
of the palpi is yellowish. The lower side of the thorax and abdo- 
inen is pure white. The legs are white, narrowly edged with 
blackish upon the anterior margins. The ground-colom- of the 
upperside of the primaries and secondaries is fuscous ochraceous. 
The primaries are heavily bordered with black on the outer margin, 
and there is a large irregularly quadrate spot of the same colour 
on the costa near the end of the cell, limited anteriorly by four 
minute white translucent subapical spots and posteriorly by three 
like spots, two of them in the cell near its end and one of them 
above near the costa. The primaries are further ornamented by a 
series of small white translucent spots, bordered inwardly by 
blackish . These spots are arranged in a straight transverse series, 



1896.] BUTTEEFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIIDiE. 9 

two in cell 1, one, transversely elongated, in cell 2, and a smaller 
one in cell 3. The secondaries are heavily marked with black on 
the outer angle, and there is a curved series of three or four small 
black spots in the subcostal interspaces. Just after the large black 
spot on the outer angle, the outer margin is lightly touched with 
whitish. A fine dark marginal line defines the origin of the cilia, 
which are fuscous upon the upperside. On the underside the 
primaries are blackish, shading slightly into bluish grey at the 
base. The translucent spots appear as on the upperside ; the 
two spots in cell 1 being defined outwardly by two parallel whitish 
rays. The secondaries are white, laved with bluish grey at the 
base. The outer angle is black. The black spots on the subcostal 
interspaces are as on the upper surface, but more clearly defined 
upon the white ground. In addition there are t\\ o small discal 
dots in cell 1, and a small black dot on the outer margin near the 
extremity of vein 1. The cilia on the underside are white toward 
the anal angle. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hab. Gaboon (Mocq%ienjs). Type in collection Staudinger. 

18. S. ELiMiNATA, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 9.) 

S . The colour of the upperside of the thorax and abdomen is 
dark fuscous, of the underside yellowish oohraceous. The antennae 
are black, the legs grey, edged with blackish anteriorly. The pri- 
maries on the upperside are fuscous. There are three small 
confluent subapical spots, a similar small spot on the upper edge 
of the cell near its end, and two other like spots in cells 2 and 3, 
of which the former is the larger. Both the subapical series and 
the discal spots are followed inwardly by dark cloudings. The 
interspaces just before the margin are marked by obscure darker 
oblong spots. There is a fine, dark marginal line. The cilia are 
fuscous. The secondaries are traversed by a series of obscure dark 
fuscous transverse median, limbal, and submarginal spots. The 
spot of the median series located at the end of the cell is annuli- 
form. The marginal line and cilia are as on the primaries. Both 
the primaries and secondaries on the underside are clear yellowish 
ochraceous, vrith the cilia pale fuscous. The inner margin of the 
primaries is testaceous. The translucent spots of the upper surface 
reappear upon the lower side and are narrowly margined with 
fuscous. Fuscous submarginal and limbal bands traverse the 
primaries, leaving sagittate spots of the prevailing ground-colour 
between them on the intra-neural spaces. The secondaries show 
the transverse series of spots of the upper surface, but more 
distinctly defined and generally rounded than on the upperside. 

5 like the male. 

Expanse 28-30 mm. 

Hab. Abyssinia (Staudinger) ; Somaliland (in my collection). 

This species is labelled in the Staudinger collection by Mons. 
Mabille as " nerva, Fabr." Mons. Mabille has on several occasions 
in his correspondence with me insisted upon employing the Fabri- 



10 DE. W. J. HOTiTiAM) ON THE AFEICAN [Jan. 14, 

cian name for this insect. Perhaps he is following in this the 
example of Ploetz, who referred some insect obtained from Kordofan 
to the Fabrician species. But, whatever may have been the insect 
before Ploetz at the time he was writing, it is certain that it was 
not the insect described by Fabricius. In Jones's ' Icones ' (unpub- 
lished) we have the best clue to many of the Pabrician species, and 
the figure of H. nerva there given (vide pi. 72. fig. 3) represents 
imdoubtedly a species of Hesperia (Pyrgus, Hiibn. et auct.). The 
published references to Hesperia nerva, Pabr., are the following : — 

Hesperia nerva, Pabr. Ent. Syst. iii. p. 340, no. 293 (1793) ; 
Latreille, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 789, no. 162 (1823). 

Pyrgus nerva, Butl. Pabr. Diurn. Lep. p. 282 (1869). 

Ephyriades nerva, Ploetz, JB. Nass. Ver. xxxvii. p. 6 (1884). 

The habitat of JI. nerva is given by Pabricius as " in Indiis," to 
which little significance need be attached, as we know that this 
phrase with the old writers often meant no more than that the 
insect came from a foreign country. 

19. S. AUEiMABGO (Mab. MS.), sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 8.) 
Tabraea aurimargOf^lah. in titeris. " ^'"' '^ 
cJ . The antennas and the upperside of the thorax and abdomen 
are black, as is also the underside of the thorax and abdomen, 
except at the anal extremity, where it is marked with orange-yellow ; 
the ground-colour of the primaries and secondaries is dark brown, 
almost black. The primaries are ornamented by three minute 
translucent subapical spots in the usual position. The outer 
margin of the secondaries near the anal angle and the cilia for 
the inner half of the wing are orange. On the underside, the 
primaries are coloured and marked as upon the upperside. The 
secondaries have the orange colour which appears upon the upper- 
side near the anal angle much more broadly diffused, covering the 
outer half of the wing as far as the subcostal nervules. The costal 
margin and the base are broadly blackish brown, and the yellow 
space is interrupted by an irregular row of discal spots, of which 
the one opposite the end of the cell is tlie largest and confluent 
with the dark costal araa. 

Expanse 28-30 mm. 

Hab. Gaboon (3Iocquerys) ; Sierra Leone (P)-euss). Types in 
coll. Staudinger. 

This beautiful species has been named Tahraca aurimargo by 
Mons. Mabille. In neuration and most other respects it agrees 
with Sarangesa absolutely, and I cannot bring myself to recognize 
in it the type of a new genus. 

20. S. MACTJLATA, Mab. 

Sape maculata, Mab. C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixviii. 
Hab. Mozambique (Mabille). 

I have no clue to the determination of this species other than 
the description of the author. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEEIID^. 11 

21. S. OPHTHALMIC A, Mab. 

Sape ophthalmica, Mab. 0. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixviii. 

Uah. Delagoa Bay (Mabille). 

No specimen or iigure of this species being available, I must 
content myself with a provisional reference to this location in the 
genus, to which the author has assigned it. 

22. S. (?) PLISTONICTTS, Ploetz. 

Antigonus plistonicus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 362 (1879). 

Hab. Lhuri (Ploetz). 

I cannot make out this species from the description and the 
material before me. The description does not exactly apply to 
anything I have seen in nature, though it may be that it designates 
some already well-known species. 

23. S. (?) PHILOXOMUS, Ploetz. 

Antigonv^s philotomus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 361 (1879) ; 
Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 262 (1893). 

Hab. Aburi {Ploetz) ; Togoland (Karsch). 

I do not know this species, at least under this name. 

24. S. (?) L^LiTJS, Mab. 

Pterygospidea Icelius, Ploetz MS., Mabille, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 
1877, p. 240 

Ephyriades IceMus, Ploetz, JB. Nass. Ver. xxxvii. p. 6. 

Hab. Gaboon. 

This is another species about which I am left in total uncer- 
tainty. Ploetz merely cites the name, and from the description 
of Mons. Mabille I cannot draw positive conclusions. Mons. 
Mabille has designated for me under this name two wholly differ- 
ent species, one being the species which he has labelled in the 
collection of Dr. Staudinger as bouvieri, and the other being a 
slight variety of 8. thecla, Ploetz, which he named from a photo- 
graphic representation sent to him, in which only the upperside 
appeared. I leave this puzzle somewhat reluctantly to others to 
solve. 

25. S. KOBELA, Trim. 

Nisoniades hobela. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. p. 180 
(1864); Bhop. Afr. Austr. ii. p. 312, pi. vi. fig. 4, o (1866). 
Pterygospidea kobela. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 353 (1889). 
Sarangesa Jcobela, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 48. 

Hab. Extra-tropical South Africa (Trimen). 

This species reveals a striking superficial resemblance to the 
species of the genus Thanaos, and represents a section of the genus 
in which it stands thus far uniq^ue. 



12 DB. W. J. HOLLAin) ON" THE APEIOAN [Jan. 14, 

Cbl^noeehinijs, Hiibn. . . 

26. C. GALENTJS, Fabr. 

Hesperia galenus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 350, no. 332 (1793) ; 
Latr. Enc. Mefch. ix. p. 773, no. 124 (1823), 

Hesperia galena, Don. Ins. lud. pi. 1. fig. 3, $ (1800). 

Celcenorrhinus galenus, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 49. 

Plesioneura galenus, Staudgr. Exot. Schmett. pi. 100. 

Pardaleodes fulgens, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, 
p. 236, d • 

Pterygosjiiclea galenus. Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 80. 

Donovan in his plate figures the female of this species, which 
may always be recognized by the elongate marginal spot on the 
secondaries beyond the end of the cell. This spot has the form of 
a parallelogram, and does not fuse with the adjacent spots so fully 
as is the case in the male, where its sharp outlines are lost in the 
spots on either side of it. Dr. Staudinger gives a good figure of 
the male in his ' Exotische Schmetterhnge.' Mons. Mabille kindly 
determined for me a number of species upon the occasion of a 
recent visit to Paris, among them Pardaleodes fulgens, Mab. The 
specimens so determined are undoubtedly C. galenus, Eabr., cf • I 
have a series of nearly 100 specimens of both sexes, some of them 
taken in coitu, and am satisfied of the correctness of the synonymy 
given as above. 

This is one of the commonest of "West-African butterflies and is 
found from Senegambia to Upper Angola, and Manica (Trimen). 

27. C. EUTiLANs, Mab. 

Pardaleodes rutilans, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 235, 
$ ; Bull. Soc. Ent. France (Feb. 1877), ? ; Novit. Lepidopt. 
p. 96, pi. xiii. tig. 7, 6 (1893). 

Pterygospidea tergemira. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 
vol. XX. p. 323 (Oct. 1877). 

Tagiades luoermanni, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 362, 2 (1879). 

Having seen the types of P. rutilans, Mab., and of P. tergemira. 
Hew., and a carefully executed copy of the drawing of T. ivoer- 
manni, $ , made by Ploetz, I have not a shadow of doubt as to the 
correctness of the above synonymy. 

Hab. Fernando Po (Bewitson); Victoria, W. Africa {Ploetz); 
Congo-Landana {Mahille) ; Gaboon, Cameroons {Good). 

28. C. iLLUSTRis, Mab, 

Pardaleodes illustris, Mab. C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixxiii. 
Celoinorrhinus illustris, Holl. Ent, News, March 1894, pi. iii. 
fig. 6. 

Hab. Cameroons and Upper Valley of the Ogove. 

29. C. MEDETBiNA, Hew. (Plate III. fig. 2.) 

Pterygospidea meditrina. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist. (4) 
vol. XX. p. 322 (1877). 



1896.] BUTTERrLIBS OF THE rAlttLT HESPEBIID-S. 13 

Pardaleodes interniplaga, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, 
p. Ixxiii. 

Celcenorrhinus interniplaga, Holland, Ent. News, March 1894, 
pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Hah. Fernando Po (ffewltson) ; Cameroons {Mahille) ; Bule 
Country (Good). 

I am unable to discover any valid specific differences between 
O. meditrina, Hew., and O. intermplaga, Mab. I have a good 
series of specimens in my collection, some of which agree positively 
with either form, differing only in size and the greater or less 
distinctness of the marginal spots. 

30. C. MACULATUS, Hampson. (Plate III. fig. 4.) 

Coladenia maculata, Hpsn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. vii. 
p. 183. 

ffab. Sabaki Eiver, E. Africa {Hampson). 

This species is a very near ally of C. meditrina. Hew. Two 
specimens, a male and a female, contained in the collection of 
Dr. Staudinger, were taken by Mocquerys at Gaboon. The 
female differs from the male in having the maculations of the 
secondaries greatly reduced in size. While these specimens do 
not agree absolutely with the type of maculata, Hpsn., they are by 
far too close to warrant a separation. 

31. C. BisEEiATUS, But). (Plate ill. fig. 3.) 

Plesioneura biseriata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 97. 
Plesioneura Jioehneli, Rogenhofer, Ann. Hofmus. Wieu, vol. vi. 
p. 463, pi. XV. fig. 10 (1891). 

Hab. Kilimanjaro {Butler) ; Tropical Africa {RogenJiofer). 
I think the above synonymy will be found to be quite correct. 

32. C. ATRATTJS, Mab. 

Pardaleodes atratus, Mab. C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixxiv. 

Celcenorrhinus collucens, Holl. Ent. News, March 1894, p. 90, 
pi. iii. figs. 3, 4. 

Hab. Cameroons (Mabille ; Good). 

The type of P. atratus being before me as I write, I am con- 
vinced that I made an error in my identification of it upon the 
occasion of my visit to Mons. Mabille. The insect I labelled 
atratus, if there has been no confusion since made in the labelling 
of the specimens in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, is the 
following species, and the true atratus is the species I figured and 
named collucens. Dr. Staudinger warns me that Mons. Mabille 
has in a few cases apparently confused his types : this is one of 
those cases in which I am almost positive that such a confusion 
has arisen; but we must accept the type as determining controversy, 
and as the insect labelled autographically as Pardaleodes atratus 
by Mabille in the Staudinger Collection is unmistakably my 



14 DK. W. J. HOLLAND OTf THE AFBICAK [jTail. l4, 

coUucois, and not the next species in this series, we must regard 
the identification as positively settled in this way. 

33. C. BOADiOEA, Hew. (Plate III. fig. 1.) 

Pteryrfospidea boadicea, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 
vol. xx.'p. 323 (1877). 

Celoinorrhinus atratus, HoU. Ent. News, March 1894, pi. iii. 
fig. 5. 

Pardaleodes lucens, Mab., MS. 

Sab. Gaboon, Cameroons. 

Mons. Mabille, in the ' Comptes Eeudus de la Societe Entomolo- 
gique de Belgique,' 1891, p. Ixxiv, in his description of Pardaleodes 
(CelcvnorrJiinus) atratus, alludes to a species of the genus named 
Ulceus by him from a figure of his type, which he has never 
published, so far as I am aware ; I have been enabled to identify 
it with boadicea, Hew., which is undoubtedly the same insect 
figured by me in the ' Entomological News ' for March 1894, as 
C. atratus, Mab. C boadicea. Hew., may be distinguished from all 
other species by the greater breadth of the median yellow band on 
the primaries, and the larger expanse of the marginal spot near 
the outer angle of the secondaries on the upperside. This species 
is closely related to 0. atratus, but quite distinct. 

34. C. CHRYSQGLOSSA, Mab. (Plate III. fig. 5.) 

Ancistrocamipta chri/soglossa, Mab. C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 
vol. XXXV. p. cvii (1891). 

Hab. Cameroons {Mabille ; Good). 

The type of the species is a female. The figure in the Plate is 
taken from a male specimen in my collection. The insect 
undoubtedly is a Celoinorrhinus, but differs from the other African 
species in being more plainly marked upon the primaries. 

35. C. PKoxiMUs, Mab. 

Plesioneura xiroxima, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 231 ; 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. p. 31, pi. iii. fig. 1. 
Tacjiades elmina, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 362 (1879). 
Hab. Gaboon, Cameroons, Sierra Leone, Togoland. 

36. C. MACEOSTICXIJS, HoU. 

C. macrostictus, Holl. Ent. News, Jan. 1894, p. 27, pi. i. fig. 2. 
Hab. Valley of the Ogove. 

37. C. HUMBLOTi, Mab. 

Plesioneura humblofi, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, 
p. clxxxvii; Grandidier's Madagascar, vol. xiii. p. 349, pi. 54. 
figs. 8, 8 rt. 

Hab. Madagascar. 



1896.] B0TTBBFLIBS OF THE FAMILY HBSPBEIIDjE. IS 

38. C. (?) HOMEYBBi, Ploetz. 

Tagiades Jiomeyeri, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xli. p. 307 (1880). 
ITab. Pundo Ndongo, 

1 do not know this species, but as it is said by the author to be 
very near C. galenus, Pabr., I locate it here provisionally. 

39. C. MOKBEzi, Wallgr. 

Pterygospidea moJceezi, "Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Acad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 54. 

Hesperia amaponda, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soe. Loud. (3) vol. i. 
p. 405. 

Nisoniades mokeezi. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Aust. vol. ii. p. 316, pi. vi. 
fig. 5. 

Pterygospidea moJceezi, Trim. Butt. S. Afr. vol. iii. p. 358. 

Celcenorrhinus moJceezi, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 50. 

ffab. Extra-tropical S. Africa. 

40. C. (?) LUBHDEEI, Ploetz. 

Plastingia lueJideri, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 357 (1879), 
vol. xlv. p. 147 (1884). 

Hab. Ahari (Ploetz). 

The figure of this species drawn by Ploetz appears to be a crude 
representation of a species of OelcenorrJiinus, but the statement of 
Ploetz, that there is a sexual mark or brand upon the primaries, 
does not agree with this view. I am at a loss, without having the 
insect before me, to say where it should be located. Mons. 
Mabille's note upon the drawing of Ploetz, contained in one of 
his manuscript comments upon the Ploetzian figures, strikes me as 
very appropriate, " miJii non verisimile vidctur." 

Teichosemeia \ Holl. 

41. T. subolivescens, Holl. (Plate V. fig. 15.) 

T. mbolivescens, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Oct. 1892, p. 294 ; 
Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 53. 
Hah. Matabeleland. 

42. T. tetbastigma, Mab. 

OeratricJiia tetrastigma, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, 
p. Ixv; Novit. Lepidopt. p. 119, pi. xvi. fig. 8. 

Hab. Interior of Cameroons {Staudinger). 

Mons. Mabille refers this species with some doubt to the genus 
CeratricJiia. With his type before me, I am able to assert that the 
species is positively congeneric with the type of the genus 
Tricliosemia. It may even prove to be true that the two species 
are the same, in which case Mons. Mabille's name wUl have 
priority. There is, however, considerable difference in the colom' 

^ By a typographical error, printed originally as " Tricosemeia." 



16 Dtt, W. J. HOLLAND ON TfiB APBIOAN [JaU. 14, 

and markings of the underside of the secondaries, and it would 
not be at all safe to merge the two forms under the same name 
until we have more material. 

43. T. QTTATEENA, Mab. 

Ceratrichia quaterna, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. France, 1889, 
p. clvi ; Novit. Lepidopt. p. 20, pi. iii. fig. 3 (1891). 

Hub. Sierra Leone {Mahille). 

This beautiful species, the type of which is before me as I write, 
is correctly referred to the genus Tnchosemeia. 

44. T. (?) BRiGiDA, Ploetz. 

Antigonus Irigida, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 361 (1879). 

Hah. Cameroons {Good); Eoorke's Drift, S. Africa (in my 
collection). 

What I take to be the species named brigida by Ploetz is a 
species which is more properly located in this genus than any 
other at present constituted, though the secondaries lack the 
characteristic hairy brand near the costa on the upperside, which 
led me to give the name which I have applied to this genus. 
This remark holds good also of the two following species. 

45. T. (?) HEKEirs, Druce. (Plate IV. fig. 21.) 
Tagiades Jiereus, Druce, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 417. 
Hah. Angola (Montei^-o). 

This species seems to be" closely allied to, if not identical vsdth, 
S. brigida, Ploetz. In case of identity the name given by 
Mr. Druce has priority. 

46. T. (?) STJBALBIDA, Holl. 

Sarangesa suhalhida, Holl. Ent. News, Jan. 1894, p. 26, pi. i. 
fig. 7. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove (Good). 

In the form of the wings and the neuration, together with the 
form of the antennae, this species comes nearer those which are 
strictly classified in the genus TricJiosemeia than to those included 
ia Sarangesa. The hairy brand on the upperside of the secondaries 
is lacking ; but in spite of this I prefer to place the species here, 
rather than to leave it where I originally located it. 

Tagiades, Hiibu. 

47. T. FLESus, Pabr. 

Papilio flesus, Pabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 135, no. 621 (1871) ; Mant. 
Ins. p. 88, no. 797 (1787) ; Ent. Syst. iii. p. 338, no. 286 (1793). 

Nisoniades flesus, Butl. Cat. Pabr. Diurn. Lep. p. 286. 

Papilio ophion, Dm. 111. Exot. Ent. vol. iii. pi. xvii. figs. 1, 2 
(1782) ; Stoll, Suppl. Cram. Pap. Exot. p. 127, pi. xxvi. figs. 4, 4 c 
(1791). 

Nisoniades ophion, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Aust. vol. ii. p. 313 (1866). 



1896.] BUTTEEPLIES OF THE FAKILT BGESPEBIID^. 17 

Pterygospidea flesus. Trim. Butt. S. Afr. vol. iii. p. 363 (1889). 
Tagiades flesus, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 54. 
Hah. Africa, south of the Sahara. 

48. T. iNsuLAEis, Mab. 

T. insularis, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1876, p. 272 ; 
Grandidier's Madagascar, vol. xiii. p. 352 pi. 54. figs. 6, 7, 7 a. 

Thymele ophion, Boisd. Faune Entomol. Madgr. p. 62, pi. ix. 
fig. 4 (1833). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

This is the insular form of T. flesus, Fabr., which is found in 
Madagascar, and can scarcely be separated from the Fabrician 
species. 

49. T. LACTEUS, Mab. 

Tagiacles lacteus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (5) vol. vii. f'„(,^( j;s\.u. 
p. xxxix. ,. . .^ . 

Tagiades dannatti, Ehrmann, Ent. News, vol. iv. p. 309 ; Holl. y .,..,«.. t^^^i 
Ent. News, March 1894, pi. iii. fig. 1. •''"■ 

Hah. Congo, Liberia. 

My surmise that T. lacleus and T. dannatti are identical, which 
I expressed in my paper of March 1894, has been confirmed by 
Mons. Mabille, who has compared my figure with the type. 

50. T. SAMBOR.u«^A, H. Gr. Smith. 

Tagiades samhorana, H. Grose Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(6) vol. vii. p. 127. 
Hah. Madagascar. 
I do not know this species. 

51. T. SMiTHii, Mab. 

Tagiades smithii, Mab. Grandidier's Madagascar, vol. xiii. 
p. 354, pi. 56 A. figs. 3, 3 a. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

The plate on which this species is to be figured has not yet been 
published. I do not know the species iu nature, nor by any 
pictorial representation. 

Eagbis, Guen, 

52. E. SABADius, Gray. 

Hesperia sahadius, Gray, GrifE. An. Kingd. vol. xv. pi. 99. fig. 2 
(1832). 

Thymele sahadius, Boisd. Faun. Entom. Madgr. p. 63, pi. ix. 
fig. 2 (1833). 

Eagris sahadius, Guen. Maill. Eeun. vol. ii. Lep. p. 18 (1863); 
Mab. Grandid. Madagr. vol. xiii. p. 350, pi. 54. figs. 4, 4 a, 5. 

Hesperia andrachne, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madgr. p. 67 (1833) ; 
Guerin, Iconogr. Eegne Anim., Ins. pi. Ixxxii. fig. 2 (1844). 

Antigonus andrachne, Saalm. Lep. Madgr. p. 112, pi. i. fig. 14. 
Pnoc. ZooL. Soc— 1896, No. II. 2 



1'8 DR. ^y. J. HOLLAND ON THE ATEICAN [Jan, 14, 

Plesioneura liyalinata, Saalm. Ber. Senck. Ges. 1877-78, p. 87. 
Plesioneura andrachne (Boisd.), Saalm. Ber. Seuck. Ges. 1878-79, 
p. 123. . 

Bab. Madagascar. 

. 53. E. NOTTOANA, "WallgT. 

Pterygospklea nottoana, Wallgr. K. Sy. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep; Ebop. Caffr. p. 54. 

Msoniades sahadius, Trim. Rhop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 315. 

Pteryciospidea nottoana. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 360. 

Eagris melancliolica, Mab. Bull. Soc. Eut. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. civ. 

Eagns nottoana, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 5-1. 

Hah. South Africa. 

Tbe comparison of the type of E. melancholica, Mab., shows it to 
be identical with E. nottoanaj as determined by Mr. Trimen. 

■ 64. E. DECASliGMA, Mab. 

Eagris decastigma, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixii ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 118, pi. xvi. fig. 7 ; Holl. Eut. News, Jan. 
1894, pi. i. fig. 9. 

Mab. Sierra Leone, Gaboon. 

55. E. ruscosA, Holl. (Plate V. fig. 4.) 

. Eagris fuscosa, Holl. Ent. News, Jan. 1894, p. 27, pi. i. fig. 6. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove (Good); Gaboon (Mocquenjs). 

This is a somewhat close ally of E. phyllophila, Trim., but may 
be readily distinguished from that species by the form of the large 
spots on the disk of the primaries. 

56. E. PHTLLOPHiLA, Trim. 

]\^isomades phyllopliila, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1883, 
p. 362. 

Pterygospidea phyllophila, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 362, 
pi. xii. fig. 8. 

Hah. Natal, Delagoa Bay {Trimen). 

57. E, JAMESONi, Sharpe. 

Antigonus jamesoni, Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vol. vi. 
p. 348 (1890). 

Pterygospidea jamesoni, Trim. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 106, pi. ix. fig. 25. 
Caprona jamesoni, Butl. P. Z. S. 3893, p. 669. 
Hah. S.W. Africa, Mashonaland. 

58. E. DENUBA, Ploetz. (Plate V. fig. 8.) 

. Antigonus denuha, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 361 (1869). 

Eagris decolor, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Prance, (6) vol. ix. p. civ 
(1889) ; Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxx^iii. p. 262 (1893). 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OE THE FAMILY HESPEBIIDuE. 19 

Hah. Abiiri (Ploeiz) ; Freetown (Mahille) ; Cameroons (Good) ; 
Togoland (Karsch). 

Having before me a drawing of the type of Ploefcz, executed by 
Prillwitz, which is reproduced in the Plate, and the type of 
Mahille, loaned me by Dr. Staudiuger, I aui positively satisfied as 
to the identity of the two. 

59. E. LTJCETiA, Hew. 

Leucochitonea lucetia, Hew. 111. Exot. Butt. vol. v. Hesp., Leveo- 
chitonea, pi. ii. fig. 21. 
Hub. Angola {Hewitson). 

Pbocampta, Hell. 

60. P. EAUA, HolL 

Frocampta rara, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Oct. 1892, 
p. 293 ; Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 59 ; Holl. Ent. News, Mar. 
1894, pi. iii. fig. 7. 

Eab. Valley of the Ogove. 

Capbona, Wallgr. 

61. C. PILLAAJTA, Wallgr. 

Caprona pillaana, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857; Lep. 
Ehop. CafEr. p. 51 ; Trim, llhop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 308 (1866) ; 
S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 348, pi. xii. figs. 6, 6 a (1889). 

Stethotrix heterogyna, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. clxxxiv (1889). 

Caprona adelica, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. vol. xviii, p. 242 (1892) ; 
Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p, 243, pi. vi. fig. 2 (1893). 

Hab. South Africa, Natal, Loko, Togoland. 

Mous. Mahille writes me that the species of Karsch is absolutely 
identical with his S. hderogyna, in which opinion, \\\th the type 
before me as I write, I am able to positively concur. But the male 
of S. heterof/yna is most certainly identical with C. pillaami, 
Wallgr. I am not alone in this opinion. Dr. Staudinger writes 
me that Prof. Aurivillius has most unquaUfiedly given in his 
adhesion to this view on examination of specimens submitted to 
him. The female, the type of which is before me, might have 
served the artist for the dra\Adng of O. adeliea given by Dr. Karsch, 
and differs from the rather crude figure of the female of C. pillaana, 
Wallgr., given by Trimen in being paler, and having a sharply 
defined black spot on the underside of the secondaries near the 
inner margin. With only the female sex before me I might haA'e 
hesitated a little to make the above synonymy, but the identity of 
the male with C. pillaana being so positively certain, I do not doubt 
the correctness of what I have given above. 

62. C. CAJfOPFS, Trim. 

Caprona canopus. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) a'oI. ii. p. 180 

2* 



20 DB. ^Y. J. nOLLAKD ON THE AFMCAN [Jan. 14, 

(1864); Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 309, pi. vi. fig. 2 (1866); 
iStaud. Exot. Sclmiett. pi. 100 ; Trim. S. Afr. Butt. p. 349 (1889). 
Mab. Extra-tropical South Africa. 

Abantis, Hopff. 
(Leucochitonea, Wallgr. ; Saj^cea, Ploetz.) 

I cannot bring myself to difi^er from Trimen, and to accept the 
conclusion of Watson, that L. levuhu, AVallgr., should constitute llie 
type and sole representative of a genus. The difference between 
this species and the others given below are certainly rather of 
specific than of generic grade. I therefore sink Wallengreu's 
genus Leucochitonea as a synonym of Abantis^ Hopff., as has 
already been done by Trimen. 

63. A. TETTENsis, HopfE. 

Abantis teitensis, Hopff. Mduatsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1855, 
p. 643 ; Peters' Eeise Mossamb., Ins. p. 415, pi. xxvi. figs. 16 17 
(1862) ; Trim. S. Air. Butt. vol. iii. p. 337 (1889) ; Wats. P. Z. S. 
1893, p. 63. 

Hab. South Tropical and Temperate Africa. 

64. A. PAEADISEA, Butl. 

Leucwliitonea puradisea^ Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870 
p. 499 ; Lep. Exot. p. 167, pi. hx. fig. 8 (1874). ' 

Besperia {Oxynetra) namaquana, Westw. Thes. Ent, Oxon. 
p. 183, pi. xxxiv. fig. 10 (1874). 

Leucochitonea paradisea, Staudgr. Exot. iSchmett. i. pi. 100. 

Abantis p)aradisca, Trim. S. Afr. Butt, p, 342 (1889) : Wats 
P. Z. S. 1893, p. 63. I K J, . 

Hob. Southern Africa. 

65. A. ZAMBEsiACA, Westw. 

Eespieria zambesiaca, Westw. Thes. Ent. Oxon. p. 183, pi xxxiv 
fig. 9 (1874). i- ' 1 

Abantis zambesina, Trim, S. Afr. Butt, vol, iii. p. 344 (1889') • 
P. Z. S. 1891, p. 105. ^ ^' 

Sapcea trimevi, Butl. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 264, pi. xv. fig. 6. 

Bab. Southern Tropical Africa. 

With the figures of their species, given by Westwood and 
Butler, before me and a long series of s])eciraens labelled by 
Mr. Tnmen to compare with them, I am Avholly at a loss to see 
what valid reason exists for separating the iusect recognized by 
Dr. Butler as Sapcm trimeni from the insect described by West- 
wood. It is true that the normal colour of the sides of the 
abdominal segments of the insect is " snow-white," as stated by 
Dr. Butler, and brought out in his excellent figure, but the fact 
that Westwood says that these segments in the type Aveie 
' luteous " does not in my judgment furnish sulficient reason to 



1896.] BXJTTEKFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIIDiE. 21 

say that we are dealing here with two distinct species. " Luteous " 
is muddy yellow, and nothing is commoner among the Hesperiidte 
than the change of the white markings of the abdomen into 
yellowish by greasing and other accidents. I am reluctant to 
differ from my learned friend Dr. Butler on any point, but after 
studying the specimens before me with the figures and descriptions 
given by himself and Westwood, I am still of the opinion that 
Mr. Triraen's original identification was correct, and that the 
separation of the form known to Trimeu from that described by 
Westwood is an unnecessary refinement. 

66. A. BisMAEKi, Karsch. 

Ahantis bismarki, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. xviii. p. 22S (1892); 
Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 242, pi. vi. fig. 1 (1893). 
Hub. Togoland. 



■'o^ 



67. A. BicoLOR, Trim. 

Leucochitonea bicolor. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. 
p. 180 (1864); Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 307, pi. 6. fig. 1 
(1866). 

Sapmi hicolor, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. pp. 177, 179 (1879). 

Abantis bicolor, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 340 (1889); 
Wats. P. Z. S. 1S93, p. 63. 

Bab. S. Africa. 

68. A. VENOSA, Trim. 

Abantis venosa. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 339 (1889) ; 
P. Z. S. 1891, p. 105, pi. ix. fig. 24. 

LeucocMtonea umvulensis, Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 
vol. vi. p. 348 (1890). 

Ilab. South Tropical Africa and Transvaal. 

69. A. ELEGATfTULA, Mab. 

Abantis elegantula, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1890, p. 32 ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 23, pi. iii. fig. 6 (1891). 
Hub. Sierra Leone. 

70. A. EFTJLEifsis, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 12.) 

S . Allied to A. elegantula, Mab., from which it differs by the 
entire absence of the discal spots on the primaries. The second- 
aries are white, with the basal third, the outer angle, and the 
inner margin clouded with dark brown, shading on the costa into 
orange-red. The white outer area is intersected by the veins, 
which are black. 

On the underside, the primaries are much paler than on the 
Tipperside and are slightly tinged near the base and on the costa 
with ochreous. The secondaries are pure white, except on the costal 
margin and the outer angle, where they are laved with pale brown 
shading into ochraceous. The veins on the underside are not black 



2'2'. . DB. W. J. HOLLAND OK THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

as on the U|)perside, except those which are located near the 
dosta. The body is marked much as in A. eletjantula, but is 
without the red spots at the end of the patagia and the red hairs 
which are found on the metathorax. Expanse 40 mm. 

Hah. Efulen, Cameroons. ■. 

71. A. LEUCOGASTEB, Mab. 

Ahantis leuco(jastei\ Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1890, p. 82 ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 22, pi. iii. tig. 5 (1891). 
Hah. Sierra Leone. 

72. A. LEVUBU, Wallgr. • . 

Leucochitonea levuhu, Wiillgr. K. Sv. Yet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep. Ehop. Catfr. p. 52 ; Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 3U6. 
Ahantis levuhu, Trim. S. Afr. Butt, vol. iii. p. 345, pi. xii. fig. 5. 
Hah. Southern Africa. 

Hespekia, Fabr. 
(Pi//v/t«s, Hiibn. ; Scelothrix;, 'Rsunb. ; St/ricJUus,'Boiiid.) 

73. H. SPio, Linn. 

Papilio spio, Linn. Syst. Xat. ed. xii. p. 796, no. 271 (1767) ; 
Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 535, no. 400 (1775) ; Donovan, Ins. Ind. pi. i. 
fig. 5 (1800-3). 

Hesperia spio, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii, 1, p. 354, no. 348 (1783); 
■\Vestw., Don. Ins. Ind. 2nd edit. p. 79, pi. 50. fig. 5 (1842); 
Aurivillius, K, Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. vol. xix. no. 5, p. 124, tab. i. 
figs. 3, 3 a, after Clerck (1882). 

Papilio vindex. Cram. Pap. Exot. vol. iv. pi. cccliii. figs. G, H 
(1782); Watson, P, Z. S, 1893, p. 65. 

Pyrgus vindex, Hiibn. Verz. p. 109, no, 1178 (1816); Hopff. 
Peters' Keise Mossamb., Ins. p. 421 (1862) ; Trim. Ehop. Afr. 
Austr. vol. ii. p. 287 (1866); S. Afr. Butt, vol. iii. p. 280 (1889). 

Hesperia vindex, Latr. Enc, Meth, vol. ix. p. 785 (1823) ; Westw., 
Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. Ixxix, fig. 6 (1852), 

Syrichtus vindex, Wallgr, Ehop. Caffr. p, 53 (1857). 

Hah. Southern Africa. 

I had long been led to question whether this species had been 
found in the western tropical parts of Africa. I have never 
received it from Gaboon, Cameroons, Sierra Leone, or Liberia, 
though I have charged my collectors to make special search for the 
HesperiidaB, and have received thousands of specimens from them. 
The species identified for me as H. sjno, L. {vindex. Cram.), by 
several European authorities, is very different from the S.-African 
insect, of which I have numerous examples received from Mr. 
Trimen and others. It is H. jjloetzi, Auriv. My doubt as to the 
existence of the species on the Tropical West Coast has been, 
however, put to rest by the discovery of a specimen from 
Monrovia in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OP TUE FAMILY HJ^SPERIID^. 23 

74. H. DEOJius, Ploetz. 

Pi/rr/us dromus, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu-Vorpomtn. u. Eiig. 
1884, p. 6; Trim. S, Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 283 (188J). 

Hesperia dromus, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 65. 

Hah. South Africa (? North of the Congo). 

This species is generally confounded in collections with the 
preceding, but by attending to the differences so clearly pointed 
out by Mr. Triuieu they may easily be separated. Ploetz states 
that his type was from the Congo, and Mr. Trimen, upon the 
authority of Gr. Geynet, gives the "Gaboon Iii ver" as a habitat. 
I am inclined to question the correctness of the reference of this 
species to these localities. I may be in error, but am incliued to 
think that it does not range further north than Angola on the 
West Coast. 

75. H. PLOETzr, Auriv. 

SijricJitus sj)io, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. u. Eiig, 
1884, p. 21. 

Pijrfjas spio, Mab. Ann. Soc. Eut. France, (6) vol. x. p. 30, pi. iii. 
fig. 9 (1890). 

Hesjjeria ploetzi, Auriv. Eut. Tidsk. 1891, p. 227. 

Ft/iyus plottzi, Karsch, Berl. Eut. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 245 
(1893). 

Uab. Gaboon, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togoland. 

76. H. SATASPES, Trim. 

Piinjus sataspes, Trim. Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. p. 178 
(18b-4); Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 290, pi. v. fig. 7 (1806); 
S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 289 (1889). 

Hab. South Africa. 

77. H. DioMus, Hopff. 

Pi/rgus diomus, Hopff. Monatsber. k. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 
1855, p. 643 ; Peters' Eeise n. Mossauib., Ins. p. 420, pi. xxvii. 
figs. 9, 10 (1862). 

Jfab. Tropical East Africa. 

78. H. FEBOX, Wallgr.. 

SyrichtJms ferox, Wallgr. Wien. Ent. Monatschr. 1883, p. 137. 

Pyrgus vindex, Cram.? var.. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. 
pp. 287-288 (1866). 

Hesperia {Syrichthus) diomus, Wallgr. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Eorh 
1872, p. 50. 

Pyrgus diomus, Moschl. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, p. 286. 

litsperia sandaster, Staudgr. Exot. Schmett. vol. ii. pi. 100 
(1888). ' 

Pyrgus diomus. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 287 (1889). 

Hesperia diomus, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 65. 

Hab. Southern Africa. 



24 DE. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

" I have come to the conclusion that Pyrgus diomus, Hopff., is 
really distinct from P. ferox, Wallgr., although Wallengren 
himself in 1872 sank the latter in favour of the former. None of 
the South-African specimens that I have seen agrees with HopfFer's 
description and figures in the important point of the white bands 
on the underside of the hind Mdngs, which markings are always 
much more oblique in the southern examples. The other day I 
received a pair from Zanzibar, which exactly agree with Hopffer's 
figures. So I think we may call the abundant southern form 
P. ferox. By the way, what Dr. Staudinger figures as my P. san- 
daster is apparently P. ferox." (E. Tinmen, in Uteris, 1894.) 

79. H. ASTEEODiA, Trim. 

Pyrgus asterodia, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. p. 178 
(1864) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 289, pi. v. fig. 6 (1866) ; 
S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 284 (1889). 

Hesperia asterodia, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 65, 

Syrichtlius asterodia, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. u. 
Eiig. 1884, p. 21. 

Hah. South Africa. 

80. H. TEANSVAALi^, Trim. 

Pyrgus transvaalice, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 286 (1889). 
Hah. South Africa. 

Allied, according to the author, to H. spio, Linn, (vindex, Cram.), 
and dromus, Ploetz. 

81. H. AGXLLA, Trim. 

Pyrgus agylla. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 286 (1889). 
Hah. South Africa. 

This species is unknown to me except by the description of 
Mr. Trimen. 

82. H. MAFA, Trim. 

Pyrgus mafa. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 386, pi. vi. 
fig. 12 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 284. 
Hah. South Africa. 
Doubtfully distinct from H. spio, Linn. 

83. H. SANDASTEE, Trim. 

Pyrgus sandaster. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, p. 92 
pi. V. fig. 9 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 291 (1889), 
Hah. South Africa. 

84. H. NANUS, Trim. 

Pyrgus sataspes, var. A. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ::. p. 290 
(1866). *^ 

Pyrgus nanus. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 290 (1889). 
Hah. South Africa. 



1896.] BTJTTEEPLIES OF THE PAMILT HESPEBIID.?!. 25 

85. H. SECESsus, Trim. 

Pyrcjus secessiis. Trim. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 102, pi. ix. fig. 22. 
Hab. South-western Africa. 

86. H. COLOTES, Druce. (Plate I. fig. 11.) 
Pyrgus colotes, Druce, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 416. 
Hab. Angola (Monteiro). 

87. H. NOEA, Ploetz. 

Pyrgus nora, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. u. Eiig. 
1881, p. 7. 

Hab. Loango (Ploetz). 

This species is unknown to me, and may be identical with some 
other species. The description is very unsatisfactory. In some 
respects it applies to H. secessus. Trim. 

88. H. ZAiBA, Ploetz. 

Pi/rgus zaira, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Yer. Neu-Vorpomm. u. Eiig. 
1884, p. 6. 

Hab. Congo (Ploetz). 

This species is only known to me by the brief and unsatisfactory 
description of Ploetz. 

89. H. ABSCONDiTA, Ploetz. 

Syrichthus absconclita, Ploetz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 
u. Eiig. 1884, p. 21. 

Hab. Africa (Ploetz). 

The description is too slight to base any conjecture upon it as 
to what the author intended thereby, 

90. H. PBOTo, Esp. 

Papilio proto, Esp. Eur. Schmetfc. i. 2, pi. 123. figs. 5, 6 (1806?). 
For synonymy cf. Staudinger and Wocke, Kirby, Syn. Catalogue, 
&c. 

Hab, Morocco. 

91. H. ALi, Oberth. 

Syrichthus ali, Oberth. Etud. Entom. vi. 3, p. 61, pi. ii. fig. 3 
(1881). 

Hab. Algeria. 

92. H. LETjzE^, Oberth. 

Syrichthus leuzece, Oberth, Etud. Entom. vi. 3, p. 60, pi. iii. 
fig. 10 (1881), 

Hab, Algeria. 



26 DE. W. J. HOLL-iKD ON TILE AFRICAN [Jail. 14j 

93. H. ALYETJS, Hiibn,, var. onopordi, Ramb. 

Syrichtlms onopordi, Eamb. Faun. And. pi. viii. fig. 13 (1839). 
For fuller svnonvmy cf. standard works on the Lepidoptex-a o£ 
the palsearctic faunal region. 
Hah. North Africa. 

94. H. (?) oiLEUS, Linn. 

Papilio oileus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 795, no. 269 (1767). 

Ifesperia oileus, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 615 (1871). 

Hab. Algeria (Kirby). 
' This is a doubtful species, and it does not appear that any one 
has been able to discover exactly what Linnaeus intended to 
designate by his name and description. JSvminis umbra ! ! 

CarchjlKOdus, Hiibn. 
(Urbanus, Hiibn. ; Spilothyrus, Dup.) 

95. C. alce.!, Esp. 

Papilio alcece, Eur. Schmett. i, 2, pi. li. fig. 3 (1780). 
Eor further synonymy see standard works on the Lepidoptera 
of the palsearctic faunal region. 

Hab. North Africa. , 

96. C. EiMA, Trim. 

Pyrgus elma, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. p. 288 
(1862); Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 291, pi. v. fig. 8 (1866); 
S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 293. 

Gomalia elma, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 67. 

Pqrgus elma, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 245, pi. vi. 
fig. 12. 

Hab. Southern Africa. 

I place this insect in the genus Carcharodus, Hiibn., rather than 
in the genus Gomalia, Moore, to which it has been assigned by 
Mr. Watson, because the differences of a structural character 
which separate it from its near allies, C. alcece and C. lavaterce, are, 
in my opinion, too slight to warrant the subdivision. In fact, I 
call in question the propriety of retaiuing the name Gomalia as a 
generic designation, it being founded upon differences which 
appear to me to be rather specific than generic. I am quite 
persuaded that Gomalia albofasciata, Moore, the type of his genus, 
belongs to the older genus of Hiibner, and I think Gomcdia should 
be sunk as a synonym of Carcharodus. 

The figure given by Karsch is by no means characteristic. The 
checkered character of the fringes is hot made to appear, and 
were not the identification made by Karsch so positive, I should 
think we were dealing with some other species, belonging, perhaps, 
to a different genus. 



] 896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIID^. 27 

97. C. (?) MTDEA, Walk. 
• Pelopidas miclea, Walk. Eutomologist, vol. v. p. 56 (1870). 
Eryiinis'l midea, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 830 (1877). 

Hah. Cairo. 

I know nothing of this species. Mr. Kirby's reference to 
Erijnnis leads me to place it here. Mr. Butler could not find the 
tvpe in the British Museum. 1 fear that in this, as in so many 
other cases, we shall never be able to know exactly what Mr.Waiker 
intended by his specific appellation. 

Subfam. PAiiPHiLix^E, 
Trapezites, Hiibn. 

The following species, all hut one occurring in Madagascar, I 
allow to remain in the genus Trapezites, where they have been for 
the most part located by Dr. Butler and Mons. Mabille. Lieut. 
Watson states that the genus Trapezites, in the strict sense, is 
confined to the Australian region. Unfortunately I have not 
sufficient material at hand to justify the attempt by dissection and 
bleaching to determine whether these species are really separable 
from the genus in which they have hitherto been placed. It is 
much to be wished that some capable collector, who has an eye for 
the more obscure forms, might soon visit and thoroughly explore 
the field which is awaiting his labour in the great island east of 
Africa. 

98. T. ESiPYREUs, Mab. 

• Cyclopides empyreus, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii. p. 285 
(1878). 

Trapezites empyreiis, Mab. Grand. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 336, 
pi. hii. figs. 1, 1 a, 2 (1887). 

Hab. Madagascar. 

99. T. FASTUOsus, Mab. 

Cyclopides empyreus (pro parte), Mab. Pet. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii. 
p. 285 (1878). 

Trapezites fastuosus, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxviii. 
p. clxxxvi (1884); G-randid. Madgr; vol. xviii. p. 338, pi. liii. 
figs. 9, 9 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

100. T. CARMiDES, Hew. 

Cyclopides carmides, Hew. Descript. One Hundred New Hes- 
perid. p. 41 (1868); Exot. Butt. vol. v. pi. Cyclopjides, fig. 1 
(1874). 

Trapezites carmides, Mab. Graudid. Madgr. vol. xviii.. p. 332, 
pi. liii. figs. 3, 3 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. 



28 DB. W. J. HOLLATfD ON THE AFBICATS' [Jan. 14, 

101. T. MALCHUS, Mab. 

Ci/clopides malchus, Mab. Bull, de la Soc. Philomat. p. 136 
(1877). 

Hesperia ypsilon, Saalni. Lep. Madgr. p. 110 (188-1). 

Trapezites malchus, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 332, 
pi. liii. figs. 5, 6 (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

102. T. GiLLiAS, Mab. 

Pamphila gillias, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii. p. 285 
(1878). 

Trapezites hingdoni, Butl. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) vol. iv. p. 232 
(1879). 

Trapezites gillias, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 335, 
pi. liii. figs. 8, 8 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

103. T. HOTA, Mab. 

Cyclopides hoiva (err.), Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (5) vol. v. 
p. ccxv (1875). 

Trapezites hova, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 335, pi. liii. 
figs. 7, 7 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

104. T. CATOCALiNUS, Mab. 

Cyclopides catocalinus, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii. p. 285 
(1878). 

Trapezites catocalinus, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 339, 
pi. liii. figs. 4, 4 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar. (Erroneously ? labelled in Dr. Staudinger's 
collection as from the Gold Coast.) 

105. T. PABOECHus, Mab. 

Trapezites paroechus, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 334, 
pi. lii. figs. 1, 2, 2 a (1887). 
Hah. Madagascar. 

106. T. (?)CHiBALA, Trim. 

Pamphila chirala, Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 76, pi. vi. fig. 18, $ . 

I place this species here provisionally, as, both from the figure 
and the description, it seems more nearly allied to the species in 
this group than to any others. 

AcLBBOs, Mab. 

107. A. LEUcoPYGA, Mab. 

Cyclopides leucopyga, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1877, p. 101. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OJT THE FAMILY HESPERIIDiE. 29 

Acleros lemopyga, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xiii. p. 347, pi. liv. 
figs. 3, 3 a (1887) ; Watson, P.Z. S. 1893, p. 76. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

This species may be distinguished from A. ploetzi, its near ally, 
by the broader extent of the white markings upon the outer 
margin of the secondaries, and the paler, more irregularly clouded 
underside of the secondaries. There are two specimens in the 
collection of Dr. Staudinger labelled as taken at Gaboon by 
Mocquerys, which are almost identical with examples from 
Madagascar. They were taken in September. (Are the locality- 
labels correct in these cases ?) 

108. A. PLOETZI, Mab. (Plate II. fig. 7.) 

Apaustus leucopygKS, Ploetz, S.E. Z, vol. xl. p. 360 (1879). 

Acleros ploetzi, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent, Erance, (6) vol. ix. p. clxviii 
(1889). 

Eab. Aburi, Yictoria, "W". Africa (Ploetz) ; Gaboon, Cameroons 
(Good). 

Mons. Mabille has very properly suggested the name ploetzi for 
this species, in view of the fact that the specific name leueopyga 
had already, in 1877, been applied by him to a closely allied species 
from Madagascar. 

109. A. MACKENii, Trim. 

PamphUa ? macl-enii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, p. 95, 
pi. vi. fig. 8. 

Ancyloxypha machenii, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 331 
(1889). 

Ilab. Southern Africa. 

This species is very closely allied to A. ploetzi, Mab. (leucopygus, 
Ploetz), but may be distinguished by its somewhat larger size, and 
by the fact that the underside of the primaries is much darker, 
and by the two subti-iangular spots of white standing out boldly 
upon this dark ground near the inner margin. 

110. A. PLACiDUS, Ploetz. (Plate II. fig. 19.) 

AjMustus placidus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 360 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 157 (1884). 

ffab. Ahuri (Ploetz). 

The figure of the type given in the plate accompanying this 
article suggests that the original specimen is somewhat faded. I 
am greatly inclined to the view that it represents a somewhat 
rubbed specimen of the species since named A. higuttulus by 
Mons. Mabille, and which may also be identical with the species 
named A. substrigata by me. In a very long series of specimens, 
numbering nearly one hundred, I find specimens more or less 
worn, which agree well with the figure and description oi placidus, 
and others -which are undoubtedly very close to, if not identical 
with, higuttulus, and still others, bright and fresh, which are 



30 DE.W. J. HOLLAND Olf THE AFBICAIT [Jan. 14, 

unmistakably separated from the others by the markings of tlie 
underside of the secondaries as represented in the photographic 
representation of suhstrigata given by me in the ' Entomological 
News ' for January, 1894. AVhether all of these belong to one 
and the same species remains to be proved, but the presumption 
seems to me to be in favour of this view. I do not, however, sink 
Mabille's species and my own as synonyms of lilacidus in the 
present paper, although inclined stronglj^ to take this view. 

111. A. BiGUTTXJj-rs, Mab. 

Acleros hicjuttxdus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. clxvii (1889). 

Hab. Freetown, W. Africa (Mabille). 

From the brief description of the species given by Mons. 
Mabille, this species appears to me to be very near A. jylacidus, 
Ploetz {q. v.). 

112. A. SUBSTRIGATA, HoU. 

Acleros substric/ata, Holl, Ent. News, Jan. 1894, p. 28, pi. i, 
figs. 10, 11. 

ffah. Valley of the Ogove. 

This is possibly a form of pladdus, Ploetz, as I have intimated 
above. 

113. A. OLATJs, Ploetz, 

Apaustus olaus, Ploetz, S. E, Z. vol. xlv. p. 156 (1884); Karsch, 
Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1893, p. 260. 

Ifab. Loango (Ploetz), Togoland (Karsch). 

Ploetz in his catalogue of the species of Apaustus, given in the 
Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, places A. olaus immediately before his 
leucopyga, which is strictly congeneric with the species described 
under the same name by Mabille, and made the type of the genus 
Acleros. A good copy of Ploetz's drawing, pi. 744, shews that in 
form and pattern of marking olavs is indeed very near to leuco- 
pyga, Ploetz (ploetzi, Mabille) ; the main difference being the 
spots in the primaries noted by Ploetz in his original description. 
An exammation of the figure of Ploetz makes it plain, furthermore, 
that the type was a female. It seems do me quite possible that 
the insect described was a female of the species previously 
described by Trimen as Pami^lnla (?) maclcenii. Karsch appa- 
rently is not sure of his identification of this species as given in 
his article in the Berl. Ent. Zeit. quoted in the synonymy above. 

114. A. iNSTABiLis, Mab. 

Acleros instaUlis, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. clxviii (1889). 

Hab. Zanzibar (Mabille). 

There are two females in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, 



1896.] BUTTEEFLIES OT THE TAMILT HESPEEIID^. 31 

which are lahelled as from Loko, which are plainly referable to 
this species, which is doubtfully distinct from A. ploetzi, Mab. 
(leucopygns, Ploetz). The specimens are smaller in size than is 
usual in the case of the female of A. ploetzi, Mab., and the outer 
angle of the primaries on the lower side is lighter. The white 
spots on intervals two and three in the primaries are very large 
and distinct, more so than in females of A. ploetzi, observed by 
me. Still this may be only a local variety of A. ploetzi. 



GoEGXEA, gen. nov. 

Antenna long, slender ; club small, gradually thickened, taper- 
ing to a line point ; terminal portion bent, but not hooked. Palpi: 
;first joint short ; second joint long, profusely clothed with hair, 
erect, and rising almost or quite to the vertex ; third joint long, 
Bubconical, porrect, clothed with fine closely appressed hairs. 
Fore wing : inner margin a little longer than tlie outer inargin ; 
cell about, one-half the length of the costa; vein 12 reaching the 
costa before the end of the cell, veins 7 and 8 from before the end 
of the cell; the upper and middle discocellulars form an obtuse 
angle at the end of the cell pointing inwardly, the middle and 
lower discocellulars form an angle with the apex pointing out- 




Head and neuration of Qorgyra ahura, Ploetz, <S • f • 

wardly ; vein 5 is nearer vein 4 than 6 ; vein 3 well before the 
end of the cell ; vein 2 twice as far from the end of the cell as 
from the base of the 'ning. Hind wing : the outer margin is 
evenly rounded and slightly excavated before vein \h; cell not quite 
reaching the middle of the' wing ; vein 7 well before the end of the 
cell, t^\-ice as far from 8 as from 6 ; discocellulars faint, nearly 
erect ; vein 5 wantiug or but faintly indicated ; vein 3 just before 
the end of the cell ; vein 2 beyond the middle of the cell ; veins 
1 a and 1 h curved ; vein 1 h clothed on either side with a bundle 



32 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFBICAN [Jan. 14, 

of long hair-like scales ; hind tibiae almost naked and with two 
pairs of spurs. 

Type G. aburce, Ploetz. 

115. Gr. ABTJE^, Ploetz. 

Apaustus aburce, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 359 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 153 (1884). 

Mab. Tropical West Africa. 

G. DiTERSATA, var. nov. 

This form differs from typical 6. aburce, Ploetz, in being pre- 
valently lighter in colour on the underside of the primaries and 
the disc of the secondaries, the darker outer third of the second- 
aries remaining as in the typical form, and giving the appearance, 
therefore, of a dark diffuse hind marginal border to the wing. 

This form is quite common. About one-half of the specimens 
collected for me in the Valley of the Ogove belong to it, but I 
cannot lead myself to believe that it represents a species. Save in 
the colour modification noted, the specimens otherwise agree 
absolutely with G. aburce, and there are a number of intergrading 
forms. (See next species,) 

116. G. HETEEOCHEUS, Mab. 

Pamphila heterochrus, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. i. 
p. 31, pi. iii. fig. 7 (1890); IS^ovit. Lepidopt. p. 116, pi. xvi. fig. 4 
(1893). 

Gastrochcefa diversnta, Mab. MS., in coll. Staudinger. 

Hab. Tropical West Africa. 

The figure of G. heterochrus in the ' Novitates,' was drawn from a 
specimen in the Staudinger collection, which has been labelled 
GastrocTiata diversata by Mous. MabiUe. Another specimen 
which does not at all agree with the figure in the ' Xovitates,' and 
the duplicate of which was pronounced by Mons. Mabille himself 
to be a hitherto undescribed species, is labelled in the Staudinger 
collection as the type of G. heterochi-us. There has plainly been 
a misplacement of the labels. I have therefore taken the liberty 
of applying the name proposed by Mons. Mabille to this new 
form, of which there are numerous examples in my collection, 
and which is plainly a mere colour variation of G. aburce, Ploetz 
{vide supra). 

117. G. JOHNSTOjfi, Butl. (Plate II. fig. 6.) 
Aeromachus {?)johnstom, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 673. 

Mab. British Central Africa (Butl); French Congo (Good). 

I have several specimens of this little species from the A^alley of 
the Ogove, agreeing absolutely with the type. It is closely allied 
to the species described herein as G. minima, Holl., but may be 
distinguished at once by its somewhat larger size, and the fact 



1896.] BXTTTEBFLIES OF THE FAMILY HBSPEBIID^. 33 

that the anal extremity o£ the abdomen is white, which is not the 
case in G, minima, HoU. 

118. G. SUBFACATUS, Mab. (Plate 11. fig. 11.) 

Cohalus suhfacatus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. clxviii (1889). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Mabille). 

This little species is not white at the end of the abdomen, nor 
has it the interrupted white line along the inner margin of the 
secondaries which is conspicuous in G. aburce, Ploetz. The lower 
side in the type, which is before me, is more prevalently tawny on 
the costa and at the apex of the primaries, as well as on the disk 
of the secondaries. Otherwise it closely approximates G. aburce, 
Ploetz, var. diversata, Holl. 

119. G. M.i>'iiL\, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 24.) 

(S . Primaries and secondaries on the upperside black. The 
primaries are ornamented by two minute spots near the end of the 
cell, of which the lower one is the larger. Immediately below this 
spot, in interval 2, is a moderately large sublunate transparent 
spot, and beyond this in the same series, in intervals 3 and 4, a 
small spot in each interval. Beyond the cell there is a minute 
subapical spot. The secondaries have a very small and obscure, 
scarcely visible, translucent spot at the end of the cell. The 
primaries and secondaries on the underside are blackish, with 
The the inner margin of the primaries slightly laved with fulvous, 
secondaries are obscurely marked with purplish hoary scales. The 
cilia, both on the upper and lower side, are pale yellowish fuscous. 
The palpi are black on the upperside, yellowish underneath. The 
thorax and abdomen on the lower side are blackish. 

Expanse 19-20 mm. 

Ifab. French Congo (Mocquerys). 

This small species is allied to G, suhfacatus, Mab., but appears 
to be quite distinct. 

120. G, MOCQUEETsii, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig 10.) 

cJ . The upperside of the body, the primaries, and the second- 
aries are black. The primaries are ornamented with three 
minute subapical spots in the usual position. In some specimens 
these spots have a tendency to become obsolete. There are two 
minute white translucent spots at the end of the cell in the 
primaries, and just below them in interval 2 a subquadrate spot. 
On vein 1, near the middle in interval 1, is a small subtriangular 
spot, in interval 3, beyond the end of the cell, a moderately large 
subquadrate spot. In the male on the secondaries there is a large 
translucent spot at the end of the cell, and two similar elongated 
spots beyond the end of the cell on either side of vein 3 at its 
origin. On the underside the primaries are greenish ochraceous, 
with the inner half of the wing broadly laved with blackish, 
Pboc. Zooh. Soc— 1896, No. III. 3 



34 DE. AV. J. nOLLAND ON THE AFEICAJST [Jim. 14, 

shading into fuscous at the outer angle. There is a series of 
marginal black spots near the apex, and the translucent subapical 
spots are defined outwardly by blackish markings. There is a fine 
marginal black line. The cilia are blackish, checkered with 
whitish on the intervals. On the uppei'side the cilia are whitish, 
checkered with blackish at the ends of the nervules. The 
secondaries on the underside are greenish ochraceous, with the 
anal angle broadly marked with fuscous. There are three 
distinct black subcostal spots, a series of black marginal markings, 
and the translucent spots are narrowly defined by fine blackish 
lines. 

2 • The female is like the male, but lacks the translucent spot 
at the end of cell of the secondaries. 

Expanse c? $ 25-27 mm. 

Types in coll. Staudinger. 

Hah. French Congo {Mocquerys). 

This species is very closely allied to G. heterocJirus, Mab., from 
which, however, it may be easily distinguished by the markings of 
the cilia, and the absence of the patch of light colour which 
prevails in the secondaries at the anal angle of that species, and 
by the fact that the lower side of the abdomen is not bright 
yellowish as in G. heterocJirus, but greenish ochraceous. There are 
other distinguishing markings, but these points will suffice at once 
to separate these species. 

121. G. suBrLATiDtis, Mab. MS., sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 16.) 

Pamphila suhfavidus, Mab. MS., in Stand, coll. 

cJ . Primaries and secondaries on the upperside blackish ; cilia 
of secondaries narrowly white. The primaries are ornamented bv 
a small roundish subapical translucent spot just below the end of 
the cell, by a small subquadrate spot of the same character in the 
cell near the lower angle, and by three larger spots on intervals 
1, 2, and 3. The spot on interval 1 is subtriangular, on interval 
2 subquadrate, and on interval 3 sublunate. The secondaries are 
ornamented by tAvo translucent wedge-shaped spots on either side 
of vein 3 near its origin, the up])ermost spot being produced 
beyond the lower. On the lower side the primaries are black, 
with a small AAhite ray at the base, and wWh the apical extremity 
marked with greenish ochraceous. There is a fine marginal black 
line, two minute blackish spots near the apex, and on either side 
of vein 5, near the outer margin, whitish mai-kings. The second- 
aries on the underside are pale straw-colour, with the outer 
margin and the costa clouded with darker brown markings. On 
interval 2 there is a dark brownish spot about halfway from 
the base. A small black spot is found below the costa near the 
origin of the subcostal nervures, and there is a similar small black 
spot near the end of the cell. The palpi on the upperside are 
black, on the lower side straw-yellow, as is also the entire low er 
side of the thorax and the abdomen. The abdomen towards its 



1896.] BUTTEEFIIES OJF THE FAMILY HESPEEIIDiE, 35 

anal extremity is aunulated on the lower side with brown, and at 
the anal extremity there is a tuft of blackish hairs. 

Expanse 28 mm. 

Type in coll. Staudinger. 

Hab. Usagara, East Africa. 

This species is somewhat allied in its markings to G. aretina, 
Hew., from which, however, it is abundantly distinct. It is 
undoubtedly a good species. 

122. G. ARETINA, Hew. 

Ceratrichia aretina, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. i. 
p. 343 (1878). 

Ajjaustus dolus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 358 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 151 (1884); Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1893, p. 260 pi. vi. 
fig. 13. 

GastrocTiceta alhiventris, Mab. MS., in Staudinger coll. 

Bab. Old Calabar (i^m'.) ; Gaboon (6roycZ) ; Togolaud (A'wrscA) ; 
Loko {Sta^idinger). 

I have compared the specimens in my collection with the type 
of C. aretina. Hew., and find them to be identical. The repre- 
sentation of Ajxmstus dolus, Ploetz, given bv Karsch, is a most 
excellent representation of G. an-tina, as is shown both by com- 
parison with the insect and with a carefully executed figure of 
the type made for me by Mr. Horace Knight, of London. Mons. 
Mabille identified the specimens I took with me to Paris as his 
Gastrochceta albiveyitris, comparing them with the type so labelled 
in the Staudinger collection, which is now again before me as I 
write. I cannot find any record of the publication of this name by 
Mons. Mabille, but it may possibly have eluded the vigilance of 
the compilers of the ' Zoological Eecord ' and others engaged in 
similar work. 

123. G. IKDTTSIATA, Mab. 

Hijpoleucis indusiata, Mab. C. E. Soe. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. cxiii (1891); Novit. Lepidopt. p. 117, pi. xvi. fig. 6 (18i>3). 

Bab. Cameroon s. 

This insect is not congeneric with the type of Bypoleucis, which 
is at best a very doubtful genus. It appears to be more correctly 
referred to the* genus Gorgyra. "With the exception of the type 
and a single specimen contained in my collection I do not know 
of any others in the museums of the world up to the present time. 
The type is in the Staudinger collection. 

124. G. KUBESCEKS, sp. nov. (Plate IV. figs. 17 .f , 18 $ .) 

<S . Antennae black, marked with white below before the end of 
the club. Palpi black on the upperside, pale yellow beneath. 
Upperside of thorax and abdomen dark brown ; lower side of thorax 
and abdomen obscure ochraceous. The primaries on the upperside 
are bright rufous, with the costa and the outer marsrin broadly 

3* 



36 DU.W. J. HOLLAND OK THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

black. There are two translucent spots at the end of the cell, the 
upper small, the lower linear, fused wilh each other. There are 
two translucent wedge-shaped spots on hitervals 2 and 3 on either 
side of vein 3 at its origin, and there are three translucent sub- 
apical spots in the usual position, the lower one the largest and 
elongated, the two upper ones inclined to obsolescence. These 
translucent spots are only visible when the specimens are held up 
to the light. The secondaries are bright rufous, like the primaries, 
with the costa very broadly, and the outer margin more narrowly 
bordered with black. A long black ray runs from the base to the 
outer margin before the anal angle. There is a wedge-shaped 
translucent spot at the end of the cell near its lower edge, and 
two similar spots on either side of vein 3 at; its origin. These 
spots, like those in the primaries, are only visible when the 
specimen is held up 1o the light. On the underside the primaries 
are dull reddish fuscous, with a pale yellow suffused spot on the 
inner margin about the middle. A black elongated spot extends 
from the base outwardly on the eel as far as the inner margin of 
the translucent spots. These spots are defined outwardly beyond 
the cell by broad black markings. ISTear the apex, on the inter- 
costal interspaces, there is a series of submarginal fuscous 
markings, and the margin is defiued by a fine marginal line. The 
cilia are fuscous. On the underside of the secondaries the 
prevalent colour is fuscous ochraceous, the translucent spots 
being distinctlj^ defined on this side, and having a reddish waxy 
colour. There is a curved series of black submarginal markings 
extending round the wing, the spots below the costal margin 
being most conspicuous. There is also a series of small marginal 
black spots, and a tine black marginal line. The anal angle is 
touched with dark brown. The black ray running from the base 
to the outer margin is obscurely indicated on the lower side aiid 
interrupted before the anal angle bj' a blackish annulus, pupilled 
with pale yellow. 

5 . The antennae, palpi, and body are marked as in the male, 
but the underside of the body is paler, the lower side of the palpi 
and the end of the abdomen on the underside being very pale 
straw-yellow. The primaries on the upperside are black, clothed 
with greenish scales at the base, along the costa, and the inner 
margin. The translucent spots in the primaries are bright yellow, 
standing out conspicuously upon the black ground-colour. The 
secondaries are marked as in the male, but the black border of the 
costa is broader and blacker, and the light portions of the wing 
are bright straw-yellow instead of rufous. The cilia on the upper- 
side at the inner angle both of the primaries and secondaries are 
whitish. On the underside the ground-colour is bright yello\A"- 
ochraceous, with all the black markings as in the male, but broader 
and more clearly defined upon the pale ground-colour. The spots 
on the secondaries, which are prevalently bright yelloAV-ochraceous, 
are very sharply defined. The black ray on the secondaries 
running from the base to the inner angle is replaced by three 



1896,] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIID.E. 37 

spots — a fine linear spot near the base, a conspicuous round black 
spot about the middle, and a geminate black spot near the outer 
margin, all on interval 1. 

Expanse, d 26 mm., $ 28 mm. 

Bab. Valley of the Ogove (Good, Mocquerys). 

The very great difference in the coloration of this species from 
that of other species referred by me to the genus Gorgyra, and 
the dissimilarity between the male and female, analogous to that 
which is found in the various species contained in the genera 
Osmodes and Pardaleodes, have long led me to hesitate in referring 
this species to the genus in which I have finally placed it. A 
careful anatomical investigation made with bleached specimens 
under the microscope has made it plain to me that there is almost 
no structural difference. The form of the palpi, the antennae, and 
the neuratiou is identical with tliat of the other species referred 
to Gorgyra. The species constitutes a section of the genus 
separate from its allies on account of the distinct coloration and 
the diversity in facies between male and female. 

G-ASTBOCHiETA, Mab. MS., gen. nov. 

Antennae slender, moderately long, reaching beyond the middle 
of the costa ; club moderate, gradually thickened, tapering to a 
fine point, terminal portion bent, but not hooked. Fore wing : 
in the male produced at apex, in the female somewhat more 
rounded and broader ; the inner margin a little longer than the 
outer margin. The cell two-thirds the length of the costa. 
Vein 12 reaching the costa a little beyond the end of the cell. 




Neuration aud palpi of (xastrochmta me::a, Hew. f . 

The upper end of the cell is rounded between veins 11 and 6, and 
these veins are given forth from this rounded extremity. The 
upper and middle discocellalars form an obtuse angle with each 
other pointing inwardly. The middle and lower discocellulars 
form an obtuse angle with each other poiuting outwardly. Vein 5 
is slightly nearer vein 4 than vein 6 ; vein 3 from a little before 
the end of the cell ; vein 2 a little beyond the middle of 1 he cell. 



38 BE. W. J. HOLLAND OK THE APEICAIf [Jai). 14, 

The secondaries are suboval, with the outer margin evenly rounded. 
The costal and inner margins are straight between the angles. 
The cell is long, reaching a little beyond the middle of the wing. 
Vein 7 before the end of the cell, twice as far from 6 as 8 ; disco- 
cellulars faint, erect ; Aein 5 present, equidistant from veins 4 and 
6 ; vein 3 before the end of the cell ; vein 2 twice as far from 
the base as from the end of the cell ; veins 1 a and 1 h straight. 
Between veins 1 a and 1 h there is a narrow fold heavily clothed 
with long tufts of hair-like scales. Interval 1 is likewise clothed 
heavily with long scales. Palpi : first joint short, second joint 
long, both heavily clothed with scales ; second joint erect, rising 
to the top of the vertex ; third joint short, obtuse, slightly porrect, 
clothed with fine minute closely appressed hairs. 

Type G. mahillei, Holl. 

Mons. Mabille has designated a number of species by the 
generic name Gastroclurda in his own collection and in the col- 
lection of. Dr. Staudinger, as well as in my own collection. I 
discover, however, that he has nowhere published an account of 
this genus. In the ' Entomological Xews,' vol. v. p. liS, I pub- 
lished a species under this name as Gastrochceta mahillei. As this 
was the first time that the name appears to have been published, the 
species to which I have applied it must stand as the type of the 
genus. In many respects there is a superficial resemblance 
between the species included in this genus and those included in 
the genus Gorc/yra, some of the species of which Mons. Mabille 
has labelled in the Staudinfjer collection as belonginc: to that 
genus. An examination of the palpi and the neuratiou, however, 
instantly reveals the diilierence. 

125. Gr. MABILLEI, Holl. 

Gastrochata mahillei, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 28, pi. i. 
figs. 15, 16 (1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

126. G-. MEZA, Hewitson. (Plate II. fig. 9.) 

Hespei-ia meza, Hew. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (4) vol. xix. p 79 
(1877). ^ 

Apaustus hatea, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 359 (1879), vol. xly 
p. 153 (1884). 

Pamphila buhovi, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xixviii. p. 251 
pi. vi. fig. 10 (1894). 

Gastrochceta varia, Mab. MS., in Staudinger coll. 

Hab. Tropical West Africa, from Angola {Hew.) to Togoland 
(Karsch). Very abundant at Gaboon. 

This species was originally determined for me by Mons. Mabille 
as Gastrochceta varia, Mab., upon comparison with specimens 
80 labelled in his collection and that of Dr. Staudinger, but I 
cannot find that he has ever published a description under this 
name. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIID.iE. 39 

127. G. CYBEUTES, Holl. 

Gastrochceta cyheutes, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 94, pi. iii. 
fig. 15 (1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

Gr. CYBEUTES, HoU., Var. PALLIDA. 

There are two specimens contained in the Staudinger collection 
in which the markings on the underside of the secondaries are 
quite obscure, and the general coloration of these wings on the 
underside is paler. I propose the name pallida for this varietal 
form. 

OxYPALPUS, Wats. 

128. O. IGXITA, Mab. (Plate III. fig. 12.) 

S . Pamphila ignita, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (5) vol. vii. 
p. xl (1877). 

Hesperia pyrosa, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 356 (1879), vol. xliv. 
p. 200 (1883). 

cJ (?). Pamphila gisyon, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, 
p. clxxii. 

5 . Pamphila gisgon, Mab. Xovit. Lepidopt. p. 95, pi. xiii. 
fig. 6 (1893). 

Oxypalpus ignita, AVatson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 78. 

Hab. Euingo {Ploetz) ; Ogove Valley {Good). 

Mr. Wntson has properly cited P. gisgon, Mab., as the female 
of P. ignita, Mab. All the specimens of P. ignita I have ever 
seen, some fifty or more, have been males, and all of P. gisgon have 
been females. I had an opportunity of seeing the type of P. gisgon, 
and of pointing out to Mons. Mabille that it is a female. In the 
' Novitates ' he cites it in the plate as of this sex. On the under- 
side P. ignita and P. gisgon agree very ^vell. There are two forms, 
probably seasonal, one smaller and more tawny, the other longer 
and darker. Both are represented in my collection and that of 
Dr. Staudinger. 

129. O. ANNULiFEE, Holl. (Plate III. fig. 11.) 

Oxypalpus annulifer, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct. 1892, 
p. 293. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

130. O. Buso, Mab. (Plate III. fig. 13.) 

Pamphila ruso, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxv. p. clxxxiii 
(1891). 

Oxypalpus ruso, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 669. 

Hab. Bagamoyo {Mabille) ; Zomba {Butler). 

The type I saw in the collection of Mons. Mabille. The species 
is not contained either in my own collection or that of Dr. Stau- 
dinger. The figure in the plate was drawn from the type. 



40 DR. W. J, HOLLAKB ON THE AFRICAN [Jail. 14, 

Teinorhinus \ Holl. 



Neuration of Tcinorhinus watsoni, Holl., J . ?. 

131. T. WATSONI, Holl. (Plate III. fig. 10.) 

T. watsoni, Holl. Aim. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct. 1S92, p. 292. 
Hub. Graboon. 

OSMODES, Wats. 

This is a well-marked genus, the males of which may be distin- 
guished at a glance by the patch of glandular raised scales located 
on the secondaries near the cell. The females differ greatly from 
the males upon the side, and in several species seem to be very closely 
related to each other in the pattern of the markings. In fact it 
is in many cases possible to discriminate between them only by 
paying the most careful attention to small points of difference, and 
by having specimens taken in coitu. Fortunately I have been able 
to satisfactorily solve most of the puzzling problems which the 
difference of the sexes present, thanks to the possession of vast 
series of specimens, carefully collected and accompanied by satis- 
factory observations in the field. It may be said that it seems to 
me that there is strong probability that several of the species are 
dimorphic. Buc further research upon the ground is necessary to 
establish this supposition. 

132. O. LAEONiA, Hew. (Plate IV. figs. 1 c? , 2 $ .) 

0. laronia, Hew. Descript. Hesper. p. 35 (1868), 

Plastingia laronia, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 356 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 145-6 (1884). 

Osmodes laronia, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 78. 

Bah. Gold Coast, Gaboon. 

This species is labelled Plastingia hicuta by Mons. Mabille in 
Dr. Staudinger's collection, but the name has never been published. 

133. O, THORA, Ploetz. (Plate IV. figs. 3 c? , 5 2 .) 

Plastingia thora, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 145 (1884). 
Osmodes thora, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 79. 
Hah. Guinea {Ploetz), Gaboon (Good). 

^ iJy a misprint in the ' Annals,' originally published as " Teniorhiwis." 



1896.] BUTTEHFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIID-E. 41 

This species is much paler and brighter on the underside than 
any other in the genus known to me. It is barely possible that the 
species named by me in this paper Osmodes ihops may be a seasonally 
dimorphic form o£ thora. The males agree almost perfectly upon 
the upperside, but on the underside Hiops is invariably darker, 
and the female o£ thops has the orange spots on the upperside 
larger and differing materially in outline. 

134. O. ADOif, Mab. (Plate IV. figs. 13 c? , 15 ? .) 
Pamphila adon, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1889, p. cxlix. 
Hab. Sierra Leone, Graboon. 

The description given by Mons. Mabille is based upon a specimen 
in which the lower side of the secondaries shows but two silvery 
spots. I have a series of about one hundred specimens, which reveal 
that there is variation in this respect from specimens which have 
no silvery spots at all to those which have five or six. The type 
specimen in Mons. Mabille's collection is one which I had the 
pleasure myself of communicating to him, and represents a less 
spotted form than is quite common. A similar specimen in the 
Staudinger collection he has designated as a " type."' This species 
is undoubtedly dimorphic. I have specimens, larger in size than 
the typical form, in which the deep black basal portion of the 
primaries is not invaded near the inner margin by a narrow ray of 
the bright orange of the median band, as is the case in the type. 
But, aside from this, I find no distinction worthy of consideration. 

135. 0. CHETSAUGE, Mab. (Plate IV. fig. 7.) 

Pawphila chrysauge, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. clxxii ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 93, pi. xiii. fig. 4 (1893). 

Hah. Loko (Mabille), Cameroons (Good). 

This species resembles 0. laronia, Hew., at first sight, the sub- 
apical orange spot being confluent with the orange-coloured discal 
area of the primaries. But the black marginal band on the 
primaries is even on its inward margin and not deeply incised at the 
nervules, as is the case in laronia. The costal margin of the second- 
aries is also much more broadly marked with black. Compared with 
adosus, a closely allied species, it may be observed that the raised 
patch of scales on the secondaries is oval in chrysauge, aad not so 
nearly circular as in 0. adosus, and is blackish, not reddish, as in the 
latter species ; there is a small, linear, velvety mark near this spot 
upon the inner margin, which is entirely lacking in adosus. Besides 
the ground-colour in 0. chrysaiige is slightly paler than in 0. adosus, 
and the black inner marginal border is narrower in the secondaries 
than in the last-mentioned species. 

136. O. ADOStrs, Mab. (Plate IV. fig. 10.) 

PampUla adosus, Mab. Bull Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. cxlix (1889). 

$ . Pampldla argenieipuncta, Mab. MS. 



42 DB. W. J. HOLLAIiTD ON THE AFRICAX [Jan. 14, 

ffab. Sierra Leone {Mahille) ; Gaboon (Good), 

1 have the figure of a female Osmodes to -vihich Mons. Mabille 
has affixed the name argenteigutta, and to the original type of which 
in the Staudinger collection he has attached the name argentei- 
puncfa. It is undoubtedly the female of the species named 
adosus by him. I know this because I have specimens of the two 
taken in coitii. 

137. O. LTJX, Holl. (Plate IV. figs. 23 J , 25 $ .) 

Osmodes lux, Holl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct. 1892, p. 291. 
Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

138. O. STATJDiNGEEi, sp. noT, (Plate III. fig. 20.) 

2 . AntennsB, upperside of head, upper and lower side of thorax, 
and abdomen dark brown. The palpi on the underside are yellowish. 
The thorax on the upperside is clothed with a few obscure 
greenish scales. The primaries and secondaries on the upperside 
are dark brown. There are two bright yellow confluent spots on 
the cell near the end, three subapical spots which are situated in 
the usual place, and a series of spots extending from vein 1 to the 
subapical spots constituting a sharply defined macular band upon 
the disc. The lower spot of the series in interval 1 is subtriangular. 
The spot in interval 2 is elongated, subquadrate, and the largest 
of the series. The spot in interval 3 is the same form as the spot 
in interval 2 but smaller. The spots in intervals 4 and 5 are 
minute, elongated. The lower subapical spot is larger and elong- 
ated. The two upper subapical spots are small. In the 
secondaries there is a small circular yellow spot at the end of the 
cell, and beyond it an irregularly curved series of five discal spots 
likewise bright yellow. On the underside the primaries and 
secondaries are more obscure in colour than on the upperside, the 
spots and markings being, however, identical in form and position. 

Expanse 30 mm. 

Hcdj. Valley of the Ogove. 

Type in my collection. 

I do not know the male of this species. The solitary female in 
my collection is, however, so totally distinct from every other 
species known to me that I do not hesitate to describe it as a new 
form. 

139. O. BAKG-HAASiT, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 9.) 

S . Antennfe black. Upperside of palpi, head, thorax, and 
abdomen rufous-brown. Lower side of the palpi, thorax, and 
abdomen of the same colour, somewhat more obscure. The pri- 
maries on the upperside have the ground-colour bright rufous. The 
apex, the outer margin, and the outer half of the inner margin are 
broadly deep black. Beyond the end of the cell there is a broad 
irregular black spot. The costal margin and the base of the wing 
as far as the middle of the cell are fulvous, shading outwardly 
about the middle of the wing into blackish. The secondaries are 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERTID.E. 43 

bright rufous, witb the costal margin broadly black, the inner 
margin somewhat broadly margined with black, the outer margin 
defined with a moderately broad black marginal line. Tlie cilia are 
rufous. On the cell is a broad oval patch of raised scales, dark 
brown in colour. On the underside the wings are more obscurely 
marked, the spots of the^upperside reappearing upon the primaries, 
but much less sharply defined. The secondaries lack the black 
costal border and are marked on the disc by a number of minute 
silvery spots, surrounded by fuscous shadings. Of the spots, the 
one at tlie end of the cell is the most conspicuous. 

2 . The female presents the usual broad divergence from the 
male which is charactei'istic of the genus, and superficially does not 
apparently differ very widely on the upperside from the female of 
0. adosus', Mab., an allied species. On the underside, however, it 
agrees almost absolutely with the male in the style of marking. 

Expanse, d 2Q mm., $ 29 mm. 

Types in coll. Staudinger. 

Hub. French Congo (Ifocquerys). 

This is one of the most distinctly marked species in the genus. 

140. O. DiSTiNCTA, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 16.) 

S . Very closely allied to 0. chrysauge, Mab., of which it may 
be a small variety. It differs from the type of 0. chrjjsauf/e in 
having the apex more broadly black, the subapical yellow spots not 
being confluent with the broad orange-yellow discal tract as in 
chrysauge. The outer marginal black border is also relatively 
wider than in chrysauge, and the raised patch of scales on the cell 
of the secondaries is bright fulvous, not dark brown as in chrysauge, 
elongated, and not broadly oval as in the latter species. On the 
underside of the secondaries the outer margin is not so broadly 
marked with fulvous as in chrysauge. 

Expanse 22 mm. 

Bab. Gaboon {Mocqiierys). 

141. O. THOPS, sp. nov. (Plate IV. figs. 4 c? , 6 ? .) 

c^ . Closely allied to 0. thora, Ploetz, from which it is to be dis- 
tinguished by the fact that the black margin of the primaries is 
narrower than in thora and not irregular inwardly as in thora, 
but uniform, and by the fact that the underside of the secondaries 
is dark brown over the greater portion of the area, whereas in 
thora it is light, the outer margin being pale yellow in thora, and 
the basal half pale glaucous clouded here and there with darker 
brown. 

5 . In the female the spots upon the primaries are broader than 
in the female of thora, while on the secondaries the fulvous spot 
in thops is smaller than the corresponding spot in thora. 

I have a long series of both males and females, some of the 
examples taken in coitu, and it is perfectly plain that the two 
species are distinct, though superficially thops and thora show 
considerable likeness to each other. 



44 DR. W. J. HOLLAS^D ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

Ehabbomantis, gen. nov. 

Antennae : moderately long, nearly two-thirds the length o£ 
the costa from the base ; club moderate, the terminal portiou fiue, 
bent back at right angles. The palpi are as in the genus Osmodes. 




Neuration of Rhabdo)7iantis galat'ia. Hew. f . 

Primaries : the cell somewhat less than two-thirds the length of 
the costa ; in the male the outer margin is very little less than the 
inner margin ; in the female the outer margin is much less than 
the inner margin ; vein 12 terminating on the costa before the end 
of the cell ; vein 5 nearer 4 than 6 ; upper discocellular long, out- 
wardly oblique ; middle discocellular very short ; lower discocellular 
short ; vein 7 arising a little before the upper angle of the cell, 
vein 2 originating nearly twice as far from vein 3 as vein 3 is from 
vein 4. In many specimens of the male there is a remarkable 
sexual brand composed of androconia arranged in a narrow band 
extending across the disc in almost a straight line from the middle 
of interval 5 beyond the end of the cell to the inner margin before 
the outer angle. This is wanting, however, in some specimens, 
which otherwise are absolutely indistinguishable from the type 
{vide infra var. sosia). Secondaries : the cell about half the width 
of the wing ; the discocellulars faint, erect ; vein 5 absent ; vein 
3 originating a little before the end of the cell ; vein 2 originating 
beyond the middle of the cell ; vein 1 b widely separated from 
vein 2 ; A'ein 1 a near its extremity dilated and marked by a 
distinct sexual brand ; vein 7 originating about two-thirds of 
the distance from the base. The outer margin is evenly rounded 
as far as vein 2 and much produced at the extremity of vein 1 b, 
then excavated between the extremities of vein 1 b and 1 a. The 
female has the neuration Uke the male, but the wings are longer, 
relatively narrower, and there is of course an entire absence of the 
sexual brands or markings. The style of maculation in this sex 
closely approximates that of the females in the genus Osmodes. 
Type B. galatia, Hew., =rliahdoj)hora, Mab. 



1896.J BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIIBvE. 45 

142. E. GALATiA, Hew. (Plate III. figs. 8 $ , 15 <? .) 

Hesperia galatia. Hew. Descript. Hesper. p. 36 (1868). 

PamphUa rhahdophorus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Eat. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. cxlix (1889). 

Dimorphic var. R. sosia, Mab. 

ramphila sosia, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. clxxi. 

Hab. Old Calabar {Heivitson) ; Gaboon {Good) ; Mozambique 
{Mahille). 

I have an enormous series of specimens of this insect, both males 
and females. It is absolutely impossible to distinguish between 
the females of R. f/alatia and R. sosia. Sosia merely differs from 
galatia in being without the raised velvety brand of scales upon 
the primaries below the end of the cell. Some vestiges of this 
sexual mark, however, appear in a few specimens. I am perfectly 
convinced that the insects do not specifically differ from each 
other, and that we are simply dealing here with dimorphism 
affecting the sexual stigmata of the male sex. This is a singular 
fact, and, so far as my observation extends, hitherto unobserved. 



Paeosmodes, gen. nov. 

Closely allied to the genus Osmodes, from which it differs princi- 
pally in the form of the palpi, the third joint of which is long and 
porrect, whereas in typical Osmodes the third joint is short and 
suberect. 

The antennae are moderately long, exceeding the middle of the 
costa. The neuration of the primaries and the secondaries is as in 
Osmodes, and there is likewise at the origin of veins 2 and 3 of the 
secondaries a raised patch of scales as in Osmodes. The primaries, 
as in the latter genus, have also a long tuft of hairs about the 
middle of the hind margin ; these hairs are ordinarily folded 
forward against the under surface of the primaries as in Osmodes. 

Type P. morantii, Trim. 

143. P. MOKANTii, Trim. 

Pamphila morantii. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1873, p. 122. 

Pamphila ranoha, Westw. App. Oates's Matabeleland, p. 353 
(1881). 

Pamphila morantii. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 311, pi. xii. 
fig. 3 (1889). 

Osmodes ranoha, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670. 

Hah. South Africa and South Tropical Africa. 

144. P. iCTEEiA, Mab. 

Pamphila icteria, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. clxxx 
(1821). 

Pamphila zimhaso, Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 74, pi. vi. fig. 17 $ • 
Hub. Manica-land (Trimen) ; Transvaal {Mabille). 



46 DR. w. J. noLLASD ON THE AFiiiCAN [Jan. 14, 

The type of icteria is before me as I write. It is strictly ecu- 
generic with morantii, Trim. 

145. P. HAROXA, AVestw. 

Pamphila harona, Westw. App. Oates's Matabeleland, p. 353 
(1881); Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 74. 

Bab. Manica-land (Tmnew) ; Falls oi the Zambezi (Westwood). 

OsPHANTES, gen. nov. 

Antennae moderately long, slender ; club gradually enlarging 
and terminating in a fine point, theterminal portion being recurved. 
The palpi are short, appressed, suberect, the fii-st joint short, the 
second long, both densely covered with thick scales. The third 
joint is minute, conical. The hind tibiae are armed with a double 
pair of spurs. The primaries have the inner margin strongly 
angulated about the middle and clothed with along bundle of hairs 
on the elongated portion of the hind margin, which is as long as 
the outer margin. Vein 5 nearer 4 than 6. Vein 12 terminating 
on the costa before the end of the cell. The cell more than half 
the length of the costa. The secondaries have the neuratiou as in 
Osmodcs. On the lower edge of the cell and about the origin of 
veins 2 and 3, the cell of the secondaries is naked, marked by an 
opaque tract, suboval in form, having a glazed appearance. Im- 
mediately behind this naked glazed tract is a pocket-like depres- 
sion on the upperside lying between vein 1 h and the lower margin 
of the cell near the base. The primaries on the underside have 
the basal portion almost naked tow'ard the base, covered with 
shining closely appressed scales. 

Type 0. or/oivena, Mab. 

I was inclined originally to refer this peculiar species to Osmodes, 
to which it is allied, but the very peculiar structure of the hind 
wing shows such a great divergence from the typical species of 
Osmodes that I feel constrained to erect a new genus for its recep- 
tion. Furthermore, the coloration of the insect differs in many 
important particulars from that of typical Osmodes. The figure of 
the insect given in the 'Novitates' by Mabille is sufficiently charac- 
teristic, though the spots on the underside are not delineated as 
they are in the examples before me. They recall somewhat in the 
specimens I have the maculatiou of Padraona zeno, Trim. 

146. O. OGOWENA, Mab. 

Plasthvjia ofjoiuena, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. cxxi ; 
Novit. Lepidopt. p. 94, pi. xiii. fig. 5. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogovc. 

This species was evidently placed by Mous. Mabille with doubt 
in the genus Plastinrfia, in which he has put a number of other 
African species. The type of Plasthu/ia is Jfavescens, Feld., with 
which this species has but little in common, save the general style 
of coloration. It does not agree with any other African species 



1896.] BUTTEBFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIIB.E. 47 

known to me, though coming nearer certain species of Osmodes 
than any others. 1 have therefore not hesitated to erect a new 
genus for its reception. 

Htpoleucis, Mab. 

147. H. TRiPUNCTATA, Mab. 

Hypoleuds tripunctata, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixix. 
Hypoleucis titanota, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1893, p. 254, pi. vi. 
fig. 5. 

J/ab. "West Africa. Common in the valley of the Ogove. 

I have specimens determined by Mons. Mabille and compared 
with his type, which show that the form figui-ed by Karsch in his 
excellent plate is identical. 

148. H. OPHIUSA, Hew. 

Hcsperia opMusa, Hew. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. 
p. 497 (1866); Exot. Lep. vol. v; Hesper. pi. v. figs. 46-48 
(1873). 

Ni/poleucis ophiusa^ Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. Ixix 
(1891); Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 82-3; Karsch, Berl. Eat. Zeit. 
vol. xxxviii. p. 254 (1893). 

Hah. Tropical Western Africa. 

149. H. CEETACEA, Snell. 

Goniloha cretacea, Snellen, Tijd. voor Entom. 1872, p. 27, pi. ii. 
figs. 4, 5, & 6. 

Hesperia camerona, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 356 (1879), 
vol. xUv. p. 48 (1883). 

Pamphila leucosoma, Mab. Pet. jS^ouv. Entom. vol. ii. 1877, 
p. 114. 

Pampldla camerona, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. p. 250, pi. vi. fig. 9 
(1893). 

Hah. Tropical West Africa. Common at Gaboon and on Congo ; 
Togoland (Karsch). 

The female differs from the male in not having the extremity of 
the abdomen white aud having the wings broader. The figure of 
G. cretacea given by Snellen exaggerates slightly the pale markings 
on the underside of the secondaries, wlide that given by Karsch 
does not show them as they are commonly found. I have speci- 
mens, however, which agree nearly with both representations, and 
which reveal that there is considerable variation in the distinctness 
of these markings. My collection contains a series of forty 
specimens taken at different times and places. 

150. H.? ENAXTiA, Karsch. (Plate II. fig. 17.) 

Hypoleucis enantia, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 255 
(1893). 

Hah. Togoland {Karsch). 



48 DR. W. J. HOLLAITD ON THE AFKICAN [Jan. 14, 

The species was described from a headless example. My convic- 
tiou is, from the examination of a careful drawing made by Herr 
Prillwitz, which is reproduced in one of the plates accompanying 
this article, that we are dealing here with a species of Ceratrichia 
allied to, and perhaps identical with, C. stellata, Mab. 

Cyclopides, Hiibn. 

151. C. METIS, Linn. 

Papilio metis, Linn. Mus. Lud. L^lr. p. 325 (1764) ; Syst. Nat. 
ed. xii. p. 792 (1767) ; Dru. 111. Exot. Ent. vol. ii. p. 28, pi. xvi. 
figs. 3, 4 (1773) ; Eabr. Syst. Ent. p. 528 (1775) ; Cram. Pap. 
Exot. vol. ii. p. 103, pi. clxii. fig. G (1777) ; Eabr. Spec. Ins. 
vol. ii. p. 132 (1781); Wulfen, Ins. Capens. p. xxxiii (1786); 
Eabr. Mant. Ins. vol. ii. p. 85 (1787) ; Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 5, 
p. 2355 (1790) ; Thunberg, Mus. Nat. Tips, xxiii. p. 9 (1804). 

Hesperia metis, Eabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 329 (1793) ; Latr, Bnc. 
Meth. vol. ix. p. 776 (1823). 

Cyclopides metis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 112 (1816): Trim. Ehop. Afr. 
Austr. vol. ii. p. 293 (1866); S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 266 (1889). 

Htteropterus metis, Wallgr. Ehop. CafEr. p. 46 (1857) ; Kirby, 
Syn. Cat. p. 623 (1871); Auriv. Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
Bd. xix. no. 5 (1882) ; Staudgr. Exot. Schmett. vol. i. pi. 100 
(1888). 

Cyclopides metis, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 90. 

Hab. S. Africa. 

152. C. MALGACHA, Boisd. 

Steropes mcdyacha, Boisd. Eaune Ent. Madgr. p. 67 (1833). 

Hesperia limpopana, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857; 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 50 (1857). 

Cyclopides malgacha, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 294, 
pi. v. fig. 10 (1866) ; Grrandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 344, pi. Iii. 
figs. 6, 6« (1887); Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 268 (1889); 
Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 90. 

Uah. S. Africa, Madagascar. 

153. C. ^GiPAN, Trim. 

Cyclopides cegipan. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 1868, p. 94, 
pi. vi. fig. 9 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 271 (1889) ; Watson, P. Z. S. 
Lond. 1893, p. 90. 

Bob. S. Africa. 

154. C. wiLLEMi, Wallgr. 

Heteropterus ivillemi, Wallgr. K. Sv. Yet.-Akad. Handl. 1857; 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 47 (1857). 

Cyclopides'i willemi, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 296 
(1866). 

Cyclopides cheles, Hew. Descript. One Hundred New Species 



1896,] BUIXBEFIiIES OF IHB i'AMILY HESPEEIID^. 49 

Hesp. ii. p. 42 (1868); Bxot, Butt. vol. v. pi. 59. figs. 12, 13 
(1874). 

Ot^clojndes willemi, Trim. S. Afr. Butt, vol. iii. p. 273 (1889) ; 
Watson, P. Z. S. Lond. 1893, p. 90. 

Hab. S. Africa, North and South Tropical Africa. 

155. C. MENiNX, Trim. 

Cyclopides meninx. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1873, p. 121, 
pi. i. fig. 12. 

TJnjmelicus meninx, Wallgr. (Efv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh, 1875, 
p, 92. 

Cyclopides argenteostriatus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 110 
(1886) ; Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p, 90. 

Hah. S, Africa, 

156. C, STEiics:, Trim. 

Cyclopides syrinx, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, p. 93, 
pi. V. tig. 8, 1870, p. 387 : S, Afr, Butt. vol. iii, p. 269 (1889). 
Hah. Cape Colony. 

157. C. ABJBCTA, Snellen. 

Cyclopides abjecta, Snell. Tijd. voor Bntom. 1872, p. 52, pi. ii. 
figs. 15, 16. 

Steropes furvus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Prance, (6) vol. ix. p. clvi 
(1889). 

Cyclopides uniformis, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1893, p. 245. 

Hah. Guinea {Snellen) ; Sierra Leone (Mah.) ; Togoland 
(Karsch). 

I think the above synonymy will be found to be correct. The 
type of Mons. Mabille appears plainly to agree iu all particulars 
with the figure of Snellen, and also with an excellent drawing of 
0. uniformis, Karsch, kindly provided by the author. 

158. C. FOEMOSUS, Butl. 

Heterojjterus formosus, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, pi, Ix. fig. 8. 
Hah. Zomba, British Central Africa. 

159. C. QUADEISIGKATUS, Butl. 

Ci/clopides quadrisigmtus, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, pi. Ix. 
fig. 9. 

Hah. Zomba, British Central Africa. 

160. C, MIDAS, Butl. 

Cyclopides midas, Butl, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 671, 1895, p. 265, 
pi. XV. fig. 6. 

Hah. Zomba, British Central Africa {Butler). 
Peoc, Zool. Soc— 1896, No. IV. 4 



50 DE. W. J. HOliLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jail. 14, 

161. C. LEPELETiEEii, Latr, 

Hesperia lepeUtier, Latr. Enc. Meth. vol. ix. p. 777 (1823). 
Cydojndes lepeletierii, Trim, (part.) Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. 
p. 295 (1866); S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 274 (1889). 
Baracus lepeletierii, Watson, P. Z. S 1893, p. 114. 

Hah. Southern Africa. 

It is with some hesitation that I decline to accept the reference 
of this and the two following species to Moore's genus Baracus^ 
made by Mr. Watson. The thoroughness of Mr. Watson's work 
should give great weight to his opinions, but in this case, after a 
careful examination of typical specimens of C. lepeletierii and its 
three congeners, which have been placed in Baracus, I am com- 
pelled to conclude that the differences are too slight in fact to 
warrant such a departure from the hitherto received classification 
of the insects. 

162. C. iNOJiNATUs, Trim. 

Cydopides inot-natus. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. 
p. 179 (1864) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 295, pi. v. fig. 11 
(1866) ; S.Mr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 277. 

Baracus inornatus, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 114. 

Hah, South Africa. 

It 

163. C. ANOM^us, Ploetz. (Plate I. fig. 6.) 

Apaustus anomoius, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 358 (1879), 
vol xlv. p. 152. 

Hah. AhMxi {Ploetz). 

The type is preserved in the Berlin Museum. A good specimen 
is contained in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, to which Mons. 
Mabille has affixed the manuscript name " acosimus." 

164. C. TSiTA, Trim. 

Cydopides tsita, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 386, 
pi. vi. fig. 13 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 276. 
Baracus tsita, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 114. 
Steropesmonochromus, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixiv. 
Hah. South Africa. 

165. C. ABGENTEOGUTTA, Butl. 

Cydopides argenteogutta, Butl. Lepid. Exot. p. 188, pi. Ixiv. 
fig. 8. 

Hah. Nubia {Butler). 

From the figure given by Dr. Butler it appears a little doubtful 
whether this species is a true Cydopides. 

166. C. (?) PAOLA, Ploetz. 

Cydopides paola, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. pp. 391-2 (1884). 

Hah. Angola {Ploetz). 

I doubt the reference of this species to Cydopides. The 



1896.] BUrTBEFLIES OF THE FAMILY HJES?ERIID^. Sl 

description seems to me to point to a form belonging to some other 
genus. 

167. C. (?) BExnmEOSTEiGA, Ploetz. 

Cydoindes brunneostriga, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 392-3 
(1884). 

ffab. Pundo Ndongo (Ploetz). 

This is probably not a true Cyclopides. 

168. C. BOMi, Eobbe. 

Cyclopides romi, Eobbe, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxvi. p. 133 
(1892) 

Hah. Congo. 

I cannot make much out of the brief description of Dr. Robbe. 
The description would apply perfectly, so far as it goes, to Cyclo- 
pides syrinx, Trim. 

169. C. AMENA, Grose Smith. 

Cyclopides amena, H. Grose Smith, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) 
vol. vii. p. 127 (1891). 

Hab. Madagascar. 

This species is compared by its author to C. pardalinus, Butl., 
which Mr. Watson has referred with its allies to the genus 
Ampitlia, but which, after examining the types, I prefer to restore 
to Cyclopides. 

170. C. KHADAMA, Boisd. 

Steropes rhadama, Boisd. Faune Madgr. p. 69, pi. ix. figs. 10, 11 
(1833). 

Heteropterus rhadama, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 623 (1871). 

Cyclopides rhadama, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 343, 
pi. Ivi. a. figs. 2, 2 a (1887). 

Ampittia rhadama, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

171. C. PABDALINA, Butl. 

Cyclopides pardalina, Butl. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) vol. iv. 
p. 233 (1879). 

Heteropterus par dalinus, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 345, 
pi. m. figs. 7, 7 a (1887). 

Ampittia pardalina, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

172. C. MiBZA, Mab. 

Cyclopides mirza, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 342, pi. lii. 
figs. 3, 3 a (1887). 

Ampittia mirza, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

4* 



52 i)R. W. J. HOLtiAND ON THE AF&IOAlf [JaU. 14, 

1 73. C. BERNiEEi, Boisd. 

Steropes bernieri, Boisd. Faune Madgr. p. 68, pi. ix. fig. 9 (1833). 
Ci/clopides bernieri, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 342, 
pi. lii. figs. 5, 5 a (1887). 

Ampittia bernieri, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

174. C. DisPAR, Mab. 

Gydopides dispar, Mab. Bull. Soc. Eat. France, (5) vol. vii. 
p. Ixxiii (1877). 

Heteropterus dispar, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 346, 
pi. lii. figs. 8, 8 a, 9, 9 a (1887). 

Ampittia ? dispar, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

175. C. SACLATUS, Mab. 

Cyclopides saclavus, Mab. 0. E. Soc. But. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. cvii 
(1891). 

Hab. Madagascar. 

176. C. (?) PHiDYLB, Walker. 

Cyclopides phidyle, Walker, the Entomologist, vol. v. p. 56 
(1870). 

Hab. Hor Tamanib ( Walker). 

I cannot make out this species. I cannot discover where the 
type is, if it stiU exists. The insect remains to be rediscovered. 

177. C. (?) LYNX, Moeschler. 

Cyclopides lynx, Moeschl. Verhandl. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, Bd. xxviii. p. 210 (1879). 

Hab. Africa? 

Moeschler with some degree of doubt assigns this species to the 
African fauna. It may be Asiatic. I do not know it except by 
the description referred to above. 

178. C. (?) STELLATA, Mab. 

Ceratrichia stellata, Mab. C. E. Soc. Bnt. Belg. 1891, p. Ixv ; 
Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 673. 

Cyclopides mineni, Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 72, pi. vi. fig. 16. 

Hab. Mombasa (Mabille) ; British Central Africa {Butler) ; 
Manica (Trimen). 

The type is in the collection of Dr. Staudinger. It is a female. 
There is also a cotype, a male, which is much smaller and badly 
worn, lacking altogether the cilia on the wings and minus the 
antennae. The original reference of this species to the genus 
Ceratrichia, which has been followed by Dr. Butler and others, is 



1896.] BUTTEEFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIID^. 53 

not correct, nor is the reference of the species to the genus Cyclo- 
jncles made by Mr. Trimen much better, though certainly more 
natural than the original location. I have been tempted to erect 
a new genus for the reception of this and the following form, but 
with the insufficient material at my command for a close anatomical 
study I refrain. Manifestly the much shorter antennae, with 
obtuse clubs, the long cilia of the primaries and the secondaries, 
the rounded apex of the primaries, and the different general outline 
of the wings poiut to a different generic location than that given 
by the author of the species. 

179. C. (?) PUNCTULATA, Butl. 

CeratricMa punctulata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 265, pi. xv. fig. 7. 
Hah. British Central Africa (Butler). 

I think it very doubtful whether this is more than varietally 
distinct from the foregoing species. 



Prosopalpus, gen. nov. 

Antennae relatively long, reaching beyond the middle of costa ; 
slender, with a moderately thick and elongated club terminating in 
a fine point, the terminal portion for a short distance bent, not 
hooked or recurved. Palpi : first joint short ; second joint very 
long, produced for half of its length beyond the front ; both second 
and third joints heavily clothed with scales ; the third joint is 
long, produced, acute, almost naked. The hind tibiae have a 
double pair of spurs. In the primaries the cell is moderately long, 
its end reaching fully to the middle of the wing ; vein 12 termi- 
nating slightly before the end of the cell ; vein 7 from end of the 
cell ; vein 5 very slightly, if at all, nearer vein 4 than vein 6. The 
primaries are relatively broad, the outer margin and outer angle 
evenly rounded. Secondaries : cell short, not reaching to the 
middle of the wing ; vein 5 present, equidistant from veins 4 and 
6 ; vein 7 from before the end of the cell, four times as far from 
vein 8 as from the end of the cell ; vein 8 from very near the base; 
veins 3 and 4 both from the end of the cell ; vein 2 from before 
the end of the cell ; veins 1 a and 1 6 curved ; fringes very long ; 
secondaries evenly rounded on the costa and the outer margin to 
the anal angle ; the inner margin nearly straight. 
Type P. duplex, Mab. 

The small species which I have chosen as the type of this 
genus is very distinct in general appearance from all other species 
which appear to be in any wise related to it. In the structure 
of the palpi it approaches somewhat the genera Oorgyra and 
Parosmodes. In the form of the wings, broad and evenly rounded, 
as well as in the almost uniform black coloration, it is widely 
different ,from all the species included in those two genera. 
Instead of being robust, as those species are, it wholly differs, 
esembling more closely in some respects in the form of its wings 



54 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THB AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

the genus Cyclopides. It is worthy of remark that the palpi are 
wanting in the type specimens of P. duplex which are contained 
in the collection of Dr. Staudinger. I have relied for the descrip- 
tion of the palpi upon specimens contained in my own collection, 
which in their remarkable length obscurely suggest the genus 
Lihythea. 

180. P. DUPLEX, Mab, (Plate III. fig. 17.) 

Cohahis duplex, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Trance, (6) vol. ix. p. clxix 

(1889). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (ilf«/jiKe) ; Graboon (Gooc^). 

181. P. (?) DEBiLis, Ploetz. 

Apaustus debilis, Ploetz, S.E. Z. vol. xl. p. 360 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 158 (1884). 

Hob. Grwme^ (Ploetz). 

I place this species here on the ground of the near relationship 
of the preceding species to it, as stated by Mons. Mabille. 

Ampittia, Moore. 

182. A. CAEiATB, Hew. 

Cyclopides cariate. Hew. Descript. One Hundred New Hesperid. 
p. 44 (1868) ; Exot. Butt. vol. v. pi. Cyclopides, fig. 8 (1874) ; Mab. 
Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 341, pi. lii. figs. 4, 4 a (1887). 

Ampittia cariate, "Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

183. A. coBOLLEE, Boisd. 

Hesperia coroller, Boisd. Faune Ent. Madgr. p. 66, pi. ix. fig. 8 
(1833). 

Pamphila coroller, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 364, 
pi. liv. figs. 1,1 a (1887). 

Padraonai^i) coroller, 'W^Xs. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 102. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

Kedestes, Wats. 

184. K. LEPENXTLA, "Wallgr. 

Hesperia lepenula, Wallgr, K. S. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; Lep. 
Ehop. Caffr. p. 50. 

Pampliila'^. lepenula, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 298 
(1866). 

Cyclopides chersias. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Plist. (4) vol. xx. 
p. 327 (1877). 

Thymelicus lepenula, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 300, pi. xi. 
fig. 6 (1889). 

Kedestes lepenula, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah. Southern Africa, 



1896.] BTJTTBEFLIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEBIIDJE. 55 

185. K. MACOMO, Trim. 

Cyclopides macomo, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. 
p. 405 (1862) 

Pamjihila macomo, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol.ii. p. 297, pl.vi. 
fig. 6 (1866). 

Thymelicus macomo, Staud. Exot. Schmett. vol. i. pi. 100, $ 
(c? error) (1888); Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 302 (1889). 

Kedestes macomo, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah. Southern Africa. 

186. K. CAPENAS, Hew. 

Cyclopides capenas, Hew. Descript. One Hundred New Hesperid. 
p. 43 (1868) ; Exot. Butt. vol. v. pi. Cyclopides, figs. 2, 3 (1877). 

Cyclopides clerhice. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xx. 
p. 327 (1877). 

Kedestes capenas, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Thymelicus capenas, Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 73. 

Hab. Manica. 

187. K. CHACA, Trim. 

Pyrgus chaca, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1873, p. 118, pi. i. 
figs.'9, 10 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 296 (1889). 
Kedestes chaca, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 
Hah. South Africa ; South Tropical Africa. 

188. K. TUCUSA, Trim. 

Pyrgus tucusa. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1883, p. 359 ; 
S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 297 (1889). 

Kedestes tucusa, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 
Hah. South Africa. 

189. K. MOHOZUTZA, Wallgr. 

Hesperia mohozutza, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep. Rhop. Caffr. p. 50. 

Pyrgus mohozutza. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 291, pi. v. 
fig. 9 (1866); B. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 294 (1889). 

Kedestes mohozutza, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah. South Africa ; South Tropical Africa. 

190. K. CALLICLES, Hew. 

Cyclopides callicles, Hew. Descript. One Hundred New Hesperid. 
p. 42 (1868) ; Exot. Butt. vol. v. pi. Cyclopides, figs, 10, 11 
(1877). 

Pamphila callicles. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 309 (1889). 

Kedestes callicles, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 96. 

Hah, South Africa ; South Tropical and North Tropical Africa, 



56 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

191. K. BABBER^, Trim. 

Cyclopides barberce, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. 1873, p. 120, 
pi. i. fig. 11 ; S. A£r. Butt. vol. iii. p. 306 (1889). 
• Hob. Cape Colony ; Mashonaland. 

192. K. wALLENGEENii, Trim. 

Thymelicus wallencjrenii, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1883, 
p. 361 ; S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 304, pi. xi. fig. 7 (1889). 
ffab. Natal ; Mashonaland. 

193. K. NiTEOSTBiGA, Trim. 

PampJiila? niveostriga, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. 
p. 179 (1864) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 298, pi. vi. fig. 7 
(1866) ; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 389. 

Thymelicus niveostriga. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 303 
(1889). 

Hob. S. Africa. 

194. K. PENESTEATUS, Butl. (Plate 11. fig. 16.) 

Baracus fenestratus, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 673. 

Hab. Zomba, British Central Africa. 

This species is very closely allied to, if not identical with, 
A', wallengrenii. Trim. 

195. K. (?) LENTiGiNOSA, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 22.) 

2 . On the upper surface having the general appearance of a 
female of the genus Osmodes, to which genus, however, it plainly 
cannot be referred, owing to the form of the palpi, w-hich are more 
nearly those of the genus Kedestes. The palpi, head, thorax, and 
abdomen are black. On the underside the palpi are ocbraceous, 
and the lower side of the abdomen is ochraceous. The primaries 
are black, marked with two moderately large subapical yellow spots 
in the usual position, two small confluent yellow spots at the end 
of the cell, and three moderately large discal yellow spots forming 
a diminishing series extending from intervals 1 to 3 below the 
cell. The secondaries are crossed beyond the cell on the middle 
by a broad curved yellow discal band, diminishing in\Aardly toward 
the base. The primaries have the costal margin and the apex 
broadly ochraceous. The cell and the lower half of the wing are 
broadly black, upon which the two spots at the end of the eel) and 
the three forming the discal transverse series on the upperside 
reappear sharply defined against the dark ground. The secondaries 
are uniformly pale greenish-ochraceous, marked by a few distinct 
round blacl-c spots, one on the cell near its upper margin between 
veins 6 and 7 beyond the end of the cell, one on either side of vein 
3 halfway between the cell and the outer margin, one on interval 1 
below the cell near the base, a larger one on the same interval 
halfway between the base and the outer margin. The cilia of the 



1896.] BUTTEErLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEMID^. 57 

primaries brown, on the underside of the secondaries pale ochra- 
ceous touched with dark brown near the end of vein 2. Expanse 
26 mm. 

Type in collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Hob. Gaboon (Mocquerys). 

Adop;ea, Billberg. 
{Pelion, Kirb}'.) 

196. A. THAiJMAS, Hufn. 

Papilio thaumas, Hufn. Berl. Mag. ii. p. 62 (1776). 

2 . Pcqnlio Jlavus, Miill. Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 115 (1776). 

Papilio linea, Wien. Vei'z. p. 160 (1776). 

$ . Papilio venula, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 666-669 (1803- 
1818). 

Tliymelicus thaumas, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 609 (1871). 

Hesperia thaumas, Staud. Cat. d. Lep. p. 35 (1871). 

Adopcea thaumas, Billb. Enum. Ins. p. 81 (1820) ; Wats. P. Z. S. 
1893, p. 98. 

(For fuller synonymy see works on palaearetic Lepidoptera.) 

Hab. North Africa. 

197. A. LiNEOLA, Ochs. 

Papilio lineola, Ochs. Schmett. Eur. i. p. 230 (1808). 
Papilio virgula, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 660-663 (1803- 
1818). 

Thymelicus lineola, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 609 (1871). 
Hesperia lineola. Stand. Cat. d. Lep. p. 35 (1871). 
Adopa;a lineola, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 98. 
(For fuller synonymy see works on palsearctic Lepidoptera.) 

?Tab. Mediterranean coasts of Africa. 

198. A. ACTiEON, Esp. 

Papilio actceon, Esp. Schmett. vol. i. pi. xxxvi. fig. 4 (1777) ; 
Rott. Naturf . vi. p. 30 (1777). 

Papilio actceon, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. i. figs. 488-490 (1798- 
1803). 

Thymelicus actceon, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 609 (1771). 

Hesperia actceon, Staud. Cat. d. Lep. p. 35 (1871). 

Adopcea actceon, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 98. 

(For fuller synonymy see works on palsearctic Lepidoptera.) 

Hab. Mediterranean coasts of Africa. 

199. A. HAMZA, Oberth. 

Hesperia hamza, Obertb. Etud. Ent. i. p. 28, pi. iii. figs. 2 a, 2 b, 
2 c (1876). 
f/a6, Algeria. 



58 DE. w. J. hollajS'd ok the afbican [Jan. 14, 

Gegenes, Hiibn. 
(Fhilooclus, Eamb.) 

200. G. is'osTEODAMTJS, Fabr. 

Hesperia nostrodamus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 328 (179.3). 
Papilio jyy gmceus, Cyr. (nee Fabr.) Ent. Neap. pi. li. fig. 5 (1787) ; 
Hiibn. Eur.' Schmett. i. figs. 458-460 (1798-1803). 
Papilio pumilio, Hoffm. 111. Mag. iii. p. 202 (1804). 
Hesperia lefebvrii, Eamb. Cat. Lep. And. p. 90, note (1858). 
PampMla iiostrodamus, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 598 (1871). 
Hesperia nostrodamus, Stand. Cat. d. Lep. p. 35 (1871). 
Gegenes nostrodamus, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 104. 
(For full synonymy consult works on European species.) 
Hah. Mediterranean coasts of North Africa. 

201. G. HOTTENTOTA, Latr. 

?2. Papilio niso, Linn. Mus. Ulr. Eeg. p. 3.39 (1764); Syst. 
Nat. i. 2, p. 796 (1767). 

S . Hesperia hottentota, Latr. Encyc. Metli. vol. ix. p. 777 
(1823). 

Hesperia letterstedti, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; 
Lep. Ebop. Caffr. p. 49. 

PampJiila letterstedti. Trim. Ebop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 300 
(1866). 

Pamphila hottentota. Stand. Exot. Schmett. vol. i. pi. 99 (1888). 

Pamphila hottentota. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 314 (1889). 

Gegenes hottentota, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 104. 

2 . Thymelicus hrevicornis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 290 
(1884). 

Hah. Southern and Western Africa as far north as Senegambia. 

I follow Mr. Trimen in disregarding the somewhat forcible plea 
of Prof. Am-ivillius for the identification of Latreille's species with 
the Papilio niso of Linnaeus, and the substitution of the latter 
name. The copies of Clerek's figures given by Prof. Aurivillius do 
not carry conviction with them. They may apply to several other 
obscure African forms as well as to the species named by Latreille, 
and the description given by Linnaeus is wholly inadequate. We 
shall for ever be in the dark as to the species intended by Linnaeus. 
The identification defended so learnedly by Prof. Aurivilbus lacks 
altogether that positiveness which in such a case is essential, and 
is at best merely opinionative. In letters and orally Mons. Mabille 
has stoutly maintained to me the identity of Latreille's species 
H. hottentota with the species recently described by Mr. Trimen 
under the name obumbrata (see p. 59). The females of G. obumbrata 
are positively imdistinguishable from the females of G.hotfeniota,aud 
I am inclined to think that the form characterized by Mr. Trimen 
is a dimorphic variety. Typical males of G. hottentota and males 
of the form obumbrata are foxmd in my collection, having been 
taken on the same day and in the same locality in coitti with 



1896.] BTTTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIID^. 59 

females which are absolutely inseparable from females of 
O. hottentoia received from Mr. Trimen and taken at the Cape. 
It is worthy of note that all specimens of G. hottentota taken in 
Angola and northward, so far as they have come under my obser- 
vation (I have seen several hundreds of specimens from various 
localities), are prevalently smaller than specimens from the Cape. 

202. G. OBTDIBEATA, Trim. 

Pamphila ohumhrata. Trim. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 103, pi. ix. 
fig. 23, cJ . 

Hah. Angola, Gaboon, Liberia, and tropical West Coast of 
Africa generally. 

This species is excessively common about Gaboon, and, as I 
have remarked under G. hottentota, appears to be a dimorphic form 
of that species. Typical hottentota occurs in company with it at 
the same places, and the females are absolutely indistinguishable. 

203. G. ALBIGXTTTA, Mab. 

Pamphila albigutta, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 357 
pi. liv. figs. 2, 2 a (1887). 

Hah. Madagascar, Xatal (in coll. Staudinger). 

The specimen labelled P. albiipdta by Mabille in the Staudinger 
collection is from Natal. It is badly rubbed and worn, but shows 
likeness to my suhochracea (see p. 56). It is doubtfully the insect 
figured in Grandidier's ' Madagascar.' 

204. G. (?) GAMBiCA, Mab. 

Pamphila cjamUca, Mab. Pet. Xouv. Ent. vol. ii. p. 233 (1878). 

Hah. Senegambia. 

I place this species here without any knowledge of it other than 
that derived from the description, in which the author states that 
it is very near G. hottentota, Latr. 

205. G. (?) occTTLTA, Trim. 

Pamphila occulta. Trim. P.Z.S. 1891, p. 103. 

Hah. South-western Africa, Transvaal. 

I place this species here provisionally. Mr. Trimen states that 
it is allied in some respects to G. hottentota, but fails to describe 
the antennae and palpi, without a knowledge of which the generic 
location must be temporarily doubtful. It may turn out to be a 
Parnara or a Baoris. 

Padeaona, Moore. 

206. P. ZENO, Trim. (Plate III. fig. 6.) 

Pamphila zeno, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. ii. p. 179 
(1864) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 301 (1866) : S. Afr. Butt, 
vol. iii. p. 313, pi. xii. fig. 2 (1889). 






60 DE. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFEICAN [Jan. 14, 

PampTiila spUndens, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Ent. vol. ii. p. 114 
(1877). 

Padraona watsoni, Butl. P.Z. S. 1893, p. 671. 

Hub. South Africa, British Central Africa, Somaliland (in. coll. 
Holland). 

I have in my possession most beautifully executed drawings of 
the male and female of the insect recently described by my valued 
friend Mr. Butler as Padraona luatsoni, but I am utterly 
unable to detect any differences of specific value between this 
form and typical specimens of P. zeno which I have received from 
Mr. Trimen. 

A specimen of Pamphila splendens, Mab., so labelled by the late 
Mr. Hewitson, which is found in Dr. Staudinger's collection, 
confirms the view I had reached by the study of Mabille's 
description that it is the same as P. zeno, Trimen. 

207. P. (?) coLATTUs, Ploetz. 

Apaustus collatus, Ploetz, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxix. p. 229. 

Hab. Delagoa. 

This species is knowTi to me only by the copy of the figure of 
Ploetz, which I have been permitted to examine through the 
courtesy of Mons. Mabille. Judging from this representation, it 
is a not distant ally of P. zeno, Trimen, differing principally in the 
narrower fulvous markings of the upperside, and the darker 
colour of the underside of the wings, which in the drawing are 
quite black except at the base of the wings. The fulvous spots 
stand out in bold contrast upon this dark ground. 

Chapra, Moore. 

208. C. mathias, Pabr. 

Hesperia mathias, Pabr. Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 438 (1798) ; Latr. 
Enc. Meth. vol. ix. p. 751 (1823). 

? Celcenorrhimis thraa; Hiibn. Samml. aussereur. Schmett. 
(1816-1841). 

Hesperia havei, Boisd. Paune Ent. Madgr. p. 64 (1833). 

Hesperia insconspicua, Bert. Mem. Acad. Sci. Bologna (1849- 
50), p. 15, pi. i. figs. 4, 5. 

Hesperia thrax, Ledr. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, vol. v. pi. It. 
figs. 9, 10 (1855). 

Hesperia mahopaani, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. (1857) ; 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 48 (1857). 

Pampliila midpsa. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. p. 290 
(1862). 

Pamphila moTiopaani, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 304 
(1866). 

Epargyreus mathias, Butl. Cat. Pabr. Diurn. Lep. p. 275, pi. iii. 
fig. 8 (1870). 

Pamphila elecjans, Mab. Bull, Soo. Zool. Prance, p. 232 (1877), 



1896.] BtJTTEBFLIES OF THE FAMILY HBSPEEIID^. 61 

Chapra matUas, Moore, Lep. Ceylon, vol. i. p. 169, pi. 70. figs. 1, 
1 a (1880-81). 

IPampUla ibara, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliv. p. 68 (1883). 

Pamjihila octo-fenestrata, Saalm. Lep. von Madagascar, p. 108 
(1884). 

PampUla mathias, var. elegans, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. 
p. 356, pi. Iv. figs. 4, 4 fi, 5 (1887). 

PampMla moliopaani, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 324 (1889). 

PampUla insconspicua, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 672 ; Trim. P. Z. S. 
1894, p. 76. 

Hah. Africa south of the Sahara, Madagascar, and adjacent 
islands. 

After a very full and thorough study of a great collection of 
specimens in my possession, coming from all parts of the African 
continent, including examples from Abyssinia, Zanzibar, the Cape 
Colony, Angola, Graboon, and Sierra Leone, and after a diligent 
comparison with long series before me coming from various parts 
of continental Asia and the adjacent islands, I am forced to the 
conclusion, which has already been cautiously maintained by others, 
that the African insect commonly labelled in collections as 
mohopaani, Wallgr., is identical with the insect named mathias by 
Fabricius. The differences which exist are in most cases merely 
differences of size, and without locality-labels to show whence the 
particular specimens come from it would be impossible to 
distinguish them. The specimens from the region of the Cape are 
generally a little larger than Indian examples, but I have not a 
few specimens among the three or four hundred examples of the 
African forms before me as I write which are as small as any I 
have from India. 

Indeed C. lodra, Ploetz, which Mons. Mabille maintains, in his 
correspondence with me, to be simply a small form of C. mathias, 
is smaller than any Indian examples I have in my possession. I 
do not, however, quite agree with Mons. Mabille in his view, and 
prefer to still maintain lodra in this catalogue as a distinct species 
(y. infra). 

209. C. LODEA, Ploetz. 

PampUla lodra, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 355 (1879), vol. xliv. 
p. 45 (1884). 

Hah. Tropical West Africa (Gaboon, Cameroons). 

This is a diminutive reproduction at first sight of C. mathias, 
Fabr., but while the markings are exactly the same as in that 
species, it may be easily and invariably separated by attending to 
the fact not only that it is so small, but that the fringes are 
pure white, and the undersides of both the primaries and secondaries 
are dark hoary greyish brown. It may be that this form is, as 
has been suggested, a mere variety or local race of C. matUas, but 
until we know more about the facts I hesitate to sink the name of 
Ploetz as a synonym. 



62 DR. W. J. HOLLATfD OS THE AFEICAIf [Jan. 14, 

210. C. siNNis, Mab. 

Pamphila sinnis, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Bnt. vol. ii. p. 285 (1878). 

Hesperia lueymeri, Saalm. Lep. von Madagascar, p. 107 (1884). 

Pamphila sinnis, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 361 pi. Iv. 
figs. 1, 2, 2 a (1887). 

Pamphila albirostris. Grand. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 361 (1887), 
pi. Ivi. a. figs. 4, 4 a (plate not published at date of June 1st, 1895). 

Hab. Madagascar. 

I have the type of P. albirostris before me : it is the male of 
C. sinnis, Mab. The characteristic sexual brand on the primaries 
shows that the insect is a true Chapra. 

211. C. WAMBO, Ploetz. 

Hesperia wambo, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. slvii. p. 97 (1886). 

ffab. Africa (Ploetz). 

Prom the description this species would appear to be closely 
allied to mathias, Pabr. The description is not definite enough to 
base any very exact conclusions upon it. 

Pabnaba, Mooi-e. 

I have brought together into this genus an assemblage of species 
which are very closely related structurally, and seem to me to be 
more properly assigned to Parnara than to any other existing 
genus. At the same time, it is proper to observe that this 
arrangement is in some respects merely tentative. In several 
cases the species depart somewhat widely from the type, yet I am 
not prepared on this account to separate them, and set up new 
genera for their reception. 

212. P. BOEBOKiCA, Boisd. 

Hesperia borbonica, Boisd. Paune Ent. Madgi". p. 65, pi. ix. 
figs. 5, 6 (1833). 

Hesperia fatudlus, Wallgr. (uec Hopff.) K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. 1857 ; Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 48 (1857). 

Pamphila borbonica. Trim, (part) Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. 
p. 303 (1866) ; Mabille, Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 360, pi. Iv. 
figs. 6, 6 a (1887) ; Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. lii. p. 322 (1889). 

Hab. South Africa, Tropical Africa, both East and West, and 
the adjacent islands. 

This species is very common at Gaboon and at Cameroons. 

213. P. GEIIELLA, Mab. 

Pamphila gemella, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxviii. 
p. clxxxvii (1884). 

Hesperia ellipsis, Saalm. Lepidopt. von Madagascar, p. 109 
(1884). 

Pamphila yemella, Mab. Grandid. Madagascar, vol. xviii. p. 359, 

Gegenes gemella, Mab. 1. c. pi. Iv. figs. 7, 7a (1887). 

Hab. Madagascar ; Seychelles (Abbott). 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEBIID.E. 63 

214. P. PoiTTiEEi, Boisd. 

Hesperia poutieri, Boisd. JFaune Eat. Madgr. p. 65 (1833). 
Pamphila poutieri , Mab. Grrandid. Madagascar, vol. xviii. p. 363. 
Gegenes poutieri, Mab. 1. c. pi. Iv. figs. 8, 8 a, 9, 9 a (1887). 
Hah. Madagascar : Seychelles {Ahhott). 

215. P. DETECTA, Trim. 

Pampliila detecta. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. xli. p. l-ll, 
pi. viii. fig. 12 (1893). 

Pamphila fallatus, Mab. MS. 

Hah. Natal (Trimen) ; Canieroons. 

I have several specimens of this species which were taken at 
Batanga, Cameroons, by the late Dr. A. 0. Good. The insect 
laballed Pamphila fallatus in the Staudinger collection by Mons. 
Mabnie, of which I can find no published description, is the 
same. 

216. P. SXTBOCHEACEA, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 11.) 

cj . Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous, clothed with greenish 
hairs. Underside of palpi, thorax, and abdomen pale greenish 
ochraceous. The primaries and secondaries on the upperside are 
dark brown, with a shghtly purplish lustre toward the outer 
margin. The costa and the inner margin near the base of both 
wings are clothed with greenish hairs. There is a minute elongated 
translucent white spot in the cell on its upper margin toward its 
exti'emity. There are two minute subapical spots beyond the end 
of the cell. There are three discal spots on intervals 2, 3, and -1 
below and beyond the cell, the spot on interval 4 being minute, 
the spots on intervals 3 and 2 being subhastate, the latter the 
largest. All these spots are translucent. On the secondaries 
beyond the end of the cell are three small subhastate semi- 
transparent discal spots, pale in colour. On the lower side the 
primaries are dark brown on the cell and beyond it on the disc on 
intervals 2, 3, and 4. The inner margin is fuscous grey. The 
costa and the apical area are tawny ochraceous. The secondaries 
are uniformly tawny ochraceous, marked with a dark spot at the 
end of the cell and a discal series of dark spots accentuating the 
outer extremity of the three limbal spots beyond the end of the 
cell. The cilia are pale ochraceous both on the upper and under 
side. All the spots of the upper surface reappear on the lower 
side in both wings, but less distinctly defined than on the upper 
surface. Expanse 31 mm. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

217. P. MiCANS, sp. nov. (Plate III. fig. 19.) 

S . Head, thorax, and abdomen bright Mars-brown. Underside 
of abdomen pale ochraceous. The primaries aud the secondaries 
are bright Mars-brown, with the costal margin of the secondaries 
dark brown. There are two minute subapical spots in the usual 



64 DE. AV. J. HOLLAlfD ON THE AFEICAN [Jan. 14, 

position, and below and beyond the cell two discal spots, siibquadrate 
in form, on either side of vein 3 near its origin. The lower of these 
spots is the larger. They are both translucent and waxy yeUow in 
colour. There are two small obscure semi-transparent spots of like 
colour on the secondaries on either side of vein 3 a little beyond its 
origin. The margin is slightly darker brown than the body of the 
wiag, and the fringes are paler. On the underside the wings are 
uniformly pale reddish ochraceous, except the inner margin of the 
primaries, which is darker, inclining to pkunbeous. The spots of 
the upper surface reappear on the lower side, but far less distinctly 
defined. Expanse 30 mm. 

Hub. Valley of the Ogove. 

This very distinct species is represented in my collection by a 
single specimen. 

218. P. (?) TTRSTJLA, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 4.) 

S . This insect is obscurely brown all over, without any spots 
or markings whatever. 

2 . The female is coloured like the male, but has three elongated 
subapical spots in the usual position, and two obscure translucent 
spots on either side of vein 3 of the primaries a little before its 
origin. The spots are subquadrate. 

Expanse, S 26 mm., ? 30 mm. 

Hah. East Africa. 

The types of the males are found in my collection and in the 
collection of Dr. Staudinger. The only female I have ever seen is 
contained in the collection of Dr. Staudinger. I refer this insect 
with some measure of doubt to the genus Parnara, \\-ith which it 
in the main agrees in neuration as far as I have been able to 
ascertain. The insect, however, is not so robust as the other 
species referred to this genus. The primaries are more rounded 
on the outer margin and the secondaries somewhat more excavated 
before the anal angle, in the case of the female. I cannot, 
however, with the material before me, venture to separate this 
species from the genus Parnara. 

Semalea, gen. nov. 

Antennae and palpi as in the genus Baoris. Primaries : cell 
about half the length of the wing ; vein 5 much nearer 4 than 6 ; 
vein 12 terminating on the costa before the end of the cell ; vein 
7 slightly before the end of the cell ; vein 2 one-third of the 
distance from the base ; vein 3 a little before the end of the cell. 
Secondaries : cell short ; vein 5 wanting ; discocellulars faint, 
erect ; vein 7 originating well before the end of the cell ; vein 3 
a httle before the end of the cell ; vein 2 originating beyond the 
middle of the cell ; the outer margin evenly rounded ; the costa 
shghtly produced before the base. The two species referred to 
this genus are characterized by peculiar sexual markings. In the 
case of the male of S. pulvina, Ploetz, the type of the genus, there 



1896.] BUrtEEFlIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEBILD^. 65 

is a broad patch of long silky hairs upon the upper surface of the 
secondaries at the end of the cell, almost entirel}' covering the cell 
and the origin of the median nervules. In addition, on the under- 
side of the primaries there is a broad patch of modified scales, 
and the inner margin has a fringe of long hairs, which, ordinarily, 




Neuration of Semalea pulvina, Ploetz. f . 
a. Underside of primary ; b. Upperside of secondary. 

are folded back upon the under surface of the primaries. lu 
S, no.v, Mab., the patch of scales on the upper surface of the 
secondaries is wanting, but upon the primaries on the upper 
surface there is a broad oval sexual band at the origin of vein 2 
below the cell. 

Type S pulvina, Ploetz. 

I have brought these two species together, because of the 
absolute identity of their neuration aud the structure of their palpi 
and antennae, and in spite of the wide divergence in the sexual 
stigmata. At first glance, without a microscopic examination, the 
two insects look wonderfully alike. There is, however, a remark- 
able divergence in the sexual stigmata as indicated above. I am, 
however, more and more inclined to the belief that sexual stigmata 
cannot be always accepted as the basis of generic subdivisions, in 
which opinion I know I differ from some authors. 

219. S. PULTiNA, Ploetz. (Plate 11. fig. 14.) 

Hesperia pulvhui, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 353 (1879). 

Trichosemeia pulvina, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 53. 

Cobalus carbo, Mab. Bull. Soc. Eat. France, (6) vol. ix. p. clxix 
(1889). 

Hah. Aburi (Ploetz) ; Gaboon ( Good) ; Sierra Leone (Mabilk). 

I do not agree with Lieut. Watson in placing this species in my 
genus Trichosemeia. The broad patch of velvety scales upon the 
upper surface of the secondaries is the principal point of resem- 
blance between this species and the type of the genus. In the 
form of the wings and the antennae and the structure of the legs 
it differs. The female is without the velvety area on the second- 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. V. 5 



66 DB. W. J. HOLLAND OK THE AFBICAN [Jan. 14, 

aries, and, I strongly suspect, is the insect described by M. Mabille 
as Cobalus atrio (cf. genus Cohalus). A figure of C. atrio, lent me 
hv the author, heightens the probability of this supposition, but 
without the type before me I will not attempt to express a positive 
opinion. The insect in the Staudinger collection labelled Cobalus 
carho in the handwriting of Mons. Mabille is a normal specimen 
of S. pulvina, Ploetz, J . 

220. S. Nox, Mab. (Plate IV. fig. 20.) 

PampUla nox, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. clxviii. 
Hah. La,gos (Mahille) ; Gaboon (G'ood). 

This species is apparently very abundant in the valley of the 
Ogove. I have a large series of specimens. 

Baobis, Moore. 

221. B. FATUELLt'S, Hopff. 

PampUla fatuellus, Hopff. Monatsber. k. Akad. Wisseusch. 
Berl. 1855, p. 643; Hopff. Peters' Reise n. Mossamb., Ins. p. 417, 
pi. xxvii. figs. 3, 4 (1862). • 

Pamphila borbonica, Trim, (part.) Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. 
pp. 303, .304 (1866). 

Hespei-ia caffraria, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliv. p. 43 (1883). 

PampUla fatuellus. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 323 (1889). 

PampUla cinerea, Mab. MS. 

Hab. Natal, Zanzibar, Gaboon, Cameroons. 

This species is \'ery common at Gaboon, and, I think, has 
generally been confounded with P. borbonica, from which, however, 
it may well be separated, as pointed out by Mr. Trimen. A worn 
female in the Staudinger collection has been labelled PampUla 
cinerea by Mons. MabiUe. 

222. B. MAECHALii, Boisd. 

Hesperia marchalii, Boisd. Faune Ent. de Madgr. p. 66 (1833). 

PampUla marchalii, Mab., Grandid. Madagascar, vol. xviii. 
p. 362, pi. Iv. figs. 3, 3 a (1887). 

Hab, Madagascar. 

Both from the figure and the description I am inclined to think 
that this species is very near to, if not identical ^^-ith, P. fatuellus, 
Hopff., in which case Boisduval's name has priority. 

223. B. LTJGEN'S, Hopff. 

PampUla lugens, Hopff. Monatsber. k. Akad. "Wissensch. Berl. 
1855, p. 643; Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb., Ins. p. 418, pi. xxvii. 
figs. 5, 6 (1862) ; Trim. S". Afr. Butt. vol. iu. p. 318 (1889). 

Halpe lugeiis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 673. 

Hab. Delagoa Bay, East Tropical Africa. 

The genus Halpe is not represented in Africa, and Dr. Butler's 
reference of this species to that genus is in error. 



1896.] BUTTEEFIIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIIDyE, 6? 

224. B. ILIAS, Ploetz. (Plate V. fig. 17.) 
Hespei-ia ilias, Ploetz, S. B. Z. vol. xl. p. 355 (1879). 
ffab. Guinea (Ploetz) ; Graboon. 

What I take to be the Hespena ilias of Ploetz — forming my 
conclusion from the description of the species given by the author 
and from a copy of his unpublished dra^^•ing of the same — is the 
insect figured on the Plate. It comes nearer meeting the require- 
ments alike of description and of figure than any other West- 
African species known to me in nature. 

225. B. XYLOS, Mab. (Plate II. fig. 13.) 

Pamphila xyhs, Mab. Ann. See. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. p. 31, 
pi. iii. fig. 8 (i890). 

Hah. Graboon, Cameroons, Sierra Leone. 

Mons. Mabille {I. c.) states that he has sufficiently characterized 
this species in the ' Bulletin ' of the preceding year, and contents 
himself therefore with, a figure. By reference to the ' Bulletin ' 
for 1889, I discover that his memory was at fault. He did not 
describe P. .vylos in the ' Bulletin ' of the year before. Our only 
knowledge of the species, therefore, must be derived from the 
figure given in the plate, which, fortunately, is quite recognizable. 
It represents a damaged male of a species which is quite common 
on the tropical western coast of Africa. I have a long series of 
specimens in which, singularly enough, the females are more 
numerous than the males. The figure given by Mons. Mabille is 
that of a male minus the abdomen. The female which is repre- 
sented in the plate does not difEer materially in the location and 
style of the marking from the male, but is genei-aUy much larger. 
I discovered that Mons. Mabille had mingled \vith this species, in 
his collection and that of Dr. Staudinger, specimens of the 
following species, which is abundantly distinct, though presenting 
a superficial likeness. 

226. B. ALBEETi, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 21.) 

d" . Body and appendages black. Abdomen produced beyond 
the anal angle of the secondaries. The wings on the upperside 
are black, with whitish fringes, those of the primaries checkered 
with black at the ends of the nervides. There are no spots on 
the secondaries. The primaries are ornamented with three small 
subapical spots in the usual position, by two large and conspicuous 
subquadrate spots, one on either side of vein 3 at its origin, the 
upper one being the smaller of the two. In many specimens 
there is also a small and faint spot on cell 1, just below the large 
subquadrate spot on cell 2. On the underside, the wings are 
marked precisely as on the upperside, save that the inner margin 
of the primaries is pale, and in some specimens there are traces of 
an obsolete series of pale submarginal markings on the secondaries. 

2 . The female is marked like the male, save that on the under- 

5* 



68 Dft. w. J. HOLLAND ON THE ArBicAN [Jan. 14, 

side there is a well-defined row of pale submarginal markings on 
the primaries, and a less well-defined series of similar markings 
on the secondaries. The wings in this sex are broader, more 
rounded, and less produced at the apex of the primaries than in 
the male, and the abdomen is stouter and shorter than in that sex, 
not reaching beyond the anal angle of the secondaries. 

Expanse, c? 26-29 mm., ? 32-34 mm. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove, Cameroons, Sierra Leone. 

I name this species in honour of my little friend Albert Good, 
the only child of Dr. A. C. Good, one of the heroes of the Dark 
Continent, whose death last November, a few days after his return 
from a long and trying journey into the interior of the Cameroons, 
has filled the hearts of a host of friends and admirers with pro- 
found sorrow. " Bertie," though not yet in his teens, is repre- 
sented in my collections by numerous specimens taken by his own 
hands, and is no doubt the youngest entomologist who has thus 
far collected amidst the jungles of " Gorilla-land." 

227. B. ARELA, Mab. (Plate II. fig. 20.) 

Hypoleucrs arela, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixix. 

Hah. Gaboon, Ogove Valley. 

This species, for the identification of which in my collection I 
am indebted to Mons. Mabille, is quite common about Gaboon. 
Mons. Mabille had affixed the name atimus to several specimens of 
this species in his collection at the time I visited him. They were 
undoubtedly arela. 

228. B. ARGYEODES, HoU. 

Parnara argyrodes, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 93, pi. iii. fig. 11 
(1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

229. B. MABEA, Holl. 

Parnara mabea, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 92, pi. iii. fig. 12 
(1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

230. B. LEUCOPH^A, Holl. 

Parnara leucophcea, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 93, pi. iii. fig. 14 
(1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

231. B. UNISTRIGA, Holl. 

Parnara unistriga, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 30, pi. i. figs. 13, 
14 (1894). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 



1896.] BUTTEEFLIES OF IHB FAMILY HESPERIID^. 69 

232. B. MELPHIS, HoU. 

Parnara melphis, Holl. Ent. News, 1894, p. 31, pi. i. fig. 18. 
Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

233. B. MALTHiNA, Hew. 

Hesperia malthina. Hew, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 457 (1876). 

Pamphila euryspila, Mab. C. E. Soc. Eat. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. clxxix (1891). 

Proteides eurysjiila, Mab. Novit. Lepidopt. p. 117, pi. xvi. fig. 5 
(1893). 

Hab. Sierra Leone (Mabille) ; Gaboon (Good). 

The only specimen of the female which I have ever seen is 
contained in my coDection, and was taken at Batanga, Cameroons. 
It does not differ materially from the male, save that there is an 
additional translucent spot upon the fore wing in cell 1, and the 
large white spot on the underside of the secondaries is much larger 
than in the male, extending farther outwardly and inwardly. 

234. B. STATiEA, Mab. 

Pamphila statira, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. clxxx 
(1891) ; Novit. Lepidopt. p. 114, pi. xvi. fig. 2 (1893). 

cJ. The type of this species was a female contained in the 
collection of Dr. Staudinger. The collection also contains a male, 
which differs from the female on the upperside in lacking the spot 
in the cell of the primaries, and in having, in the example before 
me, the uppermost of the three subapical spots obsolete. In 
the secondaries, the spots at the end of the cell which are con- 
spicuous in the female on the underside and faintly appear on the 
upperside are also lacking, and the discal spots are somewhat 
smaller than in the female. 

Hab. French Congo (Mocqueri/s). 

235. B. STATiBiDEs, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 6.) 

$ . Palpi on the upperside, head, thorax, and abdomen on the 
upperside black, clothed with fuscous scales. Palpi on the under- 
side whitish ; thorax and anal extremity of the abdomen pale 
fuscous. Primaries black on the upperside, with two widely 
separated minute elongated spots near the end of the cell, two 
subapical spots in the usual position, and a discal series of four 
spots, the lowermost of the series on interval 1 cuneiform, the 
next on interval 2 subqimdrate, and the largest of the series, and 
the two succeeding ones on intervals 3 and 4, subquadrate, the last 
smaller than the one preceding it. The secondaries beyond the 
cell are adorned with a broad irregularly curved white macular 
band, running from before the end of the cell inwardly and 
widening to vein 1 b. The primaries on the underside are black, 
with the spots as on the upperside. The secondaries are creamy 
white, with the outer margin broadly black. There is a con- 



70 DR. W. J. HOLXAITD ON THE ArBICAN [Jan. 14, 

spicuous patch of black raised scales situated on interval 1 below 
the cell, and extending outwardly on either side of vein 2 at its 
origin. Expanse 34 mm. 

Type in collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove {Mocquerys). 

236. B. NETOPHA, Hew. 

Hesperia netopha, Hew. Ann. &Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. i. p. 345 
(1878). 

Hesperia roncilrionis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliii. p. 450 (1882). 

Pamphila roncilgonis. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. xli. 
p. 139, pi. viii. fig.'ll (1893). 

Pampliila cojo, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. a'oI. xxxviii. p. 250, 
pi. vi. fig. 7 (1893). 

Var. ntassjE, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 8.) 

Hesperia nyassce, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. i. 
p. 345 (1878). 

Hah. Natal, Mashonaland, Angola, Gaboon, Cameroons, 
Togoland. 

This is one of the most singularly coloured species of the group. 
I have a good series of specimens from Gaboon and Cameroons, 
M'hich agree very well with specimens received from Mr. Trimen, 
who obtained them from Mr. F. 0. Selous, who took them in 
Manica. The type of Hfsperia nyasscf, Hew., I think is a female. 
It is larger and paler on the underside than any specimens I have 
seen from other localities. I cannot, however, bring myself to 
believe that it is anything more than a variety of B. netopha. It 
is worthy of note that there is much variation in the ground-colour 
of the underside of the wings in this species. No two specimens 
in a series of ten or twelve are exactly of the same shade, and the 
ground-colour runs from a pale yellowish ochraceous to a pale 
reddish brown, tinged with pink. The three small subapical spots 
which appear in a majority of specimens are wanting in others. 
They are variable. 

237. B. MONASi, Trim. 

Pamphila monasi, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 317. 
Hab. Natal. 

238. B. TABAOB, Mab. 

Pampliila tarace, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent, Belg, vol. xxxv. p. clxxix 
(1891); Novit. Lepidopt. p. 114, pi. xvi. fig. 1 (1893). 
Hah. Sierra Leone. 

239. B. SUBNOTATA, HoU. 

Parnara (?) suhnotata, HoU. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 94, pi, iii. 
fig, 13 (1894). 

Pamphila rufipuncta, Mab. MS. in Dr. Staudinger's collection. 
Hah. Valley of the Ogove, 



1896.] BUTTEitrLiES or the family hbspeeiid^. 71 

240. B. NiVEicoEKis, Ploetz. 

Hesperia niveicornis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliv. p. 32(1883). 

Hob, Angola. 

I only know this species from the figure of Ploetz. It is very 
remarkably ornamented upon the underside of the wings, and the 
description given is sufficient to enable its identification. 

241. B.(?)neoba, Mab. 

Pamphila neoba, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. clxxxviii (1891). 

JIab. Cameroons (Mabille). 

I only know this species from the description and the drawing 
of the type furnished me by Mons. Mabille. It is impossible 
from either to be sure of the species or its generic location. 

242. B. (?) ZEPHOEA, Ploetz. 

Apaustus zephora, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 156 (1884). 
Hab. Angola (Ploetz). 

I do not know this species save by the description. It does 
not seem to apply to any of the species known to me in nature. 

243. B. (?) BAUEi, Ploetz. 

Hesperia bauri, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 98 (1886). 

Hab. Aburi. 

I do not know this species, and locate it here provisionally. 

244. B, (?) MUBGA, Mab. ^' o v ■<? >. 

PampMla murga, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. Prance, (6) vol. x. p. 31 
(1890). 

Hab. Caffraria (Mabille). 

Mons. Mabille compares this species with P. natalensis, Ploetz. 
I cannot discover that Ploetz ever published a species under the 
name of natalensis. From the description, the insect seems to he 
possibly a Baot-is, but it may be a Pardaleodes. I locate it here 
provisionally, as I am unable to learn anything about it from the 
author of the species. 

245. B. (?) HOLTzn, Ploetz. 

Hesperia holtzii, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliv. p. 43-4 (1883). 

Hab. Angola (Ploetz). 

I can make nothing out of either the description or the figure 
of Ploetz. The insect represented seems both to myself and to 
Mons. Mabille to be a possible variety of C mathias-mohopaani, 
I am, however, very strongly inclined to the opinion that it is the 
same insect recently described by Mr. Trimen under the name 
Pamphila monasi (q. v.). 



72 BB. W. J. HOtLAM) ON THE AFBICAIf [Jan. 14, 

246. B. (?) ATEESii, Trim. /' • 

Pamphila ayresii. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 321, pi. xii. 
fig. 1 (1889). 

Hab. South Africa ; South Tropical Africa. 

Platylesches, gen. nov. 

AUied to Parnara, Moore. The thorax and head are very hroad, 
and the general appearance of the body is more robust than in 
Parnara. The antennae are more than half as long as the costa 
of the primaries, slender, terminating in a stout club, with a 
strongly recurved hook at its end. The palpi are broad, flattened 
horizontally, appressed, heavily clothed with long scales upon the 
first and second joints, and with the third joint (which is minute, 
acute, and situated on the outer edge of the horizontally widened 
second joint) naked. The wings are relatively somewhat narrower 
than in the genus Parnara, with the outer margin of the primaries 
nearly straight, or, as in P. picanini. Holl., slightly excavated 
above the outer angle. The secondaries are more or less lobed at 
the anal angle in the male. The neuration of the wings does not 
materially differ from that in Parnara, so far as I have been able 
to determine with the limited material at my disposal. 

Type P. picanini, Holland. 

247. P. PicAjnNj, Holl. 

Parnara {"i) picanini, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 91, pi. iii. fig. 9 
(1894). 

Pamphila grandiplaga, Mab. MS. in Staudinger collection. 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

248. P. MOBiTiLi, Wallgr. 

Hesp>eria moritili, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857 ; Lep. 
Rhop. Caffr. p. 49 (1857). 

PampMla (?) moritili. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 305 
(1866). 

Hesperia neba. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xix. p. 84 
(1877). 

Pamphila moritili, Trim. S. Ah. Butt. vol. iii. p. 319, pi. xii. 
fig. 4 (1889). 

Eab. South Africa; South Tropical Africa. 

249. P. GALESA, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 7.) 

' Pamphila galesa. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xix. 
p. 79 (1877). 

Hah. West Africa. 

I only know this species from the type, which is preserved in 
the British Museum. It is a very robust insect, and very closely 
allied to H. nigerrima, Butl. 



189.6.] BUTTEBFLIES OT THE FAMILY HESPEEIIDjE. 73 

250. P. KiGEEEiMA, Butl. (Plate II. fig. 12.) 
Halpe nigerrima, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 672. 

Hah. British Central Africa. 

This species is exceedingly close to P. gcilesa, Hew. The only 
difference I can detect is in the form of the macular band on the 
upperside of the secondaries, which is more irregularly curved in 
galesa and has a slightly different direction, and in the presence 
in nigerrima of a narrow white costal streak on the underside of 
the primaries at the base. This last feature seems to be lacking 
in galesa. 

251. P. CHAM^LEOif, Mab. 

PampTiila chamceleon, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. clxxix (1891); Novit. Lepidopt. p. 115, pi. x^^. fig. 3 (1893). 

Hah. Sierra Leone. 

Mons. Mabille compares this species ^^"ith his P. grandijjlaga, 
which in his letter he identifies as my P. picanini. Grandiplaga 
is apparently a MS. name. My learned friend is in the habit of 
affixing names to specimens coming into his possession, and has 
given them currency now and then in his papers and through 
collections which he has labelled, without having published a 
description of the species. This has led to a great deal of be- 
wilderment on my part in several cases and an inordinate con- 
sumption of valuable time in quest of the place in literature where 
the supposed description, which ought to have been published, might 
be found. Unpublished names of species should not be referred 
to, except it be with a distinct statement that they are such, 

252. P. AMADHU, Mab. (Plate V. fig. 11.) 

PampTiila amadhu, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. clxxviii (1891). 

Pamphila heterophyla, Mab. 1. c. 

Baoris'! amadhu, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 672. 

Hah. Transvaal, Natal {Mahille) ; British Central Africa 
{Butler). 

I have before me the types of P. amadhu and P. heterophyla, 
belonging to Dr. Staudinger, and am satisfied of the identity of 
the two forms. The type of P. heterophyla is simply a dwarfed 
and somewhat worn example of P. amadhu. The insect is closely 
allied to P. moritili. 

253. P. BATAJS^G.^:, Hoi I. 

Parnara hatangce, HoU. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 92, pi. iii. fig. 10 
(1894). 

Hah. Yalley of the Ogove. 

254. P. NiGEiCANS, sp. nov. (Plate 11. fig. 15.) 

cJ . Antennae black, marked with white before the extremity on 



74 KB. AV. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

the upperside. The uppersides of the head, thorax, and abdomen are 
black, with the anal extremity of the abdomen white tipped with 
a tuft of black hairs. The palpi and the pectus on the lower side 
are white. The lower side of the thorax is grey. The lower side 
of the abdomen is black annulated with white. The primaries on 
the upperside are black. The cilia on the primaries are black 
marked with white at their extremities near the outer angle. The 
cilia of the secondaries are white, very conspicuously so near the 
anal angle. The primaries are marked with two subapical spots 
in the usual position, two elongated minute spots on the cell near 
its end, one on its upper margin and one on its lower, and by a 
transverse discal series of four'spots, of which the one on interval 1 
is minute and subtriangular, situated on vein l,the spot on interval 
2 is subquadrate, excavated externally, and separated from the 
other spot in the cell by the median nerve. Beyond this spot 
on intervals 3 and 4 are two smaller spots. The secondaries are 
crossed about the middle by an irregularly-curved series of five 
or six white semi-translucent spots. On the underside, the 
primaries are black, darkest at the base. There is a fine white 
costal ray near the base. The spots of the iipperside reappear, 
but less distinct than on the upperside, and above and beyond 
the spot on interval 1 is a white curved ray uniting on its curved 
upper margin the two lower spots of the discal series. The secondaries 
are black, most conspicuously so in the region of the anal angle. 
The inner margin and the outer margin from the outer angle to 
the extremity of vein 2 are sprinkled with grey scales, and the 
nerves are likewise clothed with grey scales, causing them to be 
picked out distinctly upon the dark background. The white discal 
series of spots reappears on the underside, the terminal spot of 
the series located on vein 1 b being the most conspicuous, whereas 
on the upperside it is least conspicuous and appearing as a large 
triangular white patch. 

$ . The female is like the male, but with broader and more 
rounded wings. 

Expanse, S 28 mm., $ 30 mm. 

Types in coll. Staudinger. 

Hab. Freetown {Preiss) ; Gaboon (Mocquerys). 

The male is labelled in the Staudinger collection P. leucojryga, 
Ploetz, but this determination is wholly in error. Leucopyga of 
Ploetz is an Acleros and a wholly different insect. This species is 
closely related to P. moritili and its allies. 

Kateetjs, "Wats. 

255. K. JOHNSTONii, Butl. (Plate II. fig. 18.) 

Astictopterus joJmstonii, Butl. P. Z. S. 1887, p. 573. 
Katreus johnstonii, Watson, "P. Z. S. 1893, p. 115 ; HoU. Ent. 
News, Jan. 1894, pi. i. fig. 8. 

^ah. Cameroons, Gaboon, 



1896.] BTPrTEKFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPBEIID^. 75 

Paedaieodes, Butl. 

256. p. EDiPUS, Cram. 

(S . Papilio eclijous. Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ccdxvi. figs. E, F 
(1782). 

Pardaleodes edipus, Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. vol. vii. p. 96 (1870) ; 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 625 (1871). 

Plastingia edipus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 358 (1879), 
vol. xlv. p. 148 (1884). 

Pardaleodes edipus, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 117. 

$ . Cyclopides sator, Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. Ixxix. 
fig. 4. 

PampMla? sator, Westw. 1. c. p. 523 (1852) . 

Pardaleodes sator, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 625 (1871). 

Plastingia sator, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 358, & vol. xlv. 
p. 148. 

Pardaleodes sator, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 117. 

Bah. Tropical West Africa. 

After a very close study of the matter iu the light of bug 
series of specimens, consisting of several hundreds of examples, 
I am satisfied that this is the correct synonymy of this species, 
which is very closely allied to the next, and with which it has 
been no doubt, so far as the female of that is concerned, frequently 
confouuded. The crucial test for discriminating between the two 
species is the fact that in P. incerta, SnelL, the anterior wings in 
both sexes show no traaslucency in the spots above vein 2, whereas 
in P. edipus the spots between veins 2 and 3 and 3 and 4, the spots 
at the end of the cell, and the three small subapical spots are 
invariably translucent. By holdiug the specimens up to the light, 
it is always possible to decide to which of the two species they 
belong. 

I am at a loss to account for the fact that several authors report 
the male and the female of both P. edipus and P. sator to have 
been contained in collections examined by them. This is done by 
Ploetz in his paper upon the Lepidoptera collected by Buchholz, 
So far as my observations extend, every specimen of P. sator, 
correctly determined to be such by comparison with the very good 
fioTire given by Doubleday and Hewitson in their work, has been a 
female, I have seen hundreds of specimens, and many pairs 
taken in coitu, and am sure of this determination. 

257. P. iNCEETA, Snellen. 

S . Pamphila incerta, Snellen, Tijd. voor Entom. 1872, p. 29, 
pi. 10. figs. 10, 11, 12. 

$ . Hesperia coanza, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliv. p. 232 (1883). 
Pardaleodes coanza, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 117. 

Hah. Tropical West Africa. 

The female of this species resembles the male of the preceding, 
P. edipus, but the point of discrimination enables an easy decision 
to be made in all cases, as I have already shown. 



76 DR. W. J. HOLLAND 07! THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

258. p. HEEILUS, HopfE. 

PampMla herilus, HopfE. Monatsber. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. 
Berl. 1855, p. 643; Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb., Ins. p. 419, 
pi. xxvii. figs. 7, 8 (1862). 

Hah. Querimba, East Africa (Hojjffer). 

Hopffer states that the types of this species were males. Prom 
the figure, I should say that they were females. The figure repre- 
sents apparently a dwarfed female of P. edijms, and closely resembles 
such which I have from Gaboon. 

259. P. EBiCHENOwi, Ploetz. (Plate III. fig. 18.) 

$ . Plastingia reicJienoivi, Ploetz, S. E. Z, vol. xl. p. 357 (1879), 
vol. xlv. p. 147 (1884). 

(f . Pardaleodes fesUis, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. 
p. 33, pi. iii. fig. 2 "(1889). 

Jfah. Tropical "West Africa. 

There is not a particle of doubt of the correctness of the above 
synonymy. I have specimens taken in coitu of the male and female 
of this species. The males have been repeatedly determined for 
me as P. festus by Mons. Mabille, and agree perfectly with the 
figure he gives. The females agree with Ploetz's type of P. reiche- 
nowi, which is preserved at the Berlin Museum, and is represented 
in the plate accompanying this paper. 

260. P. XANTHOPEPLTis, Holl. (Plate III. figs. 9 c? , 16 $ .) 

Pardaleodes xanihopeplus, Holl. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) vol. x. 
p. 289 (1892). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

261. P. BULE, sp. nov. (Plate. III. fig. 21, cf ? .) 

Allied to P. reichenoivi, Ploetz = festus, Mab. 

cJ . Primaries deep black, slightly clothed with greenish scales 
near the base. The wing is marked with eleven spots as follows : — 
two small oval spots at the end of the cell, one above each other, 
and above them a minute linear spot ; three small oval subapical 
spots forming a series curving inwardly ; a small round spot in 
interval 4 ; a triangular spot in interval 3 ; a large subquadrate 
spot in interval 2 ; (these three spots form a transverse series 
running inwardly towards the margin). The large spot is followed 
in interval 1 by a triangular orange-yellow spot, diminishing 
towards the inner margin. There is also an obscure orange- 
yellow spot in interval 1 towards the base. All the spots are 
translucent, except the two in interval 1, which are opaque. 
The secondaries are bright orange-yellow, paler than in P. festtis, 
with the costal margin and outer angle broadly black. The cell 
near the base and the inner margin are clothed with fuscous 
hairs. 

On the underside, the primaries are blackish, the spots of the 



1896.] BUiTERFLlBS OS' 'i&E FAMILY HESPEBIID^. 7? 

upperside reappearing, but pale ochraceous. The costa is, further- 
more, laved with pale ochraceous from the base to the region of 
the subapical spots, and in interval 5 there is a pale ochraceous 
area, in the middle of which there is a minute white dot circled 
with blackish. A pale yellowish-grey ray connects the lowermost 
spot of the discal series with the outer angle. The secondaries 
are pale ochraceous, with the costa on the inner two-thirds marked 
with irregular blackish spots. There is a subtriangular blackish 
spot near the outer angle, a black spot in interval 1 6 near the cell, 
and a smaller similar spot surmounted with a V-shaped blackish 
mark on the same interval near the anal angle. The innermost of 
these last two blackish spots is supplemented on the side of the 
base with a small chalky-white spot. There are in addition a 
number of obscure transverse brownish lines and obscure sub- 
marginal hastate markings. 

2 , The female is like the male, except that it wholly lacks the 
markings on interval one in the primaries, and the markings on 
the underside of the secondaries are not so distinct. The out- 
line of the wings, furthermore, is broader. 

Expanse, c? $ 36 mm. 

Hab. Bule country, Cameroons. 

This species may be easily distinguished from P. reichemivi by 
the deeper black of the primaries, the smaller size of the spots, 
and the fact that none of them are confluent, as in P. reichenowi. 
There is no black border on the inner two-thirds of the second- 
aries and no yellow spot in the cell of the secondaries, the yellow 
of the hind wing running almost to the base. A further dis- 
tinction is the absence of the checkered fringes of the primaries 
on the upper surface. The fringes are slightly checkered on the 
underside. 

262. P. ASTBAPE, Holl. (Plate IV. fig. 12.) 

ParcMeodes astrape, Holl. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) vol. x. p. 290 
(1892). 

ParcMeodes parens, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 258 

(1893). 

Hab. Valley of the Ogove (Good) ; Togoland (Karsch). 

263. P. ABiBL, Mab. 

PampUla ariel, Mab. Pet. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii. p. 285 (1878). 
Pardaleodes ariel, Mab. Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 340, 
pi. liii. figs. 10, 10 a, 11 (1887). 
Hah. Madagascar. 

264. P. PUSiELLA, Mab. 

Pardaleodes pusiella, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 237- 

Hab. Landana (Mabille). 

I cannot find out anything about this species. - 



78 iJiB. W. J. HOtLAIfD ON THE AFBIOAiT [Jan. 14, 

265. p. LiGOEA, Hew. 

Hesperia ligora. Hew. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (4) vol. xviii. p. 450 
(1876). 

Carystus thersander, Mab. Ann. Soe. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. 
p. 30, pi. iii. fig. 5 (1890). 

Carystus ? thersander, HoU. Ent. News, vol. v. pi. i. fig. 17 (1894). 

Hab. Ango]si (Hew.) ; Sierra Leone (J/a6.) ; Cnmeroons (Good). 

After a careful examination of the structure of this species, 
although it greatly exceeds in size any other species of Pardaleodes 
known to me, and the primaries are more pointed than in the type 
of the genus, I cannot find anything to justify its separation from 
Pardaleodes. With P. xanthioides, HolL, and P. xarithias, Mab., it 
forms a small sub-group in the genus. 

266. P. XANTHiAS, Mab. (Plate III. fig. 7.) 

Carystus xanthias, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. p. cxvii (1891). 
Hah. Lagos (IfrtJ-tKe) ; Graboon ((?oof^). 

This species is intermediate between P. liyora. Hew., and 
P. xanthioides, Holl. 

267. P. XANTHIOIDES, Holl. (Plate IV. fig. 14.) 

Pardaleodes xanthioides, Holl. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) vol. x. 
p. 290 (1892). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

268. P. viBius, Hew. 

Astictoi)terus vihius, Hew. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) vol. i. p. 343 
(1878). 

Pamjjhila rega, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. Erance, (6) vol. ix. p. cxlix 
(1889) ; Ann. Soc. Ent. Erance, (6) vol. x. p. 31, pi. iii. fig. 7, 9 • 
(1890). 

Hab. Tropical West Africa. 

269. P. siBBEiE, sp. nov. (Plate IV. fig. 19.) 

(f . Allied closely to P. vibius. Hew. Instead, however, of 
having the reddish-orange spot on the primaries defined on the 
lower margin by vein ] , as in that species, this spot extends to the 
inner margin and likewise inwardly toward the base, beiug inter- 
rupted at the base by a linear patch of raised scales, extending 
along the lower edge of the cell at the origin of vein 2. The 
secondaries also are paler on the upper surface, and are marked 
beyond the cell by an obscure series of yellowish spots. On the 
underside the wings are much paler than in vihius, the secondaries 
of which on the underside are uniformly black ; in this species 
they are ochraceous, clouded with fuscous and defined externally 
by a fine black marginal Une. This may be a local form of vibius, 
but is sufficiently distinct to deserve description. Expanse 25 mm. 

Type in coll. Staudinger. 

Hab. Sierra Leone. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OP THE I'AMILI HESPBEIIDJ;. ?9 

■ 270. P. FAN, Holl. 

Osmodes (?)fan, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 91, pi. iii. fig. 8 (1894). 

ffab. Interior of Cameroons. 

After a very careful microscopical study of the anatomical 
details of the structure of the three preceding species, I can find 
nothing of generic value to lead me to separate them from the 
species included in the genus Pardaleodes, though in general 
appearance they present widely different features. The total 
absence of translucent spots on the primaries, the broader and 
more rounded character of the wings, and the general style of the 
markings at first sight appear to reveal such a difference as to have 
led me for some time to have been iuchned to refer these species 
to the genus Koruthaialos, Wats., but the palpi, the neuration, and 
the antennae are so exactly in agreement with those of the genus 
Pardaleodes, that I am constrained, in spite of the facies, to place 
them in the latter genus. 

Cebatbichia, Butl, 

271. C. NOTHUS, Fabr. 

Papilio nothus, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 88 (1787). 
Ceratrichia nothus, Butl. Cat. Tabr. Diurn. Lep. pi. iii. fig. 15 
(1870) ; Watson, P.Z. S. 1893, p. 117. 
Hub. Tropical West Africa. 
This species is not nearly so common as the two following. 

272. 0. PHOoioN, Fabr. 

Papilio phocion, Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 138 (1781). 

Ceratrichia phocion, Butl. Cat. Fabr. Diurn. Lep. pi. iii. fig. 14 
(1870). 

Cydopides phocceus, Westw., Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 
p. 251 (1852). 

Ceratrichia semilutea, Mabille, C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p.lxv. 

Eab. Tropical West Africa. 

This species appears to be very common on the Ogove. The 
female has the primaries profusely spotted in some specimens, and 
the secondaries more or less suffused with brown, almost obscuring 
the broad yellow middle area. Ceratrichia semilutea, Mab., the 
type of which is before me as I write, is a slightly dwarfed speci- 
men of the male. Another male, in the Staudiuger collection, has 
been designated as the type of an unpublished species by Mons. 
Mabille, to which he gives the MS. name C punctata. It is a 
male with the primaries more spotted than is quite usual, though 
in a long series of specimens, such as I possess, numerous ex- 
amples of this form are sure to be found. 

273. C. PLATA, Hew. (Plate III. fig. 14.) 

(J . Ceratrichia flava. Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. i. 
p. 343 (1878). 



80 DiB. \V. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFfelCAN [Jan. 14, 

Plastingia charita, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 356 (1879). 

$ . Apaustus argyrosticta, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 358 
(1879); id. ibid. vol. xlv. p. 156 (1884); id. I.e. A. argyrospila. 
Ploetz, MS. 

Ceratrichia argyrosticta, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 117. 

Hah. Cameroous, Valley of the Ogove, Aburi {Ploetz). 

This is a very common species. I have an enormous series, 
taken at different times and places. There is not a shadow of 
doubt in my mind that the above synonymy is correct. The 
females are very variable upon the upperside of the wings, but 
agree vei-y well with the males on the underside, though in both 
the male and the female sex the silvery centres of the spots on the 
underside are often suffused with dark brown, and the silvery 
colour is rendered obsolete. 

CoBALUS, Hiibn. 

274. C. (?) coKviNus, Mab. 

Cobalus corvinus, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. p. clxix 
(1889). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Mahille). 

I allow this species to remain in this genus, to which it has been 
assigned by its author, though it is quite plain to me that it does 
not really belong here. I have the type before me as I write, but 
as it is unique and in poor condition, so that I cannot without 
great risk of further injury make a close anatomical investigation, 
I must leave its location undecided. It seems superficially to show 
a general relationship to pulvina, Ploetz, and nox, Mab., but the 
wings are more fragile and relatively longer, and the insect is not 
so robust. 

275. C. (?) ATBio, Mab. 

Cobalus atrio, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. Ixxxii. 

A figm-e of the type kindly lent me by Mons. Mabille suggests 
that this is the female of Semalea imlvina, Ploetz {q. v.). It is 
certainly not a Cobalus. as that genus is South-American. 

Andeontmus, gen. nov. 

Antennae more than half the length of the primaries, slender ; 
club moderate, fusiform, slightly recurved at the tip. Palpi 
divergent, with the first and second joints heavily clothed with 
scales, the third joint naked, aciculate, erect, as high as the vertex 
of the head. Fore wing elongated, with the inner margin con- 
siderably longer tliau the outer margin, blunt at the apex, and 
slightly excavated between the extremities of veins 1 and 3. Cell 
narrow, elongated, nearly two-thirds the length of the costa : vein 
12 reaching the costa before the end of the cell ; upper discocellular 
short, but distinct, at right angles to the upper margin of cell ; 
middle discocellular relatively long, curved iuwardly ; lower disco- . 



1896,] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIIDjE. 81 

cellular short, forming an obtuse angle with the lower margin of 
the cell ; lower margin of cell slightly bent outwardly at origin of 
vein 2, which is located near the middle of the cell. Vein 3 nearer 
to vein 4 than to vein 2. Hind wing with costal margin nearly- 
straight ; outer margin and inner margin rounded ; outer and anal 
angles broadly rounded. On the upperside of the wing, on the 
middle of the fold between veins 7 and 8 near the origin of vein 7, 
is a small pencil of long hairs, and vein 6 just beyond the end of 




Neuration oi Atidroiiyinws^hUaHder, Ploetz. f. 

the cell is clothed on the underside with a closely appressed bunch 
of thick hair-like scales. Discocellulars and vein 5 very faint, if 
not quite obsolete. The wings are marked with translucent spots, 
those on the primaries being located in the usual order, those on 
the secondaries being four in number — a large one at the end of 
the cell, and three just below it, one between the origins of veins 
2 and 3, and one on either side of this spot, separated from the 
ceatral spot by veins 2 and 3. Hind tibiae with two pairs of 
spurs. 

Type A. philander, Ploetz. 

276. A. PHiiiANDEB, Hopff. 

Pamphila philander, Hopff. Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1855, 
p. 643; Peters' Reise n. Mossamb., Zool. v. p. 416, pi. xxvii. 
figs. 1, 2 (1862). 

Carystus philander, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 590 (1871). 

Acleros philander, Butl. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 669. 

Ancyloxypha pjhilander. Trim. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 78. 

Carystus evander, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. p. 30, 
pi. iii. fig. 4 (1890). 

Hab. Tropical Western and Central Afi'ica. 

277. A. LEANDEE, Ploetz. 

Apaustiis leander, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 360 (1879). 
Hah. Tropical Western Africa. 

This species may be readily distinguished from A. leander, its 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. VI. 6 



82 DR. W. J. HOLLAND ON TH£ AFKICAN [Jan. 14, 

very near ally, by the yellow colour of the light markings upon 
the wings. 

278. A. NEANDER, Ploctz. (Plate II. fig. 23.) 

Apamtus neander, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 1-54 (1884). 

Ancyloxypha producta, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. Hi. p. 334 (1889). 

Hah. Tropical West Africa ; Delagoa. 

I have a loug series of this species, concerning which Mr. Good 
wrote me that at the time of capture they appeared to be engaged 
in migrating in vast numbers. Only upon the occasion of this migra- 
tion did he observe them during a;-esidence of eight years upon the 
banks of the Ogove Eiver. Mr. Trimeii confirms, after examining 
specimens I sent him, the opinion 1 had before communicated to 
him, that this species is the one n&ine^ producta by him. 

HlDAKI, Dist. 

279. H. ciNiEA, Hew. (Plate II. fig. 3.) 

Hesperia camira, Hew. Exot. Butt. vol. iv. Hesperia, pi. ii. 
figs. 15, 16 (1867). 

Famphila aenira, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p, 606 (1871). 
$ . Hesperia calpis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 354 (1879), 
vol. xhii. p. 328 (1882). 

Hab. Gaboon, Cameroons. 

The description given by Ploetz of his species named Hesperia 
calpis is unmistakable, if care be taken to make the comparisons 
which he suggests. I have also been able to identify his species 
by means of a copy of the figure contained in his plates. Eor 
many years I have kept H. calpis apart from the older species named 
Hesperia aenira by Hewitson, but upon examination I discover 
that every specimen of //. ailpis in my collection, several dozens of 
them, are females, and all of the specimens of typical H. ccenira are 
males. Furthermore, there is such absolute agreement in the 
markings and coloration of the primaries on the underside of the 
two forms, as to convince me that they are sexes, and I have 
accordingly united them as above. The female varies in some 
instances. I have one specimen in which there is a manifest 
tendency to an enlargement of the white spot on the primaries, 
so that the marking approximates more nearly that of the male 
than is usual. 

280. H. LATERCTLUS, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 15.) 
Proteides laterculus, Holl. Ent. News, vol. i. p. 156 (1890). 
Hah. A'alley of the Ogove. 

281. H. lEicoLOR, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 5.) 

Proteides iricolor, Holl. Ent. News, vol. i. p. 156 (IS90). 
Hab. Valley of the Ogove. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEBIID.E. 83 

PlEEOTEINOIf, Wats. 

(Tam/ptera, Mab.) 

282. P. LAUFELLA, Hew. 

Hesjjeria laafella, Hew. Eiot. Butt. vol. iv. Hesr). pi. ii. figs. 28- 
30 (1867). 

Carystus laafella, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 591 (1871) ; Staudgr. 
Exot. Schinett.' pi. 99 (1888). 

Tanyptera laufella, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, p. 260 (1877). 

Pteroteinon laufella, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 121. 

Hah. Tropical West Africa. 

Choeistoneura, Mab. 

283. C. apicalis, Mab. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 

Choristoneura apicalis, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. ix. 
p. clvi (1889). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Mahille). 

This very remarkable insect is entirely unlike any other species 
which I have ever seen from the African continent, and recalls 
in general appearance some of the species of the S. American genus 
Etitheiis. At the time Lieut. Watson prepared his Revision of the 




Neuratiou of Choristoneura apicalis, Mab. f. 

genera of the Hesperiidae, no specimen of this insect was available 
by him for purposes of study. I take pleasure in incorporating a 
cut giving the neuration. From this it will be seen by the student 



84 DE. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFEICAN [Jan. 14, 

that the neuration is quite peculiar, and that Mons. Mabille, the 
author of the genus, was abundantly justified by the facts in 
erecting it for the reception of the typical species. 

Gamia, gen. nov. 

Antennae long, slender ; club robust, tapering gradually, pro- 
duced at the apical extremity to a fine point, which is slightly 
recurved. Palpi : first joint short ; second joint long, both 
heavily clothed with hair ; the third joint long, produced and 
conical, almost naked ; the hind tibi;e with a double pair of spurs, 
and heavily clothed with loug hair. I'oi'e wing : inner margin longer 
than outer margin ; the costa evenly rounded ; the apex obtuse : 
the outer margin slightly excavated above the outer angle ; cell 
more than two-thirds the leugth of costa; vein 12 reaches the 
costa before the end of the cell ; vein 5 very slightly nearer vein 4 
than vein 6 ; vein 7 from the end of the cell, very near vein 6 ; 
vein 3 very near vein 4, from near the lower angle of the cell ; 



Antennae and palpi of Gamia galua, HoU. f . 

vein 2 from one-third of the distance from the base to A-ein 3. 
Secondaries : costal and outer margins evenly rounded, produced 
at the anal angle and slightly truncated at anal angle; vein 5 
present and distinct ; vein 4 from the lower angle of the cell ; 
vein 3 slightly before the lower angle ; vein 2 twice as far from 
vein 3 as the latter is from vein 4 ; vein 7 from about the middle 
of the cell. — The insects belonging to this genus are large in size, 
dark in colour, with the primaries and secondaries ornamented 
with large translucent yellow spots. G. buchholzi is the largest 
of all the African Hesperiid*, with the exception of Bliopolovam2:)ta 
itJiis. They are distinctly separate from the genus Canides, to 
which they are apparently allied by the peculiar form of the palpi. 
Type G. galua, Holl. 

284. G. galua, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 1, $ .) 

Proteide/t galva, Holl. Ent. News, vol. ii. p. 3 (1891). 

Hesperia zintgraffi,, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. vol. xviii. p. 178 
(1892). 

? Proteides ditissimus, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. cxii(1891). 

Hah. Tropical West Africa. 

A comparison of my species with the type of IT. zintgraffi, 
Karsch, shows the two to be identical. I am also strongly 
inclined to the opinion that P. ditissimvs, Mab., is the same insect. 
Unfortunately I have not seen the type of P. ditissimus. Mons. 
Mabille affirmed the identity of the two species when examining 
my type, but has since expressed in letters a different opinion. 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIIt)^. 85 

285. Gr. (?) DiTissiMus, Mab. 

Proteides ditisdmus, Mab. C. B,. Soc. Ent. Eelg. vol. xxxv. 
p. cxii (1891). 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Mahille). 

Very probably the same as the foregoing species (q. v,), 

286. G. BUCHHOLzi, Ploetz. 

2 . Hesjieria huchholzi, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 354 (1879), 
vol. xliii. p. 330 (1882). 

Ganrjara (?) hasistriga, Holl. Ent. News, vol. v. p. 29, pi. i. 
fig. 12 (1894). 

Hah. Aburi (Ploetz) ; Ogove (Holland). 

Strangely enough, none but females of this species have been 
found thus far. The type was a unique female in the collection 
made by Buchholz. There is another specimen in mv collection, 
and another still in the hands of Mons. Mabille, to which he has 
affixed the MS. name " rohustus." 

C^NiDES, gen. nov. 

Antennae long, slender; club moderate, long, produced at the 
apical extremity to a long fine point, bent back at a right angle. 
Palpi : first joint short, second joint long, erect, reaching the tip 
of the vertex, both densely clotlied with long hair ; third joint 
minute, erect, and almost concealed by the hairy vestiture of the 
second joint. Primaries with the inner margin longer than the 
outer margin, or, in some species, subequal. Cell slightly less 
than two-thirds the length of the costa ; vein 12 of the primaries 
terminating before the end of the cell ; vein 7 arising slightly 
before the end of the cell : vein 5 much nearer 4 than (> ; vein 3 
near vein 4 ; vein 2 from about the middle of the lower margin of 
the cell. The secondaries with vein 5 obsolete, or very faintly 
visible ; discocellulars faint, angulated, with the point of the angle 
turned toward the base ; cell short. Legs armed with double sets 
of spurs on the hind tibiae. 

The species of this genus, which is a large one, may be arranged 
in four groups. The first is represented typically by C dacela, 
Hew., in which the primaries of the male have a sexual curved 
stigma below the cell crossing veins 3 and 2, and a large oval patch 
of raised, glossy hairs upon the outer end of the cell of the 
secondaries, covering the origin of veins 2, 3, and 4, and extending 
beyond toward the outer margin. The second group is represented 
by species in which the large oval patch of raised scales on the 
secondaries is absent, or at most represented by a tuft of loose 
and not conspicuous hairs. The discal band of the primaries is 
present. This group is composed of species of which C. maracanda 
and C. leonora are typical. The third group is composed of species 
in which the sexual brand of the primaries in the male is absent, 
while the large oval patch of hairs in the secondaries remains. 



86 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE ATRICAlSr [Jan. 14, 

This division of the genus contains C. henga and possibly others. 
The fourth group is composed of species in which both secondaries 
and primaries are without sexual brands or marks of a conspicuous 
and easily discernible character, the brands and patches of raised 
scales being revealed in some of the forms only after bleaching and 
microscopic eAamination, and then as merely obsolescent. 




Neurution of Ctenidcs dacela, Hew. f. 

In the species of all these four groups the antennae, the palpi, 
the neuration, and the outline of the wings are the same. They 
are differentiated into groups by the sexual markings of the male 
sex, so far as my studies haAe informed me. Most of the species 
have been hitherto referred by writers to the genus Proteides, to 
which they manifestly do not belong. 

287. C. DACELA, Hew. (Plate II. fig. 2, J ; Plate V. fig. 18, $ .) 

Hesperia dacela, Hew. Ann. & Mag, Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 451 (1876). 

Hesperia nydia, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 353 (1879), vol. xliii. 
p. 326 (1882). 

2 . Plastincjia jwdora, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 150 (1884). 

As to the identification of the male of this species with the insect 
described by Ploetz as Hesperia vydia, there is not a shadow of 
doubt in my mind. The insect described by Ploetz as Plastinqia 
fodora was contained in the Berlin Museum. The insect labelled 
as such was examined for me both by Dr. Karsch and Dr. Scudder, 
and is represented in the plates accompanying this article, being 
reproduced after a careful drawing by Von Prillwitz. It is uumis° 
lakably tlie female of C. dacela. Unfortunately, however, the 
description given by Ploetz of his P. podora does not tally with the 



1896.] BTJTTEEFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEEIID^. 87 

insect which, bearing his own manuscript label, is accepted as the 
type. I have been puzzled to find a satisfactory solution of the 
difficulty, but have resolved to accept the authenticated type 
specimen as the key to the problem, and have therefore given the 
synonymy as above. Of course it is quite possible that a mis- 
placement of the original label may have taken place, but at this 
distance, both of space and time, I am not in a position to clear up 
the difficulty. The description given by Ploetz is, as usual, not 
clear enough to help to a positive conclusion as to what he meant 
by it. 

288. C. SORITIA, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 9.) 

c? . Hesperia soritia, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 453 (1876). 

2. Proteides xvclms, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. cxi (1891). 

Proteides xaniho, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. cxi 
(1891). 

Hnh. Gaboon, Sierra Leone. 

Upon a compnrison of the types of P. xychus and P. xantho, 
Mab., with the type of B. soritia, Hew., it becomes plain that they 
are one and the same species. The females vary in the amount of 
maculation on both the upper and under side of the secondaries. 
Some specimens have a distinct pale discal spot at the end of the 
cell upon the lower side of the secondaries, followed by a discal 
curved series of siinilar small spots, frequently obscurely visible 
upon the upper surface; other specimens are almost devoid of 
these markings, which are generally more or less obsolescent. 
A female with these markitjgs more distinct than usual was selected 
by Mons. Mabille as the type of his xantho. It is before me as I 
write, and I cannot feel justified in regarding it as separate from 
C. soritia. In a long series of specimens of soritia, such females 
are not at all uncommon. 

289. C. KANGVENSis, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 10.) 

cJ. Body with palpi and antennae, as well as legs, brown, the 
under surfaces slightly paler than the upper surfaces. The wings 
are brown, somewhat inchning to tawny fuscous at the base. The 
cilia are pale fuscous. I'he primaries are marked with three 
minute subapical spots, arranged in a curved series, by a large 
quadrate spot at the end of the cell, which is notched on its outer 
margin, and by two moderately large subquadrate spots, lying one 
on either side of vein 3 at its origin, the lower spot being the 
largest. There is a fine raphe, or sexual brand, running along the 
inner margin of this large spot and continued across interval 1 
toward the inner margin. The secondaries have the end of the 
cell and a portion of the disc immediately beyond the end covered 
by a large oval patch of raised glossy black hairs. On the under- 
side the primaries are paler on the apical third, with the inner 
margin broadly pale testaceous. The translucent spots of the 



88 DE. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRTCAN [Jan. 14, 

upper surface reappear on this side, though less distinctly defined, 
owing to the paler ground-colour. The secondaries are dark 
brown, slightly touched with greyish on the outer margin near the 
outer angle. There are a few obscure pale discal spots beyond the 
cell. 

2 . The female is marked like the male, but lacks, of course, the 
characteristic sexual markings of the male. The wings are more 
elongated and rounded, and the primaries have a translucent 
yellow spot on interval 1, midway between the base and the outer 
margin. 

Expanse, S 40 mm., $ 43 mm. 

Hab. Valley of the Ogove. 

This species is closely related to 0. soritia, Hew., but is quite 
distinct. 

290. C. MAEACAKDA, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 4.) 

Hesperia maracanda, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 450 (1876). 

Casyapa masacanda, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Suppl. p. 817 (1877). 
ffab. Angola (Heiviison) ; Gaboon {Good). 

291. C. BiNOEVATUs, Mab. (Plate II. fig. 1.) 

Proteides binoevatus, Mab. C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. cxii 
(1891). 

ITab. Valley of the Ogove. 

292. C. LEONORA, Ploetz. (Plate II. fig. 5.) 

Hespena leonora, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 355 (1879), vol. xliii. 
p. 338 (1882). 

Proteides xanthargyra, Mab. C. It. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. 
p. cxii (1891). 

Pamphila leonora, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 253 
(1893). 

Bab. Aburi (Ploetz) ; Accra (Mabille) ; Togoland (Karsch) ; 
Valley of Ogove (Good). 

The number of the small subapical spots in this species is 
variable. Some specimens have but two, others three, while the 
type of Ploetz is destitute of such spots. The absence of the 
sexual brand on the upperside of the primaries of the male is 
apparently the only mark of distinction having generic weight 
which would lead me to separate this species from the foregoing 
three. If there are other points, I have failed to discover them, 
and I hesitate to erect a new genus for the reception of this 
species without some more evident reason. 

293. C. STOEHRi, Karsch. 

Pamphila stoeh-i, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 252, 
pi. vi. fig. 6 (1893). 

ffab. Togoland (Karsch) ; Gaboon (Mocquerys). 

The type was a damaged male. The collection of Dr. Staudinger 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPERIID^. 89 

contains two perfect females of this fine species, taken at Gaboon 
by Mocquerys according to the labels. The female is like the 
male, but larger in size, and with the underside of the wings 
redder than in the figure of the type given by Karsch. It is 
singular that during the eight years in which I have had a collector 
constantly residing and at work for me in Trench Congo, this 
species has not turned up. It evidently must be very rare, or 
very local in its distribution. 

294. 0. BEXGA, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 13.) 
Proteides benga, Holl. Ent. News, vol. ii. p. 4 (1891). 
Hab. Valley of the Ogove. 

295. C. CXLINDA, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 12.) 

Hesperia cylinda. Hew. Ann. & Mag, Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 449 (176). 

Pamphila calpis, Karsch (nee Ploetz), Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. 
p. 252, pi. vi. fig. 4 (1893). 

(Proteides ruralis, Mab. MS., cf. Staudinger's price-lists.) 

Hab. Tropical Western Africa. Very common at Gaboon. 

This species has been labelled P. ruralis by Mons. Mabille in 
several collections, and has been sold under this name by Dr. 
Staudiuger. I can find no account of the publication of the 
species by Mons. Mabille, and believe the name to be hitherto 
unpublished, except as stated, and as it is once or twice referred 
to in the writings of Mons. Mabille. It seems at all events to 
have totally escaped the notice of the compilers of the ' Zoological 
Record ' and Bertkau's ' Register,' and, though I have twice asked 
Mons. Mabille to inform me where the species is described, he 
has failed to include an answer to this question with the other 
information he has so kindly and generously given me. The 
identification of this species with P. calpis, Ploetz, by Dr. Karsch 
is based upon specimens so labelled in the Berlin Museum ; but 
these are not types, and came from Senegal, and were not labelled 
by Ploetz. There is, further, no agreement whatever between the 
insect figured by Karsch and tlie description of P. calpis given by 
Ploetz. A comparison of the figure given by Karsch shows the 
entire identity of the insect with Hewitson's H. cylinda. The true 
calpis is figured in this paper. It is the female of Hidari ccenira. 
Hew. 

C. cylinda is a crepuscular insect, as I have been informed by 
the late Dr. Good. It only appears at dusk in the morning or 
the evening, though occasionally on dark and cloudy days it may 
be seen upon the wing. I have one or two examples which were 
taken at lamp-light, having flown into the room after dark. 

296. C. DACETTA, Hew. 

Hesperia dacena, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 453 (1876). 



90 DR. W. J. HOLLAND OJf THE AFRICATf [Jan. 14, 

Proteides leucopor/on, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. xxxv. p. cxi 
(1891); Nov. Lepidopt. p. Ill, pi. xv. fig. 5 (1893). 
Hab. Gaboon, Cameroons. 

297. C. ORMA, Ploetz. 

Isniene onna, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 363 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 59 (1884). 

Hesperia violascens, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliii. p. 322 (1882). 

Pamphila violascens, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 248, 
pi. vi. tig. 3 (1893). 

Uab. Cameroons, Ogove Valley. 

H. violascens was described, as Dr. Karsch has shown, from a 
drawing of the upperside of a specimen named violascens by 
Maassen. Had Ploetz seen the specimen from which the drawing 
was made, he would no doubt have recognized in it his own 
I. orma. The underside is unmislakable. Dr. Karsch has 
correctly determined the species as violascens, Ploetz, but has 
failed to recognize its identity with the species described as onna 
by Ploetz, and referred by him to the genus Jsmeue. This 
reference is sufficiently exact to suffice, though 1 have been 
inclined to create a subdivision of the genus for the reception of 
this species, owing to the fact that the antennse are not so greatly 
swollen below the tip as in the other species of the genus, and tlie 
outer margin of the secondaries is not so strongly excavated before 
tlie anal angle. It is worthy of note that the w hite baud on the 
underside of the secondaries varies greatly, and in some specimens 
is reduced to a narrow line, and in others is almost obsolete. 

298. C. CORDUBA, Hew. 

Hesperia corduba, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 454 (1876). 

Proteides massiva, Mab. & Vuill. Nov. Lepidopt. p. 21, pi. iii. 
fig. 4 (1891). 

Bab. Gaboon, Sierra Leone. 

This species is very common in the Valley of the Ogove. Thus 
far, singularly enough, I have never seen a male specimen. Of 
the twenty-five, or more, examples in my collection, all appear to 
be females. 

299. C. WAGA, Ploetz. 

Telesto waga, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 108 (188G). 

Hab. Aburi {Ploetz). 

From a copy of the figure of this species contained in the un- 
published collection of drawings made by Herr Ploetz, and to 
which he refers in bis descriptions, this insect is closely allied to 
C. cylinda. Hew., and^ if I am not greatly mistaken, the drawing 
represents a rubbed specimen of C. cylinda ; certainly specimens of 
cylinda in poor condition agree extremely well with the figure of 
Ploetz. 



1896.] BFTTEBFLIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEEIID.E. 91 

300. C. ILEEDA, Moeschler. 

Hesperia ilercla, Moeschler, Abhandl. Senckenb. naturf. Gres. 
Bd. XV. p. 65, pi. i. fig. 16 (1887). 

Pamphila ilerda, Xarsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 251 
(1893). 

Hab. Tropical West Africa. 

I have specimens of what are undoubtedly C. cylinda, Hew., 
which agree absolutely with the figure of ilerda given by Moeschler. 
Unfortunately Moeschler does not give a representation of the 
underside of his specimen, and I am therefore left in doubt as to 
whether the two species are identical. 

301. C. LACiDA, Hew. (Plate I. fig. 14.) 

Hespena lacida, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) vol. xviii. 
p. 453 (1876). 

Hah. Gaboon (Hewitson). 

The type of Hewitson is a female. 

302. C. ZAREMBA, Ploetz. (Plate V. fig. 5.) - „ • i.^ mc r.\sn,-\»>i vy.o 
Telesto zaremha, Ploetz^ S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 376 (1884). "'"^'^iT" 
Hah. Old Calabar {Ploetz) ; French Congo (Mocquert/s). 

There are two somewhat damaged specimens in the collection of 
Dr. Stiiudinger. The reference to this genus seems proper, though, 
in the rubbed condition of the upperside of the secondaries of 
both examples, I am unable to make sure oP the presence of the 
tuft of long hairs upon the cell which is characteristic of most of 
the species of the genus. 

303. C. BALENGE, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 3.) 

Proteides hahiige, Holl. Ent. News, vol. ii. p. 4 (1891). 

Hah. Valley of the Ogove. 

The type is a female, and remains so far unique in my collection. 
A fine male is contained in the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 
These are, so far as I know, the only examples extant in the 
museums of the world of this fine species, whicli is one of the 
largest of the African Hesperiidfe. The female and the male do 
not differ materially, except in size and the form of the wings, as 
is usual. 

304. C. SEXTiLis, Ploetz. 

Hesperia sextilis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 89 (1886); 
Moeschler, Abhandl. Senck. naturf. Ges. Bd. xv. p. 64 (1887). 

Hah. Aburi (Ploetz). 

This species is stated by Moeschler to belong to the same group 
as O. calpis, Ploetz, by which sign it might be located in the 
genus Hidari, were it not for the fact that in some way or other 
some German authors have come to traditionally regard the insect 
named ci/linda by Hewitson as being the one designated as calpis 
by Ploetz. Moeschler is one of the authors who held this view, 



92 DR. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFRICAN [Jan. 14, 

and hence I place sextilis in the same group as cylinda. I do not 
know the species under this name at all events. 

305. C. (?) PROxiMA, Ploetz. 

Mesperia proximo, Ploetz, S, E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 95 (1886). 

Hab. West Africa (Ploetz). 

I only know this species from a copy of the drawing by Ploefz. 
In the form of the wings it suggests affinity to tbe species which 
I have located in the genus Ccenides, but it probably does not 
belong there. 

Artitropa, gen. nov. 

Antennae moderately long, more tban half the length of the 
costa of the primaries ; club robust, elongated, terminating in a 
short tine point slightly recurved. Palpi stout, erect, reaching the 
top of the vertex; the secoud and third joints are densely clothed 
with hair ; the third joint is minute, almost concealed in the* 
vestiture of the second joint. The legs have the tibiaj scantily 




Neuration of Artitropa erinnys. Trim., ^ . \. 

clothed with long hair ; those of the posterior pair are armed with 
a median and double terminal spurs. The primaries have the costa 
slightly rounded ; the inner and the outer margins are subequal, 
evenly rounded ; the cell is two-thirds the length of the costa, with 
the upper angle acute, the lower angle obtuse ; vein 5 slightly 
nearer vein 4 than vein 6 ; vein 12 terminates on the costa before 
the end of the cell ; vein 7 arises slightly before the end of the 
cell ; vein 2 is more than twice as far from vein 3 as vein 3 is 
from vein 4 and is equidistant between vein 3 and the base. The 
cell of the secondaries is short ; vein 5 is present and distinct ; 
vein 3 and vein 7 arise well before the end of the cell ; the outer 
margin is rovmded and slightly excavated above the termination of 
vein 16. 

Type A. erinnys, Trimen. 

I have erected this genus for the reception of the following 
species, which are distinguished from all other near allies in the 
genus Ccenides and allied genera by the shape of the club of the 
antennae, by their more robust form, and by their peculiar style 
of coloration. They form a well-marked group. 



1896.] BUTTEHrLIES Of THE FAMILY HESPEEIID^. 93 

306. A. EBiNNTS, Trim. 

Pamphila erinmjs, Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) vol. i. 
p. 290 (1861) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 303, pi. vi. fig. 8 
(1866); S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 326 (1889). 

Hab. Southern Africa. 

307. A. COMTJS, Cram. 

Papilio eomus, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi, 391. figs. N, O (1782). 

Papilio Tielops, Dru. 111. Ex. Ent. iii. pi. xxxiii. figs. 2, 3 (1782). 

Hespena ennius, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 337 (1793) ; Latr. Enc. 
Meth. vol. ix. p. 749 (1823). 

Papilio ennius, Don. lus. India, p. 59, pi. li. fig. 1 (1800). 

Proteides hehps, Butl. Cat. Fabr. Diurn. Lep. p. 265 (1869) ; 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 595 (1871). 

Pamphila comus, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 249 
(1893). 

Hab. West Africa. (Err. " Swinam, " Cram. ; " In Indiis" 
Drury.) 

308. A. MARGAEITATA, Holl. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

Proteides mai-garitata, Holl. Ent. News, vol. i. p. 155 (1890). 

Eab. Valley of the Ogove. 

I have been inclined to regard this species as identical with 
A. connis. Cram. But an examination of specimens made for me 
by my good friend Dr. S. H. Scudder, at Berlin and at the British 
Museum, he having in his possession at the time the drawing which 
is reproduced in the Plate, casts a great doubt upon the correctness 
of this view. Dr. Scudder says, " Your margaritata is most cer- 
tainly not the insect labelled helops=comus in the British Museum, 
and is very doubtfully the insect known as comus, in the Museum 
in Berlin." I had sunk my name as a synonym until receiving 
this opinion from my learned friend, who is recognized as a very 
high authority in all such matters. 

309. A. bosEjE, Saalm. 

Hesperia bosece, Saalm, Lep. von Madgr. p. 105, pi. i. figs. 15, 16 
(1884). 

Proteices boseir, Mab. Grand. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 329, pi. Iii. 
figs. 10, 10 a (1887). 

Bab. Madagascar. 

309 a. A. SHELLEYi, Sharpe \ 

Proteides shelleyi, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) vol. vi. 
p. 349 (1890). 

Hab. Eantee (Capt. Shelley). 

1 Unfortunately this species was by an oversight omitted when the MS. was 
in preparation. 



94 DE. w. J. HOLLAND ON TUE ArRiCAN [Jan. 14, 

Ploetzia, Saalm. 
{Systole, Mab.) 

310. P. AMTGDALIS, Mab. 

Hesperia amygdalis, Mab. Bull. Soc. Zool. Prance, 1877, p. 234. 
Systole amyijdalis, INIab., Grandidier's Madagascar, vol. xviii. 
p. 330, pi. li. figs. 6, 6 a, 7 (1887). 
Ploetzia amyijdalis, Saalm. Lep. Madgr. vol. i. p. 115 (1884). 

Hah. Madagascar. 

311. P. riAEA, Butl. 

Proteides fiara, Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1870, p. 503; 
Stoudgr. Exot. Schmett. vol. ii. pi. 99 (1888). 

PamjMla Jiara, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 329 (1889). 
Hab. South Africa. 

312. P. DYSMEPHILA, Trim. 

Pamphila dysmephila. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1868, p. 96, 
pi. vi. tig. 10. 

Hesperia mucorea, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. vol. xviii. p. 178 (1892). 

Hab. South Africa, Togoland. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Karsch I have been permitted to 
have a carefully drawn figure of his Hesperia mucorea executed by 
Herr Prillwitz, and it proves upon comparison with typical speci- 
mens of the male of P. dysmephda, received from Mr. Trimen, to 
be the same. The absence of the white line upon the underside 
of the secondaries, which is so conspicuous in the female, and is 
brought out characteristically in the figure given by Mr. Trimen, is 
calculated to mislead the student who is not aw are of this differ- 
ence in the marking of the sexes. 

313. P. CEETMICA, Hew. 

Hesperia cerymica. Hew. Ex. Butt. iv. Hesp. pi. ii. figs. 20, 
21 (1867). 

Carystus cerymica, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 591 (1871) ; Trim. S, Afr. 
Butt. vol. iii. p. 329, footnote (1889). 

Hab. Tropical "West Africa. 

Mr. Trimen is quite right in his surmise expressed on p. 329 of 
the third vol. of his ' S. African Butterflies.' ' 

314. P. QUATEEifATA, Mab. 

Pamphila quaternata, Mab. Bull. & Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) 
vol. vi. pp. xxvi & 268 (1876). 

Hah. Senegal (Mabille). 

This species is stated by the author to be very closely allied to 
P. dysmephila. Trim. The type was unique. 



1896.] BUTTEEFIIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEEIID^. 95 

315. P. CAPRONNiEEi, Ploetz. 

Hvsperia capronvicri, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xl. p. 353 (1879), 
vol. xliii. p. 326 (1882). 

Proteides capronnieri, Mab. Aun. Soc. Ent. France, (6) vol. x. 
p. 33, pi. iii. tig. 3 (1890). 

Hab. Abiiri (Ploetz), Cameroons (Mahille). 

This is a very distinct species. The female lacks the broad 
white anterior margin on the upperside of the costal area of the 
secondaries which is so conspicuous a feature in the male. 

316. P. WEiGLEi, Ploetz. 

Hespi'ria weir/lei, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlvii. p. 90 (1886); 
Moeschler, Abhandl. Senck. naturf . Ges., Bd. xv. p. 65, pi. i. fig. 18 
(1887). 

Pamphila weigJei, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 253 
(1893). 

Hah. Tropical West Africa. 

I am strongly inclined to think that this species is only a form 
of P. cert/niica, Hew. 

317. P. NOBiLioR, sp. nov. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

2 . The antennae are marked \^ ith white on the lower side of 
the club. The body above and below and the wings upon the 
upperside are tawny fuscous. The primaries are marked bv four 
waxen yellow translucent spots in the cell near its end, and by two 
similar discal spots, one on either side of vein 3 near its origin. 
Of the two spots in the cell the upper one is very small and the 
lower is much larger, oval, produced. The two discal spots are 
subquadrate, and the lower one is thrice the size of the upper one. 
The cilia are paler than the body of the wing, and the costa is also 
paler toward the base. On the underside both wings are rich 
dark maroon, growing paler towards the outer margin. The 
nervules are more or less white and stand out distinctly upon the 
darker ground, especially at their extremities on the primaries, and 
in the case of veins 6, 7, and 8 on the secondaries. The triangular 
space on the secondaries between veins 6 and 7 is perceptibly paler 
than the rest of the wing. The translucent spots appear upon the 
lower surface of the primaries as upon the upperside, and in 
addition the inner margin of the primaries is pale testaceous. The 
secondaries have a minute white spot in the cell near its end, and 
two similar white spots, one on either side of vein 2 about mid- 
way between its origin and the outer margin. 

Expanse 48 mm. 

Hab. Lambarene, French Congo (Mocquerys). 

The type is in the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

AcALLOPiSTES, gen. nov. 

Antennae slender, more than half as long as the costa of the 
primaries ; club about one fourth the length of the entire antennae, 
suddenly enlarging and then gradually tapering to the tip, gently 



96 DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AFBICAN [Jan. 14, 

recurved. The palpi are short, with the first and second joints 
densely clothed with hairs, the third joint minute and almost 
concealed by the vestiture of the second joint. The tibiae are 
clothed with long hairs, and those of the hind legs are armed with 




Head and neuration of Acallopistes holocausta, Mab., (J. ?. 

double terminal spurs. The anterior wings are subtriangular, with 
the inner and outer margins subequal and straight. The costa is 
evenly rounded, the apex is acute. Tlie cell of the primaries is a 
little less than two-thirds the length of the costa, with the upper 
angle acute and the lower angle obtuse. Vein 12 reaches the costa 
before the end of the cell ; vein 5 is slightly nearer vein 4 than 
vein 6 ; veins 6, 7, and 8 rise from about the upper angle of the 
cell ; vein 3 is twice as far from vein 2 as from vein 4 ; vein 2 is 
equidistant between the base and vein 3. The secondaries have the 
costa relatively straight. The outer margin is evenly rounded to the 
extremity of vein 1 6, at which the wing is produced somewhat 
sharply. The inner margin is gently rounded and somewhat 
excavated before the base. The cell is less than half the distance 
from the base to the outer margin. Vein 5 is distinct. Vein 2 
arises beyond the middle of the lower margin of the cell, vein 3 a 
little before its end. Vein 7 arises from well before the end of 
the cell, and vein 3 twice as far from vein 7 as from the base. 

Type A. holocausta, Mab. 

The two species referable to this genus are moderately large 
insects, uniformly dark in colour and without any conspicuous 
markings. 

318. A. HOLOCATJSTA, Mab. (Plate V. fig. 13.) 
Erinota holocausta, Mab. C. E. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1891, p. cxi. 
Hah. Cameroons (Mabille). 

This insect is not an Erinota, nor in any way nearly related to 
the insects properly included in that genus. 1 find it more closely 



1896.J BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMIIiY HESPERIID^. 97 

allied to the insects belonging to that section of the genus Rhopalo- 
campta which contains B. unicolor, Mab., and B. Zi6eo>i, Druce, but 
thoroughly separate from them by reason of the different structure 
of the palpi and the antennae. 

319. A. DiMiDiA, sp. nov. (Plate V. lig. 7.) 

d . Antennae, body, and wings both above and below uniformly 
dark brown, with a slight greenish sheen on the disc of the primaries 
when viewed in strong sunlight. The palpi on the lower side are 
orange-coloured. Expanse 40 mm. 

Hab. Gaboon {Mocquerys). 

The type of this insect is contained in the collection of 
Dr. Staudinger and is unique. On comparison with A. holocausta, 
Mabille, the chief points of difference are the smaller size and the 
more obscure colouring, for A. holocausta has the primaries and 
secondaries somewhat plentifully sprinkled with golden-orange 
scales near the base, and the general coloration is brighter. There 
is no doubt in my mind as to the specific distinctness of this form 
upon comparison. The facies is quite distinct, though the species 
are very closely related. 

Ehopalocampta, WalJgr. 

320. R. EAMANETEK, Boisd. 

Thymele ramaneteJc, Boisd. Faune Entom. Madgr. p. 62, pi. ix. 
lig. 3 (1833). 

Ismene ramanetek, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 581 (1871); Mab., 
Grandid. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 326, pi. li. figs. 2, 2 a (1887). 

Rhopalocampta ramaneteJc, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

321. R. UNICOLOR, Mab. 

Ismene unicolor, Mab. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) vol. vii. p. xxxix 
(1877) ; Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 230. 

Hesperia unicolor, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 375. 

Hab. South Africa, Western Africa as far north as Liberia. 
Very common on the Ogove Eiver. 

322. E. LiBEON, Druce. 

Ismene libeon, Druce, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 416. 
Hesperia liheon. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 375. 
Bhopalocampta libeon, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 
Hab. Angola (Druce). 
Closely allied to B. unicolor, Mab. 

323. R. BBUSSAUXI, Mab. 

Ismene brussauxi, Mab. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1890, p. ccxxi. 
Hab. French Congo {Mabille). 

This species was described by Mons. Mabille from a defective 
example. It is evidently very near B. libeon and B. unicolor. 
Proc. Zool. Soo.— 1896, No. VII. 7 



98 SE. \v. J. HOLLAND olf THE A^EICA^« [Jan. 14, 

324. K. ANDONGiNis, Ploetz. 

Ismene andonginis, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 60 (1884). 
Hah. Angola (Pundo Ndongo) {Ploetz). 

I do not know this species in nature, but from the description 
judge it to be very near R. unicolor and R. libeon. 

325. R. ^SCHYLUS, Ploetz. 

Ismene cfschylus, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 65 (1884). 

Hah. Senegal {Ploetz). 

The description applies quite well to R. chalyhe, Westw., in 
everything except the colour of the fringes of the secondaries, which 
are said to be white shading into orange at the anal angle, and the 
head, which is said to be red. I do not know the species in nature. 

326. E. PANSA, Hewits. 

Isniene joatisa, Hewits. Exot. Butt. vol. iv. Ismene, pi. i. figs. 1, 2 
(Jan. 1867). 

Hesjyeria eniesti, Grand. Eev. et Mag. de Zool. p. 274 (1867). 

Ismetie pansa, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 581 (1871); Saalm. Lep. 
Madgr. p. 114, pi. i. figs. 12, 13 (1884); Mab., Graudid. Madgr. 
vol. xviii. p. 325, pi. li. figs. 3, 3 a (1887). 

Rhopalocampta pansa, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hah. Madagascar. 

327. E. AJfCHiSES, Gerst. 

Isniem ancJiises, Gerst. Gliederth.-Eauna d. Sansibar-Gebiet. 
p. 374, pi. XV. figs. 6, 6 a (1873). 

Ismene taranis, Hewits. Ann. &. Mag. N. Hist. 4th ser. vol. xviii. 
p. 347 (1876). 

Hesperia anchises, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 374 (1889) ; 
(larva described) Matthew, Ent. Mo. Mag. xxv. p. 428. 

Rhopalocampta anchises, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hah. South Africa and Eastern Tropical Africa. 

328. E, JucuifDA, Butl. 

Hesperia jucunda, Butl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 179, pi. xviii. fig. 8. 
Rhopalocampta jucunda, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 
Hah. Socotra {Balfour). 
This is allied to R. anchises, Gerst. 

329. E. roBESTAN, Cram. 

Papilio forestan. Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. cccxci. figs. E, F 
(1782). 

Ismene florestan. Trim, (part), Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 318 
(1866). 

Eesjyeria forestan. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 368, vol. L 



1896.] BUTTERFLIES OF THE FAMILY HESPEBIIDiE. i99 

pi. ii. figs. 6, 6 a (larva and chrysalis) (1889) ; (larva described) 
Matthew, Ent. Mo. Mag. xxv. p. 429. 

RJiopalocampta forestan, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893. 

The species is widely distributed in all the warm portions of the 
continent south of the Sahara. 

330. E. AEBOGASTES, Gueu. 

Ismene arlogastes, Guen., Maill. Reunion, Ann. G, p. 19 (1833). 

Thyniele florestan, Boisd. Taune Entom. Madgr. p. 61 (1833). 

Ismene margarita, Butl. Cist. Entom. vol. ii. p. 3S9 (1879). 

Ismene arhogastes, Mab., Grand. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 323, pi. Ii. 
figs. 5,5 a (1887). 

Rhopalocampta arhogastes, AVatson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Ismene arhagastes, Kirby, Syn. Cat., Suppl. p. 819 (1877). 

Hah. Madagascar, Eeunion. 

Mr. Kirby in his Supplement to his Synonymic Catalogue cites 
Senegal as the habitat of this species. This is an error. The form 
is very closely allied to Ii. forestan, and Mons. Mabille regards it 
as probably merely an insular form of that species. 

331. E. PisiSTBATUs, Eabr. 

Hesperia pisistratus, Eabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 345, no. 311 
(1793); Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 371, pl.xii. fig. 10(1889). 

Rhoimlocampta valmaran, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
1857, Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 48. 

Ismene florestan ?, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 319 (1866). 

Ismene pisistratus, Westw. (part.), Gates' Matabele Land, App. 
p. 352(1881). 

Ismene pisistratus, Staudgr. Exot. Schmett. vol. i. pi. 98 (1888). 

Rhopalocampta pisistratus, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hab. South and West Africa. 

This species is very closely allied to R. forestan, from which it 
may be distinguished by the different shape of the white baud on 
the underside of the secondaries, and the three black spots at the 
inferior termination of this band. 

332. E. FEEVIDA, Butl. 

Hesperia fervida, Butl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vol. v. 
p. 339 (1880). 

Ismene fervida, Mab., Grand. Madgr. vol. xviii. p. 324, pi. Ii. 
figs. 4, 4 a (1887). 

Rhopalocampta fervida, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

333. E. KEiTHLOA, WaUgr. 

Rliopalocampta Jceithloa, Wallgr. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1857, 
Lep. Ehop. Caffr. p. 48. 

Ismene stella. Trim. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 3rd ser. vol. i. p. 287 
(1862). 

7* 



loo DB. W. J. HOLLAND ON TttE AFRTCAIf [.Tan. 14, 

Ismene keithloa, Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. ii. p. 317 (1866). 
Hesperia Jceithloa, Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 372, pi. xii. 
fig. 9(1889). 

Rhopalocampta keithloa, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 
Ilab. South Africa. 

334. E. BOCAGii, Sharpe. 

Rhopalocampta hocagii, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 557. 

Hah. Island of St. Thomas, W. Africa. 

This species is allied to R. keithloa, Wallgr., upon the underside, 
but is distinguished by the bright metallic blue of the upperside. 

335. E. BATEK, Boisd. 

Thymele ratek, Boisd. Faune Bntoni. Madgr. p. 61, pi. ix. fig. 1 
(1833). 

Ismene ratek. Trim. Ehop. Afr. Austr. vol. i. p. 317 (1862); 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 581 (1871); Mabille, Grandid. Madgr. 
vol. xviii. p. 326, pi. li. figs. 2, 2 a (1887). 

Hesperia ratek. Trim. S. Afr. Butt. vol. iii. p. 373 (1889). 

Rhopalocampta ratek, Watson, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

Mr. Trimen calls attention in the last volume of his veork on 
South-African Buttez'flies to the fact that this species was erro- 
neously cited in his former treatise as a South-African form. It 
is apparently confined to Madagascar. 

336. E. HANNo, Ploetz, 

/. hanno, Ploetz, S. B. Z. vol. xl. p. 363 (1879), vol. xlv. p. 63 
(1884); Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 266 (1893). 

Hab. Guinea, Valley of Ogove Eiver. 

The insect identified as R. hanno by Mons. Mabille, and figured 
in the ' Novitates Lepidopterologicae,' is R. necho, Ploetz, as has 
been pointed out by Dr. Karsch. R. hanno is much nearer to, if 
not identical with, R. s^uncta, Mab. 

337. E. NECHO, Ploetz. 

Ismene necho, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 63 (1884). 

Ismene hanno, Mab., Vuill. Novit. Lep. fasc. iii. p. 18, pi. iii. fig. 1 
(1891). 

Ismene necho, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 266 
(1893). 

Hab. Cameroons, Valley of Ogove. 

Mon. MabiUe has given us an excellent figure of this species, 
which he has in error referred to R. hanno, Ploetz. The difference 
is very marked on the underside of the primaries of the two species, 
which in R. necho are light on the inner margin and beyond the end 
of the cell, and in R. hanno are dark, as in R. sejuncta, which I am 
inclined to regard as identical with R, hanno. 



1896.] BUTTEBFLIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEBIID^, 101 

338. E. SEJUKCTA, Mab. 

Ismene sejuncta, Mab., Vuill. Novit. Lepid. fasc. iii, p. 19, pi, iii. 
fig. 2 (1891). 

Hab. TJsagara (Mab.). 

Except for the slightly more extended yellowish area on the 
upperside of the secondaries at the base, this species as figured by 
Mabille is almost the counterpart of specimens clearly referable to 
hanno, Ploetz. 

339. E. TANCBED, Ploetz. 

Ismene tancred, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xlv. p. 62 (1884). 

Bab. Natal. 

This species, judging from the description, may be referred to 
either of the foregoing forms. It fits hanno, necho, and sejuncta 
equally well. 

340. E. bix;e, Linn. 

Papilio bixce, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x. p. 485 (1758) ; Mus. Ulr. 
p. 335 (1764) ; Clerck, Icones, pi. 42. fig. 4 (1764) ; Linn. Syst. 
Nat. ed. xii. p. 795 (1767). 

Ismene bixce, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 582 (part.) (1871) ; Ami v. 
Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. xix. no. 5, p. 122 (1882). 

Rhopalocampta bivce, "Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hab. Tropica] Western Africa. 

341. E. CHALTBB, Westw. 

Ismene chalybe, Westw., Doubl. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. 79. 
fig. 2 (1852). 

Papilio bi.vce, Don. Nat. Eep. pi. clxv. (1826). 

Ismene bixce, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 582 (part.) (1871). 

Rhopalocampta chalybe, Wats. P. Z. S. 1893, p. 129. 

Hesperia {Ismene) chalybe, Karsch, Berl. Ent. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. 
p. 265 (1893). 

Hab. Tropical Western Africa from the Ogove Eiver to Togo- 
land. 

342. E. JTJNO, Ploetz. 

Ismene juno, Ploetz, 8. E. Z. vol. xl, p. 364 (1879), vol. xlv. 
p. 66 (1884). 

Hab. Cameroons. 

This species appears at first sight to be a diminutive form of 
R. iphis. 

343. E. iPHis, Dru. 

Papilio iphis, Dru, III, Exot. Ent. vol, ii, pi, xv, figs, 3, 4 
(1773). 

Papilio phidias, Cram. Pap, Exot. pi. 244. figs. A, B (1782). 
Papilio Jupiter, Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. p. 87 (1787). 
Hesperia Jupiter, Latr. Enc. Meth. ix. p. .733 (1823). 



102 DB, W. J. HOLLAND ON THE AEBIOAN [Jan. 14, 

Tsmene iphis, Kirby, Syn. Cat. p. 582 (1871) ; (larva described) 
Kolbe, Ent. Nachr. vol. xiii. p. 17 (1887). 

Eliopdlocampta iphis, Watson, P. Z. S. Lond. 1893, p. 129. 
Hah. Tropical West Africa. 

Species inceet.^ sedis. 

344. Pamphila aures, Mab. C. E. See. Ent. Belg. vol. xxvii. 
p. Ixiv. 

Hah. East Africa. 

I have been unable to ascertain anything in reference to this 
species beyond what is stated in the description, and cannot from 
that approximate its true location. I do not recognize it from 
the account given by the author among the species before me in 
nature. 

345. Pamphila sonessa, Hew. Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist. (4) 
vol. xix. p. 76. 

Hah. Angola. 

The type of this insect cannot be found in the Hewitson 
collection, nor does it appear in Kirby's List of that collection, 
I have been unable to recognize it in nature from the brief 
diagnosis given by the author. It does not appear to be known 
to any of my correspondents. 

346. Hesperia schtjlzi, Ploetz, S. E. Z. vol. xliii. p. 326. 

Hah. Angola. 

The location of this species between cerymica, Hew., and 
capronnieri, Ploetz, by its author would seem to imply that it is 
closely related to these, and if so it would probably fall in the 
genus Ploetzia. In the absence, however, of any more definite 
clue, I leave it among the species the location of which is 
uncertain. 

Species possibly eeeoneouslt referred to the African fauna, 

347. Hesperia naso, Fabr. 

? East Indian {vide Butler, Catalogue of Pabrician Diurnal 
Lepidoptera, p. 271). 

348. Hesperia mango, Guen. 

Hesperia manga, Guen. Vinson's Voyage Madgr. Lep., p. 40 
(S.-American). 

349. Hesperia prodicus, Stoll, Supplement a Cramer's Papillons 
Exotiques, pi. xxxiii. fig. 6 (1791). 

The figure suggests H. cretacea, Snell., $ , more nearly than any 
other African species, but if it was intended for this it is certainly 
very crude. The habitat is given by Stoll as the Cape of Good 
Hope. Mr. Trimen ignores the species in his various works upon 



1896. BUTTERFLIES OP THE FAMILY HESPEBIIDJE. 103 

the Butterflies of that region, and no doubt veiy properly. I have 
no certain clue to its identity, but think it very probable that it is 
South-American. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Gamia galua, HoU., (S, p. Si. 

2. Artitropa margaritata, HoU., S> p- 93. 

3. Ccsnides balenge, 'Koll., 2,p. 91. 

4. „ Titaracanda, Hew., cJ, p. 88. 

5. Sidari iricolor, Holl., cf, p. 82. 

6. Cyclopides anomaus, Ploetz, p. 50. 

7. Platylesches galesa, Hew., cJ , p. 72. 

8. Baoris nyasses, Hew., $ , p. 70. 

9. Cisnides soritia, Hew., cT,p. 87. 

10. „ kangvensis, Koll., S ' V- ^"^ • 
IL Hesperia colotes, Druce, cJ, p. 25. 

12. Ccsnides eylinda. Hew., (S , p. 89. 

13. „ henga, HoU , cf > p. 89. 

14. „ ^a«d!a. Hew., $, p. 91. 

15. Hidari laterculm, Holl., cj, p. 82. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Canides binoevatus, Mab., cf ,p. 88. 

2. „ (focefe, Hew., cJ , p. 86. 

3. Hidari eanira, Hew., 5 > P- 82. 

4. Parnara{?) Ursula, Holl., cf ,p. 64. 

5. Cnaides leonora, Ploetz, (J , p. 88. 

6. Gorgyra johnstoni, 'Bnil., (J, p. 32. 

7. Acleros ploetzi, Mab., cJ . p- 29. 

8. Sarangesa astrigcra, Butl., p. 6. 

9. GastrocluBta meza. Hew., S > P- 38. _ 

10. Sarangesa lugcns, Eogenhfr., cJ,p. 5. 

11. Gorgyra subfaratm, Mab., cJ, p. 33. 

12. Platylesches nigerrima, Butl., ^ , p. 73. 

13. Boons xylos, Mab., d*. p. 67. 

14. Semalea pulviiia, Ploetz, cJ , p. 65. 

15. Platylesches nigricans, HoU., <S , p- 73- 

16. Kedestes fenestratus, Butl., p. 56. 

17. Hypoleucis (?) enantia, Karsch, p. 47. 

18. Katreus johnstonii, Butl., p. 74. 

19. Acleros placidus, Ploetz, <J, p. 29. 

20. Baoris arela, Mab., c? . P- 68. 

21. „ alberti, Holl., c?. P- 67. 

22. Sarangesa luctdella, Mab., cj, p. 7. 

23. Andronymus neander, Ploetz, c?, p. 82. 

Plate III. 

Fig. It Celanorkinus boadicea, Hew., J , p- 14. 

2. „ medetrina, Hew., p. 12. 

3. „ biseriata, Hew., c? , p. 13. 

4. „ «ja«<toa, Hpsn., cJ,p. 13. 

5. „ chrysoglossa, Mab., c? . P- W. 

6. Padraona zeno. Trim., (5, p- 59. 

7. Pardaleode9 xanthias, Mab., c?,p. 78. 

8. Ehabdomantis galatia, Hew., $ , p. 45. 

9. PardaleodesxanikopephiSf'H.oll., cJ.P-TS, 
10. Teinorhinus watsoni, HoU., p. 40. 



104 DR. W. J. HOLlAin) ON THE AFEICAlf [Jan. 14, 

Fig. 11. Oxypalpus annulifer, HoU., (J, p. 39. 

12. „ ignita, Mab., c? , p. 39. 

13. „ rtiso, Mab., p. 39. 

14. Ceratrichia Jlava, Hew., (J, p. 79. 

15. Ehabdomantis galatia, Hew., cJ,p. 45. 

16. Pardaleodes xanthopeplus, HolL, $ , p. 76. 

17. Prosopalpus duplex, Mab., p. 54. 

18. Pardaleodes reichenowi, Ploetz, 2 . p- 76. 

19. Parnara micans, HolL, ^J > P- 63. 

20. Osmodes stavdingeri, HoU., $ , p. 42. 

21. Pardaleodes bule, Holl., c? 2 , p. 76. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Os»M)£?es ^orowia. Hew., cJ , p. 40. 

2. „ „ „ 2, p. 40. 

3. „ thora, PJoetz, S , p. 40. 

4. „ thops, HolL, c?, p. 43. 

5. „ thora, Ploetz, 2 . P- 40. 

6. „ thops, HolL, 2 , p. 43. 

7. „ cAr^saw^c, Mab., cf, p. 41. 

8. Sarangesa aurimargo, Holl., (J , p. 8. 

9. Osmodes hang-haasii, HolL, cJ , p. 42. 

10. „ ado&us, Mab., (S , p. 41. 

11. Parnara suhochracea, HolL, c?, p. 63. 

12. PajrZa/eotZes yarc?<s, Karsch, 3'. p. 77. 

= astrapc, Holl. 

13. Osmodes adon, Mab., j , p. 41. 

14. Pardaleodes xanthioides, HolL, (^ , p. 78. 

15. Osmodes adon, Mab., J , p. 41. 

16. „ distiiicta, HolL, c? , p. 43. 

17. Gorgyra rubescens, HolL, (^ , p. 35, 

18. „ „ „ $,p.35. 

19. Pardaleodes sierra, HoU., cj , p. 78. 

20. Semalea nox, Mab., S , P- 66. 

21. Trichosemeia (?) hereus, hrnce, p. 16. 

22. Kedestes{?)lentiginosa, HolL, 2,p. 66. 

23. Osmodes lux, HolL, (S , p. 42. 

24. Gorgyra minima, HolL, (f, p. 33. 

25. Osmodes hix, HolL, $ , p. 42. 

Plate V. 

Pig. 1. Christoneura apiealis, Mab., cf , p. 83. 

2. Ploetzia nobilior, HolL, 5 , p. 95. 

3. Sarangesa theclides, HolL, d" , p. 8. 

4. Eagris fuscosa, HolL, $ , p. 18. 

5. Canides zaremba, Ploetz, cJ , p. 91 . 

6. Baoris statirides, HolL, cf , p. 69. 

7. Acallopistes dimidia, HolL, cJ , p. 97. 

8. Eagris detiuba, Ploetz, (J , p. 17. 

9. Sarangesa eliminuta, 'HolL, cT.p. 9. 

10. Gorgyra mocquerysii, HolL, c? , p- 33. 

11. Platylesches amadhu, Mab., (J, p. 73. 

12. Abantis ejulensis, HolL, cf, p. 21. 

13. Acallopistes holoeausta, Mab., J, p. 96. 

14. Sarangesa thecla, Ploetz, c? , p. 8. 

15. Trichosemeia subolivescens, HolL, St P- 15- 

16. Gorgyra subflavidus, HolL, cf , p. 34. 

17. Baoris ilias, Ploetz, ^ i p. 67. 

18. Canides podora, Ploetz, J , p. 86. 

= Canides dacela, Hew., $ . 



p. Z. 3.1896. Plate I. 




Wf.st T^Te^vTiian chroino lith 



AfriGSLn Hespenidae 



PZ.S.1896. Plate 11. 



tK# ^ff %i 





West.Nevvmaji chromo iitk. 



Afric axi He sp eriid. 



ae. 



-Ua 



PZ.S 1896 .Platte in. 




7 -^••■" 
Africa.li Hespenid^. 



Wbst,Newrna,n chromo litTn . 




PZ.S.1896 .Plate IV. 




4. r'^>'(" 





^^I-^tA.^«j-*. 








.•>,":i=" 






VVest.Ne-wma,Ti clrromo iitli. 



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P.Z.S.i896.Pla.te.V. 




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African liesperudas. 



1896.] 



BTJTTEBrLIES OF THE FAMILY BESPEBIID^?:. 



105 



APPENDIX. 

List of the Specific Aames which have been afioJiid to the Htsperiidse 
of Africa, which are cited in the foregoing pajjer. 

The numbers following the cames refer to the serial numbers 
prefixed to the species. Names sunk as synonyms are printed in 
italics. Where a name has been used correctly and also incor- 
rectly applied to another species as a synonym it is placed twice 
in the list in order to facilitate reference. 



abjecta, 157. 
abscondita, 89. 
abiirse, 115. 
acteon, 198. 
adelica, 61. 
adon, 134. 
adosus, 136. 
aegipan, 153. 
seschylus, 325. 
agjlla, 81. 
alberti, 226. 
albigutta, 202. 
albirostris, 210. 
albiventris, 122. 
alcese, 95. 
ali, 91. 
alveus, 93. 
amadhu, 252. 
amajjonda, 39. 
amena, 169. 
amygdalis, 310. 
anchises, 327. 
andonginis, 324. 
andrachne, 52. 
annulifer, 129. 
anomasus, 163. 
apicalis, 283. 
arbagastes, 330. 
arbogastes, 330. 
arela, 227. 
aretina, S122- 
argenteipuncta, 136. 
argenteo-gutta, 165. 
argenteostriatus, 1.55. 
argyrodes, 228. 
argyrospila, 273. 
argyrosticta, 273. 
ariel, 263. 
asterodia, 79. 
astrape, 262. 
astrigera, 6. 
atratus, 32. 
atratus, 33. 
atrio, 275. 
aures, 344. 
aurimargo, 19. 
ajTesii, 24Q. 

balenge, 303, 



bang-haasii, 139. 
barberse, 191. 
basistriga, 286. 
batangae, 253. 
batea, 126. 
bauri, 243. 
benga, 294. 
bernieri, 173. 
bicolor, 67. 
bicuta, 132. 
biguttulus, 111. 
binoevatus, 291. 
biseriata, 31. 
bismarcki, 6fi. 
bixse, 340. 
bix<B, 341. 
boadicea, 33. 
bocagii, 334. 
borbonica, 212. 
borbonica, 221. 
bosese, 309. 
bouvieri, 15. 
brevicornis, 201. 
brigida, 44. u.t.v.u-u 
brunneostriga, 167. 
brussauxi, 323. 
bidiovi, 126. 
bucbholtzi, 286. 
bule,261. 

csenira, 279. 
caffraria, 221. 
caUicles, 190. 
calpis, 279, 295. 
camerona, 149. 
canopus, 62. 
capenas, 186. 
capronnieri, 315. 
earbo, 219. 
cariate, 182. 
carmides, 100. 
catocalinus, 104. 
cerymica, 313, 
chaca, 187. 
chalybe, 341. 
chainseleon, 251. 
charita, 273. 
cheles, 154. 
chersias, 184, 



cbirala, 106. 
chrysauge, 135. 
chrysoglossa, 34. 
cinerea, 221. 
coanza, 257. 
cojo, 236. 
colattus, 207. 
collitcens, 32. 
colotes, 86. 
comus, 307. 
corduba, 298. 
coroller, 183. 
corvinus, 274. 
cretacea, 149. 
cybeutes, 127. 
cylinda, 295. 

dacela, 287. 
dacena, 296. 
dminatti, 49. 
debilis, 181. 
decastigtna, 54. 
decolor, 58. 
denuba, 58. 
derbice, 186. 
detecta, 215. 
dimidia, 319. 
diomus, 77. 
diomus, 78. 
dispar, 174. 
distincta, 140. 
ditissimus, 284, 
diversata, 115. 
diversata, 116. 
djaelsela, 1. 
dolus, 122. 
dromus, 74. 
duplex, 180. 
dysmephila, 312. 

edipus, 256. 
efulensis, 70. 
elegaiis, 208. 
elegantula, 69. 
eliminata, 18. 
ellipsis, 213. 
elm a, 96. 
elmina, 35. 
empyreus, 98, 



106 



T)R. W. J. HOLIiAND OK THE AEBICATf 



[Jan. 14, 



emppreus, 99. 
enantia, 150. 
ennius, 307. 
erinnys, 306. 
ernesti, 326. 
euryspila, 233. 
evander, 276. 
exprompta, 5. 

falattus, 215. 
fan, 270. 
fastuosu.s, 99. 
fatuellus, 221. 
fatuellus, 212. 
fenestratus, 194. 
ferox, 78. 
fervida, 332. 
festus, 259. 
flara, 311. 
flava, 273. 
flavus, 196. 
flesuB, 47. 
Jlorestan, 329. 
forestan, 329. 
formosus, 158. 
fulge-ns, 26. 
furmis, 157. 
fuscosa, 55. 

galatia, 142. 
galena, 26. 
galenus, 26. 
galesa, 249. 
galua, 284. 
gambica, 204. 
gemella, 213. 
gillias, 102. 
gisgon, 128. 
gonessa, 345. 
grandiplaga, 247. 
grisea, 7. 

hamza, 199. 
hanno, 336. 
haniw, 337. 
harona, 145. 
havei, 208. 
helops, 307. 
hereus, 45. 
herilus, 258. 
heterochrus, 116. 
heterogyna, 61. 
heterophyla, 252. 
hoehneli, 31. 
holocausta, 318. 
holtzii, 245. 
homeyeri, 38. 
hottentota, 201. 
hova, 103. 
howa, 103. 
humbloti, 37. 
hyalinata, 52. 



ibara, 208. 
icteria, 144. 
ignita, 128. 
ilerda, 300. 
ilias, 224. 
illustris, 28. 
inoerta, 257. 
inconspicua, 208. 
indusiata, 123. 
inornatus, 162. 
instabilis, 114. 
insularis, 48. 
interniplaga, 29. 
ipliis, 343. 
iricolor, 281. 

amesoni, 57. 
ohnstoni, 117. 
ohnstonii, 255. 
ucunda, 328. 
uno, 342. 
Jupiter, 343. 

kangvensis, 289. 
keithloa, 333. 
kingdom, 102. 
kobela, 25. 

lacida, 301. 
laeteus, 49. 
Iselius, 24. 
laronia, 132. 
laterculua, 280. 
laufella, 282. 
leander, 277. 
lefebvrii, 200. 
lentiginosa, 195. 
leonora, 292. 
lepeletierii, 161. 
lepenula, 184. 
letterstedti, 201. 
leucogaster, 71. 
leucophaea, 230. 
leucopogon, 296. 
leucopyga, 107. 
leucopygus, 108. 
leiKosoma, 149. 
leuzeae, 92. 
levubu, 72. 
libeon, 322. 
ligora, 265. 
limpopana, 152. 
linea, 196. 
lineola, 197. 
lodra, 209. 
lucens, 33. 
lucetia, 59. 
lueidella, 10. 
luehderi, 40. 
lugens, 2, 223. 
lux, 137. 
Ijmx, 177. 



mabea, 229. 
mabillei, 125. 
mackenii, 109. 
macomo, 185 
macrostietus, 36. 
maculata, 20, 30. 
mafa, 82. 
majorella, 9. 
malchus, 101. 
malgacha, 152. 
malthina, 233. 
mango, 348. 
maracanda, 290. 
marchalii, 222. 
margarita, 330. 
margaritata, 308. 
massiva, 298. 
mathias, 208. 
medetrina, 29. 
melancholica, 53. 
melania, 3. 
melphis, 232. 
meninx, 155. 
metis, 151. 
meza, 126. 
micacea, 7. 
micans, 217. 
mieipsa, 208. 
midas, 160. 
midea, 97. 
mineni, 178. 
minima, 119. 
mirza, 172. 
mocquerysii, 120. 
mohopaani, 208. 
mohozutza, 189. 
mokeezi, 140. 
monasi, 2.37. 
monochromus, 164. 
moraatii, 143. 
moritili, 248. 
morosa, 2. 
motozi, 11. 
motozi, 9. 
motozioides, 12. 
•nwtozioides, 15. 
mucorea, 312. 
murga, 244. 

namaquana, 64. 
nanus, 84. 
naso, 347. 
neander, 278. 
neha, 248. 
necho, 337. 
neoba, 241. 
nerva, 18. 
netopha, 236. 
nigerrima, 250. 
nigricans, 254. 
niso, 201. 
piveicomis, 240, 



1896.] 



BTTTTERFLrES OF THE FAMTfyT HESPEKIID^. 



107 



niveostriga, 193. 
nobilior, 317. 
nora, 87. 

nostrodamus, 200. 
nothus, 271. 
nottoana, 53. 
nox, 220. 
nyasscB, 236. 
nydia, 287. 

obumbrata, 202. 
occulta, 205. 
octofenestrata, 208. 
ogowena, 146. 
oileus, 94. 
olauB, 113. 
onopordii, 93. 
ophion, 47, 48. 
ophiusa, 148. 
ophthaltnica, 21. 
orma, 297. 

pallida, 127. 
pansa, 326. 
paola, 166. 
paradisea, 64. 
parous, 262. 
pardalina, 171. 
pardalinus, 171. 
paroechus, 105. 
pato, 11. 
perpaupera, 4. 
pertusa, 14. 
phidias, 343. 
phidyle, 176. 
philander, 276. 
pbilotimus, 23. 
phoeesus, 272. 
phocion, 272. 
phyllopbila, 56. 
picanini, 247. 
pillaana, 61. 
pisistratus, 331. 
placidus, 110. 
plistonicus, 22. 
ploetzi, 75, 108. 
podora, 287. 
poutieri, 214. 
prodicus, 349. 
prodiicta, 278. 
proto, 90. 
proxima, 35, 305. 
pulvina, 219. 
pumilio, 200. 
punctulata, 179. 
pusiella, 264. 
pygmcBus, 200. 
pyrosa, 128. 

quadrisignatus, 159. 
quaterna, 43. 
quaternata, 31 4, 



radama, 170. 
ramanatek, 320. 
ranoha, 143. 
rara, 60. 
ratek, 335. 
rega, 268. 
reichenowi, 259. 
rhabdophorus, 142. 
rbadama, 170. 
romi, 168. 
roncilgonis, 236. 
rubescens, 124. 
rufipuncta, 239. 
riiralis, 295. 
ruso, 130. 
rutilans, 27. 

sabadius, 52. 
sabadius, 53. 
saclavus, 175. 
samborana, 50, 
sandaster, 83. 
sandaster, 78. 
sataspes, 76. 
sataspes, 84. 
sator, 2.56. 
schulzi, 346. 
secessus, 85. 
sejuncta, 33S. 
semialba, 16. 
semilutea, 272, 
sextilis, 304. 
shelleyi, 309 «. 
sierrse, 269. 
sinnis, 210. 
smithii, 51. 
soritia, 288. 
xosia, 142. 
spio, 75. 
spio, 73. 
splendens, 207. 
statira, 234. 
statirides, 235. 
staudingeri, 138. 
Stella, 333. 
stellata, 178. 
stoehri, 293. 
subalbida, 46. 
subfacatus, 118. 
Bubflavidus, 121. 
Bubnotata, 239. 
subochracea, 216. 
subolivescens, 41. 
substrigata, 112. 
synastalmenus, 13, 
syrinx, 156. 

tancred, 339. 
tarace, 238. 
taranis, 327. 
tergemira, 27. 
tetrastigma, 42, 



tettensis, 63. 
tbaumas, 196. 
thecla, 16. 
theclides, 17. 
thersander, 265. 
thops, 141. 
thora, 133. 
thrax, 208. 
tUanota, 147. 
transvaalise, 80. 
tricerata, 8. 
trimeni, 65. 
tripunctata, 147. . 
tsita, 164. 
tucusa, 188. 

umvulensis, 68. 
umbra, 1. 
unicolor, 321. 
uniformis, 157. 
unistriga, 231. 
Ursula, 218. 

valmaran, 331. 
varia, 126. 
venosa, 68. 
venula, 19(5. 
vibius, 268. 
vindex, 73, 78. 
violascens, 297. 
virgula, 197. 

waga, 299. 
wallengrenii, 192. 
wambo, 211. 
watsoni, 131. 
watsoni, 206, 
weiglei, 316. 
weymeri, 210. 
willemi, 154. 
woermanni, 27. 

xanthargyra, 292. 
xanthias, 266. 
xanthioides, 267. 
xantho, 288. 
xanthopeplus, 260. 
xyckus, 288. 
xylos, 225. 

ypsilon, 101. 

zaira, 88. 
zambesiaca, 65. 
zambesina, 65. 
zaremba, 302. 
zeno, 206. 
zephora, 242. 
simbazo, 144. 
zintgraffi, 284 



108 DB. A. G. BUTLEB ON BTJTTEErLIES [Jan. 14, 



2. On a Collection of Butterflies obtained by Mr. Richard 

Crawshay in Nyasa-land^ between the Months of January 

and April 1895. By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D., 

F.L.S., &c. 

(Plate VI.) 

[Received December 11, 1895.] 

Many of the specimens in the present consignment from 
Mr. Crawshay, who remains for the present at his station, Deep 
Bay, on the west coast of Lake Nyasa\ were obtained at con- 
siderable altitudes, and therefore are of special interest. The only 
surprising thing is that comparatively few of the species prove to 
be undescribed, though some of the novelties which are in the 
collection are of exceptional interest, such as a Neptis represent- 
ing a new section in the genus, a pure white species of Hyreiis, a 
Myloihris which marvellously resembles Phrissura lasii, and a very 
beautiful new species of Melittia. Nine species altogether are 
described as new. 

The novelties are, however, not the only species of interest in 
this collection, for it contains the rare Satyrid Aphysoneuria 
jpigmentaria, previously imrepresented in the Museum ; a variety 
of Acrcea johnstoni, which we required ; the female of Acr(pj:( 
vinidia, var. tenella ; specimens of A. anacreon tending to Unk it to 
A. bomha (a seasonal form of it) ; a second example of A.penphanes 
(seasonal form of A. ginllemei) ; examples of Alcetia nyassce, 
proving that I was correct in speaking of the buff form as a 
variety ; specimens of Catochrysops tjlauca, a very beautiful 
Lyeaenid new to the Museum series ; the true female of Castalivs 
Jiintza, proving my C. resplendens to be a distinct species : specimens 
of Durbania hildegarda, of which we previously only possessed 
one poor example ; Larinopoda peucetia, of which the type alone 
existed in the Hewitson cabinets ; examples of Uranothauma 
erawshayi in both sexes ; the female of Epamera sidus, new to the 
collection ; both sexes of Teracolns opalescens ; the male of T. mutans, 
which was previously unknown ; variations of Cydopides quadri- 
signatus; the female of the rare Hesperid Kedestes capenas; 
specimens of Padraona watsoni, hnking that species to P. zeno ; 
and the male of Icterodes roseovittata, which was previously 
undescribed. 

As with other collections obtained by Mr. Crawshay, most of 
the specimens are in good condition, and therefore easily identified : 
with the exception of two or three specimens (the descriptive notes 
of which may have been lost when they were mounted, or may 
never have been wantten on the envelopes) all were carefully 
labelled vrith the exact locahty, date of capture, a popular name 

1 About 10° 50' S. lat. See map attached to Sir H. H. Johnston's paper. 
Geogr. Journ. v. p. 193 (1895). ' • 



1896,] PBOM MTASA-LAiTD. 109 

descriptive o£ the insect, and any other note of interest which 
occurred to Mr. Crawshay at the time. 

The following is a list of the species in this consignment : — 

Ehopaloceea. 

1. NjEOCiENTEA YPTHIMOIDES. 

Neoccenyra ypthimoides, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 646. 

S , Kondowi, Lower Xyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, 5th April, 
1895. 

$ , Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 

The male is noted as " Black Einglet " and the female as " Black 
Kinglet with eyes," the ocelli being larger in this sex. 

2. Samanta peespicua. 

Mi/calesis jjerspicua, Trimeu, Trans. Ent. Soe. London, 1873, 
p. 104, pi. i. fig. 3. 

2 , Kambwiyi, Lower ^lyika, Jan. 2l8t, 1895. 

5 , Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd. 
" Dusky Einglet "' {B. C). 

3. MTCAUiSIS EHACOTIS. 

Mycalesis rhacotis, Hewitson, Exot. Butt. iii. 3Iyc. pi. viii. fig. 50 
(1866). 

d d , Henga, W". of Lake Nyika, Feb. 1st, 1895. 
"Black Einglet "(ie. C). 

4. PHTSCiEinJEA PIOlfE. 

5 . Physccmum pione, Godman, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 183, pi. xix. 
tigs. 2, 3 ; d . Trimen, I. c. 1894, p. 20, pi. iv. fig. 1, 

cJ 2 • Periplysia johtistoni, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 647, pi. ix. 
fig. 1, cf . 

$ 5 , Mtambwi Hill, Deep Bay, west coast of Lake Nvasa, 
April 3rd, 1895. 

" Black and white Heath " {B. C). 

5. Tpthima doleta, var. 

Ypthirm doleta, Kirby, Proc. Eoyal Dubl. Soc. 1879, separate 
copy p. 44. 

6 , Henga, W. of Lake Nyika, Feb. 1st, 1895. 
« Brindled Heath " {B. C). 

A single male, probably representing the dry-season form of 
this species ; it differs chiefly from the typical form in its inferior 
size and the minute ocelli of the under surface. 

6. Aphysoneuria pigmentaeia. 

Ajjhysoneima pigmenfaria, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. xx. p. 191 
(June 1894). 

BhapUceropsis pringlei, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. (Aug. 1894), 
p. 336, pi. xix. figs. 1, 2. 



110 DB, A. G, BUTLER ON BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14, 

Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 6th and 11th, 1895. 

This species is new to the Museum series ; two examples were 
obtained, one in very good condition, the other somewhat worn. 
Mr. Crawshay calls it the " Black-and-white Glade Butterfly." 

7. Chaeaxes deucbahtjs. 

Oharaxes druceanus, Butler, Cist. Ent. i. p. 4 (Oct. 1869) ; Lep. 
Exot. p. 26, pi. X. fig. 4. 

cf , jSTyankowa Mt., 5575 feet alt., Nyika, April 10th, 1895. 

The single specimen obtained is the most perfect I have ever 
seen, but its chief interest lies in the fact that the markings on 
the under surface of the wings are somewhat aberrant ; the 
differences, if constant, would serve to distinguish it as a species, 
but the female received from Zomba shows transitional characters. 
Mr. Crawshay notes this as the " Burnt-umber and Silver Swallow- 
tail," but it is one of the " Emperor *' group. 

8. JUNONIA SESAMUS. 

Precis sesamus, Trimen, South Afr. Butt. i. p. 231, pi. iv. fig. 3 
(1887). 

Kondowi, 4110 feet alt., Lower Nyika, March 1895 (taken by 
M. Moffat, Esq., of the Livingstone Mission) ; Cheni-Cheni Mt., 
6430 feet alt., Nyika, April 17th; Kambwiyi, 3800 feet alt.. 
Lower Nyika, April 20th. 

" Violet, scarlet, and black Tortoiseshell " (li. G.). 

9. JUNONIA CHAPUNGA. 

Juiionia chapunga, Hewitson, Exot. Butt. iii. Jun. pi. i. figs. 2, 3 
(1864). 

(J , Nyankowa Mt., 5576 feet alt., Nyika, April 10th, 1895. 
" Black scarlet-beaded Admiral " (R. C). 

10. JuNONIA TRIMENII. 

Junonia trimenii, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 651, pi. Ix. fig. 4. 
5 , Mtambwi, foot of Nyika plateau, W. of Lake Nyasa, 
Feb. 4th, 1895. 

"Salmon-coloured Tortoiseshell" (R. C). 

11. JUNOKIA SIMLA. 

Precis simm,Wallengren, Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Hand! 
1857, p. 26. 

cJ , Lumpi E., Lower Nyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 2nd, 
1895. 

" Small Tortoiseshell " (E. C). 

12. Junonia calescens. 

Junonia calescens, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 652. 
S , Watisi, Lower Nyika, Jan. 21 st, 1895. 
■" Scarlet and black Tortoiseshell " {E. C). 



1896.] Jfbom Nyasa-laITd. Ill 

13. JUNONIA CEETNE. 

Salamis ceryne, Boisduval, Faun. Madag. p. 46 (1833). 
(S (S , Henga, west of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 1st, 1895. 
" British (!) Tortoiseshell " {R. C). 

The trivial name is a curious one ; there is certainly no British 
species of Junonia : memory is a treacherous reed to lean upon. 

14. Junonia auboeina. 

Junonia aurorina, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 651, pi. Ix. fig. 3. 

(S , Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 5th, 1895. 

" Black and orange Tortoiseshell " {R. C). 

Prof. Aurivillius considers that J. aurorina, J. milonia = ]cowara, 
J. sinuata, and J. tugda may all be races or local forms of one 
species. This is one of the very few points in which I differ from 
this admirable Lepidopterist. I think it possible that J. milonia 
and J. sinuata may be seasonal forms of one species, and J. tugela 
and J. aurorina of another allied species ; but I do not see my 
way at present to uniting the western and eastern species, which 
appear to be constant. Prof. Aurivillius proposes to regard 
./. pyriformis as a fifth development of the species, but as both the 
western and eastern forms are already provided with probable dry 
and wet-season races it would be puzzling to discover under what 
category to place this singularly formed type : that it is constant 
in its proper locality seems to be demonstrated conclusively by 
our seven examples ; but it is not safe to dogmatize about the 
constancy of African Lepidoptera, and therefore I do not say that 
transitional links will not be discovered, which may eventually 
unite it to ./. aurorina, though, at present, I do not believe that 
such links exist. 

15. JimoNiA cloantha. 

PapiJio cloantha, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ccexxxviii. A, B (1782). 
cJ d , Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. Ist, 1895. 
" Hirsute underwinged Tortoiseshell " (R. C). 

16. Junonia blgiva. 

Junonia elgiva, Hewitson, Exot. Butt. iii. Jun. pi. i. fig. 1 (1864). 
cJ, Ngerenge, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 27th, 1895. 
" Old-gold and black Admiral " {R. C). 

17. Junonia boopis. 

Junonia hoopis, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1879, p. 331. 
c? , Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 1st, 1895. 
" Blue underwinged Admiral " {R. C). 

18. Junonia cebbene. 

Junonia cebrene, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1870, p. 353. 
(J cJ , Henga, Jan. 25th, and Ngerenge, Feb. 24th. 
" Light brown and black Admiral " (R. C). 



112 DE. A. a. BUTLER ON BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14, 

19. Pteameis cakdui. 

Papilio cardui, Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 276 (1761). 
S , Chilindi (8 miles S. of Karonga), W. coast of Lake Nyasa, 
March 1st, 1895. 

" Painted Lady " (B. C). 

20. Htpanaetia sch(eneia. 

Eumna schceneia, Trimen, Trans. Bnt. Soc. London, 1879, p. 329. 
cJ , Nyankowa Mt., 6500 ft. alt., April 9th, 1895. 

" Scarlet Admiral " (R. C). 

The colouriug of Hypanartia must be very fugitive ; for speci- 
mens never come to hand with scarlet bands. As I have already 
suggested, this will probably prove to be a seasonal form of 
H. Mjypomenes. 

21. Pseud ARGTNNis hegemone. 

Argynnis Jieyemone, Godart. Enc. Meth. ix. p. 258 (1819). 

Jaera duodecimpunctata, Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. 2nd ser. part 7, 
pi. i. figs. 1, 2 (1872). 

cJ , Kondowi, Sower Nyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, April 5th ; 
2 , Kondowi, 4110 feet alt., April 11th, 1895. 

" Silver-tipped Fritillary. $ full of bright green eggs " (R. C). 

Nyasa-land appears to be the headquarters of this rare butterfly, 
which for many years was unrepresented in the Museum collection ; 
it never comes in numbers, but collections from Nyasa usually 
contain one or, rarely, two examples, and, as a rule, of the male 
sex. 

22. Hamanumida DjEdalus. 

Pajiilio dcedalus, Eabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 482 (1775). 
cJ , Lower Nyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Dark grey and white Fritillary " (R. C). 

23. NePTIS AGATHA. 

Papilio agatha, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ccexxvii. A, B (1782). 
cJ , Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 30th ; $ , Cheni-Cheni 
Mt., 5700 feet alt., Nyika, April 17th, 1895. 

" White Admiral. $ full of bright green ova " {R. C). 

24. Neptis incongrua, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 2.) 

2 . Upper surface dark olivaceous brown, the fringes black at 
the extremities of the veins, white between them : primaries with 
a minute subcostal white point near the end of the cell, two 
(elongated) immediately beyond the cell, and a fourth below the 
latter in the lower radial interspace ; seven white spots in three 
groups crossing the disc much as in N. marpessa — three subapical 
(the first small), two on the median interspaces, and two, separated 
by the submedian vein, near external angle : secondaries crossed 
beyond the middle by a tolerably regular white belt, separated by 



3S96.] FKOM STASA-LAND, 113. 

the nerviires into eight spots, the first of which is smallest : body 
black ; head, collar, and front of ptervgodes spotted with white. 
Under surface much paler than above, bronze-brown, with a paler 
triangular patch at centre of outer margin of all the wings, and 
with the costal area of secondaries paler to just beyond the white 
belt; primaries with three white spots forming an elongated 
triangle in the cell, four io a semicircle beyond the cell, and seven 
crossing the disc as above, but larger ; belt of secondaries as 
above ; pectus black, spotted with white and clothed with tawny 
hair ; venter fuliginous, A^ith sordid white central stripe ; legs 
striped with white longitudinally. Expanse of wings .59 millim. 

Kantorongondo Mt., 15,900 feet alt., Xyika, April loth, 1895. 

" Black and white Admiral. Grass-green ova'"' (E. C). 

This extraordinary species is represented by a single example, 
the wings of which on one side are badly shattered ; it does not 
appear to be neai-ly related to any other species in the genus, but 
perhaps should form a distinct section next to N. marpessa, 
though in some respects it more nearly resembles the Australian 
N. sheplierdi. 

25. AtELLA COLIDklBINA. 

Fapilio cohimhina, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. ccxxxviii, A. B ; 
iv. pi. cccxxxvii. D, E(1782). 

d , Heuga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 28th, 1895. 
" Common old-gold Eritillary " (li. C). 

26. Byblia tttlgaeis. 

Hypanis ilithyia, \av. vulgaris, Staudinger, Exot. Schmett. 
p. 1U6. 

J, Mtambwi, foot of Nyika plateau, Feb. 4tb, 1895. 

" Eeddish-brown Wall " (li. 0.). 

This is the form which I have hitherto regarded as B. aclidoia ; 
but Prof. Aurivillius has pointed out to me that B. cora is that 
race, a much rarer form, having the nuder surface of the second- 
aries belted with dull reddish argillaceous. B. vulyaris differs very 
little froDi B. goetzins of Herbst. The species of Acraince in the 
present collection are, as usual in African series, well represented, 
and in the present instance are of exceptional interest to us. 

27. ACEJEA JOHNSTONI. 

d" . Acrcea joJinstoni, Godman, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 537 ; $ . Butler, 
P. Z. S. 1888, p. 91. 

Yar. semialbescetis, Oberth. : 

d d , JS'yankow a Mt., Xyika, April 10th ; Kondowi, 4110 feet 
alt.. Lower Nyika, April 12th, 1895. 

YiiT.JIavescens=:JLilimanf/jara, Oberth. : 
d d , Kondowi, April 6th and 12th, 1895. 

" Black and while Eritillary. Plies high, generally far out of 
reach "(i?. C). 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. Till. 8 



114 DR. A. G. BUTLER ON BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14, 

No two examples of this species are absolutely alike, and thus 
the unfortunate creature has received the following names since 
Mr. Godman first made it known : — M. Oberthiir calls it A. pro- 
teina,Jlavescens, semijulvescens, falvescens, and semialhescenn \ 11 err 
Eogenliofer calls it A. telekiana, confusa, and falla.v ; and Herr 
Karsch denominates it A. octohalia : the species thus has ten 
names ; it di\'ides itself very vaguely into four varieties, as 
follows : — 

1. A. johnstoni, \i\ which the sexes differ greatly; the typical 
male is described by M. Oberthiir as A. semifulveseens, and the 
typical female as A. proteina. 

'2. A. fuhcscens, Oberth. = J^. telekiana, Kghfr. 

3. A. semiaViescens, Oberth. 

4. A.Jlavescens (it a male) = ^. hifimancfjara, Oberth. = ^4. coiifusa 
and A. fallax, Kghfr., and A. octohalia, Karsch. 

In the last-mentioned fonn both sexes have adopted the female 
dress ; but the male sometimes has the spots on the primaries 
yellowish. 

Acrcea is a very variable genus, and it has been the custom of 
lepidopterists to regard all the different phases of each species as 
distinct ; the genus, when properly studied, reduces itself to about 
a third of its supposed magnitude. The triangular black apical 
patch, which has been made to serve as a specific character in 
several instances, is of no value whatever, being a purely indi- 
vidual characteristic dependent on presence or absence of moisture. 

28. ACR.^A CABIRA. 

Acrcea cahira, HopfPer, Ber. Yerh. Akad. Berlin, 1855, p. 640 ; 
Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. p. 378, pi. 23. figs. 14, 15 (1862). 

ij (S , Chifumva, Lower Nvika, 20th April ; $ , Munchewi B., 
Lower Nyika, April 8th, 18P5. 

" Yellow and black Tritillary. $ f idl of orange-coloured ova " 
(E. C). 

29. ACE^A TINIDIA. 

Acrcea vimdia, Hevvitson, Eut. Month. Mag. xi. p. 130 (1874); 
Exnt. Butt. V. Acr. pi. 7. figs. 45, 46 (1875). 

Yar. Acrcea acerata, Hewitsou, Ann. & Mng. Nat. Hist. s^r. 4, 
vol.xiii. p. 381 (1874) ; Exot. Butt. v. Aa-. pi. 7. fig. 44 (1875). 

Albino : Acra;a tenelJa, Eogenhofer, Ann. Ilof. Mus. Wien 
(1891). 

Acrcea ahhotii, Holland, Entomologist, Sup pi. xxv. (1892). 

2 , Ngerenge, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 27th, 1895. 

" Pale orange and black Fritillary " (H. C). 

This species, like most of the Acrcece, is very variable, and 
especially in the female sex ; the present example is straw-yellow, 
with the normal black border, subapical bar, and basal marking ; 
it may therefore stand as the female of the albino form A. tenella, 
a male example of which we have from Kilima-njaro. 



1896.] rSOM NYASA-hAND. 115 

As an example oF ihe inconsistency of those lepidopterists who 
have been styled "Lumpers," Ilewitson's separation of two 
palpable forms of the present species is noteworthy. 

30. ACE.IA EXCELSIOR. 

Acrcea excelsior, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 192, pi. xvii. 
fig. 3. 

d" 6 , Kondowi, Lower Nyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, April 4th and 
6th ; $ 2 , Nyankowa Mt., 6500 feet alt., April'gth ; S , Liunpi E. 
valley, Lower Nyika, April 21st, 1895. 

" Deep-bordered orange and black Fritillary " (E. C). 

This rare species is one of the most beautiful in the genus. 

31. ACB.'EA TEXTTTRA. 

Acrcea ventura, Hewitson, Ent. Month, Mag. xiv. p. 51 (1877). 
d , LuiHpi E., Lower jVyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Eeb. 2nd ; 
2 , Nyankovva Mt., 5575 feet alt., Nyika, April I'Oth, 1895. 
" Orange and black Fritillary." 

32. ACB^A SEKENA, var. EUXTONI, 

Acrcea buatoni, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xvi, 
p. 395(1875). 

d" J, Deep Bay, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 14th, and 
Ngereiige Plains, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 24th, 1895. 

" Small orange and black Fritillary " (H. C). 

Whether this is a race or a sectional form of ^1. serena can only 
be decided by breeding it ; but with our present extensive series 
I find it impossible to regard the following as distinct species :— 
A. serena = e2J0niiia=/anisca= rovgetii =maujaca= hi(xtoni=pt,r- 
rupia = balina. .Probably the Linnean name terpsichore should 
stand over A. senna, but there is so much doubt connected with 
the identification of that species that the better-known name 
seems preferable at present. 

33. AcE^A LYciA, var. sganzini. 

Acrwa sganzini, Boisduval, Fanne Madag. p. 34, pi. vi. figs. 6, 7 
(1833). 

J , Mrali, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2nd, 1895. 
" Lesser speckled brown and white Fritillary " (E. C). 
A. lycia separates roughly into three forms, which are linked 
together by numerous intergrades ; they are — 

1. Acrcva sganzini, vaguely resembling Limnas cJiriisippus. 

2. AcrcBU daira=i(sagarfe, like 1, but wanting black at apex. 

3. Acrmi lycia = hraune), pattern of 1, ground-colour white. 
Every link between these varieties is now represented in the 

Museum collection. A. claira appears to be an Eastern and 
Central-African sport of the species, occurring together with the 
two normal forms ; it is completely linked to the A. sganzini 
type by intergrades, and therefore cannot be regarded as a race of 



116 DE. A. G. BUTLER ON BUTTEBFLIES [Jail. 14, 

the species. All that can be said is, that in Central and Eastern 
Africa a variety occurs which (in its extreme development) has 
been named A. claira. 

34. ACE^A ANACREON. 

Aercea anacreon, Trimen, Trans. Eut. Soc. London, 1868, p. 77, 
pi. vi. tigs. 3-5. 

d . Var. Aercea homba, H. G. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, vol. iii. p. 128 (1880) ; Ehop. Exot. i. Acr. pi. iii. iigs. 5, 6 
(1892). 

Ac7-(ea induna, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1895, p. 184, pi. 5. 
figs. 3, 3 a. 

cJ , Nyaukowa Mt., 5575 feet alt., Nyika, April 10th ; Kanto- 
rongoudo Mt., 7305 feet alt., iS'yika, A]n-il 16th ; $ , Cheni-Cheni 
Mr,, 7225 feet alt., Kyika, April 17th, 1895. 

Intermediate grades to A. homba : 

o d , ^Syankowa Mt., 5575 ft. alt., Nyika, April 9th and 10th ; 
Kautorougoiido Mt., 7305 feet alt., Nyika, April 16th. 

We received a typical female of A. bomha (but somewhat 
melanistic) from Zomba ; it is the species referred to P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 262, u. 45, The black apical area and the width of the 
baud on under surface of secondaries are both variable characters 
of no specific importance. 

35. ACBiEA GUILLEMEI. 

cJ . Aercea guiUemei, Oberthiir, Etudes, livr. xvii. p. 19, pi. 1. 
fig. 1 (1893) ; $ . Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 658. 

Var. S ■ Acra'a jierijihanes, Oberthiir, I. c. p. 20, pi. 2. fig. 23 
(1893). 

Var. peripJianes. 

6 , Henga, "W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 22nd, 1895. 

" Scarlet black-spotted and black-tipped Fntillary " (i?. C). 

This is a rare variety of A. r/uilkmei, differing in nothing 
excepting the broad black apical patch of the primaries — a 
variation which crops up in a great number of species and is, 
doubtless, seasonal. 

36. ACR.S)A DOUBLEDAXI. 

Aciaa doubleclayi, Guerin, Lefebvre's Voy. en Abyss, vi. p. 378 
(1847). 

Aercea oncam, Hopffer, Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. v. pi. 24. 
figs. 5-8 (1862). 

Aercea axina, Westwood in Oates's Matabele-Land, p. 344, pi. E. 
figs. 5, 6 (1881). 

Var. Aercea dirccea, Westwood, 1. c. p. 348. 

2 . Telchinia nero, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, 
vol. xii. p. 102 (1883). 

(S , Lumpi E.., Lower Nvika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Small speckled Eritillary " (li. C). 



1896.] PEOJi jSttasa-lajstd. 117 

Yar. dirccea : 

Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 1st, 1895. 

"Eose and black white-tailed Fritillary " (R. C). 

This form varies, not only in the width of the black apical 
patch of primaries, the position of the second spot of the central 
transverse series, the width of the black border of the secondaries 
with its more or less defined sabmarginal spots, but, curiously 
enough, the terminal two-hfths of the abdomen may be either 
ochreous or snow-white. As in the variety axma ( 5 , nero) the 
submarginal spots of the primaries are wanting. The specimen 
now received bears a strong general resemblance to A. natalica. 

In his paper, publislied in the 'Proceedings' for 1891, Mr. 
Trimeu lays stress upon the absence of the sabmarginal spots 
as a good character for the discrimination of A. axiiui from 
A. doubledayi : I am sure that his earlier decision was the correct 
one, and that this character cannot be relied upon ; in A. cceciliu, 
var. stenohcea ($ =liijas = albomacidaia) the submarginal spots are 
sometimes present, sometimes absent ^ 

37. ACRiEA ifATALICA. 

Acrcea natalica, Boisduval, Voy. de Deleg. p. 590 (1847). 
d 2 i Toot of Jakwa Mt., Henga-Nkamanga, W". of Lake Nyasa, 
Jan. 28th and 29th ; c? , Mtambwi, foot of Nyika plateau, 
Peb. 4th, 1895. 

cJ , " -ttose and black Fritill.iry " ; $ , " Dusky Eritillary " (R. 0.). 

With our present extensive series it is iinpo^isible to keep 
A. pseudefjiiia distinct from A. natalica, of which it is only the 
Western phase, the two extremes are completely linked by inter- 
grades. 

38. AcrjEA caldaeena. 

Acrcea caldarena, Hewitson, Eat. Month. Mag. xiv. p. 52 
(1877). 

cJ $ , taken in coitu, Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 6th, 1895. 

I gave the correct synouymy of this species (if species it be) in 
the ' Proceedings' for 1893, p. 657. I, Iiow(;ver, strougly suspect 
it to be merely a seasonal development of A. ccecilia, var. stenohcea, 
from which it chiefly differs in the broad black apical patch on 
the primaries. 

39. ACE^A ASBMA. 

Acrcea asema, Hewitson, Ent. Month. Mag. xiv. p. 52 (1877) ; 
Trimen, P. Z. S. 1894, p. 24, pi. iv. figs. 3, 3 a. 
Acrcea empusa, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 656. 
Acrcea omrora, Trimen, P. Z. S. 1894, p. 24, footnote. 
5 , Lumpi E., Lower Nyika, Peb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Small speckled Eritillary " {2i. 0.). 

^ My identificatioa of A. atcnobma with a S.-African male of A. ligus was 
confirmed by Prof. AurivLllius during his reoent visit (Aug. 1895). 



118 DE, A. G. BUTLER OTi BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14 

This species varies in tint, from semitransparent greyish bone- 
colour to ahnost opaque orange tawny ; the spots vary in number 
and size, and the apical border of primaries in width : it is this 
inconstancy in the present species which convinces me that 
A. stenolKPa=ligiis is only a bright-coloured and more opaque 
phase of A. cceeilla. 

40. ACE^A. ANBMOSA. 

Acrcea anemosa, Hewitson, Exot. Butt. iii. pi. 8. figs. 14, 15 
(1865). 

Acrcea arcticincta, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. xii. 
p. 103 (1883). 

S . Ndara, "W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2ud, 1895. 

" Orange and black, crimson and pink underwinged Fritillary, 
Have only seen this one specimen" [11. C). 

This is a very variable species ; not only does it difPer greatly in 
the width of the black border of secondaries (on which character 

1 based my A. arcticincta), but in the size and number of the black 
spots on the primaries. One of our 31 examples, in addition 
to the basal black patch, the bar beyond the end of cell, and the 
apical patch, exhibits five well-defined discal black spots, all of 
which are absent in some specimens, it also shows a conspicuous 
black spot on the lower discocellular veinlet. 

The LycaenidsB of the collection contain a nice series of the new 
genus Uranothauma and several other forms of interest. 

41. Al^NA NTASSyD. 

Alcena nyassce, Hewitson, Ent. Month. Mag. xiv. p. 6 (1877). 

Lumpi E., Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd ; Mtambwe Hill, Deep Bay, 
April 3rd ; Manchewi Falls, Lower Nyika, April 6th ; Lumpi 
Valley, Aprin3th, 1895, 

"Marbled white Skipper'" (R. C). 

These specimens are interesting, three of tbem being white- 
banded as in typical A. nynssce, but Mith the subapical white spot 
of var. ochracea ; the fourth example has a white band across the 
primaries, but a bufE baud across the secondaries, thus proving that 
I was correct in not regarding A. ocliracta as a distinct species. 

42. POLTOMMATUS BJ5TICUS. 

Papilio hceticiis, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 789 (1767). 
? , Kapoio, Songwi E. plain, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 26th ; 

2 , Nyankowi Mt., Nyika, 5575 feet alt., April 9th : d 2 in 
coitu, April 10th ; S , Kwereru Hill, Deep Bay, April 22nd, 1895 

<S , " Alexis-like Blue " ; $ , " Dull azure Blue " {R. O.). 

43. Catochetsops osieis. 

Lycmia osiris, Hopffer, Ber. Verh. Ak. Berlin, 1855, p. 642 ; 
Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. v. p. 409, pi. 26. figs. 11, 12 (1862). 
d , Lumpi E. valley, Lower Nyika, April 21st, 1895, 



1896.] from nyasa-lakd. 119 

44. Catochrysops hippocratbs. 

Hesperia Jiippocrates, Fabricius, Enfc. Syst. ili. p. 28S (1793) ; 
Donovan, Ins. Ind. pi. 45. lig. 3 (1800). 

(S , Lower Nyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
A rare, western form, which I have not previously seen from 
Central Africa. 

45. Catochrysops glauca. 

Lijccena glauca, Trimeu, South Afr. Butt. vol. ii. p. 21 (1887). 

cj 6 , Kwereru Hill, Deep Bay, April 22nd, 1895. 

" Cbalk-hill Blue. A frequenter of open forest, very active and 
restless and difficult to capture " (Ii. C). 

This very beautiful species is quite new to us : in its pale 
glittering yellow-greenish tint it stands out distinct from all the 
other species of the 0. jiarsimon group. 

46. EVERES JOBATES. 

Lyccena johates, Hopffer, Ber. Verb. Ak. Berlin, 1855, p. 642 ; 
Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. v. p. 40S, pi. 26. tigs. 9, 10 (1862). 

2 , Upper Leya, six miles N.W. of Deep Bay, March 3rd, 
1895. 

" Orange-lower-wing Blue. Very restless " (B. C). 

The finest example I have seen of this somewhat rare species. 

47. AZANTTS SIGILLATUS. 

Lampides sif/illata, Butler, Ann. & Mag. JNTat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. xviii. p. 483 (1876). 

c? d , Mrali, W. coast of Lake Nvasa, March 2nd, 1895. 

" Lesser Alexis-like Blue " {Ii. (J.). 

A rare form of the A. c/amra group, originally described from a 
pair received from Abyssinia ; one of the examples obtained by 
Mr. Crawshay agrees in all respects with A. natalensis, Trimeu, 
which will therefore have to sink as a synonym of my species. 

48. Tarucus PLrNitrs. 

Hesperia pliniuf!, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 284 (1793), 
Li/aena pidchra, Murray, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loudon, 1874, p. 524, 
pi. 10. figs. 7, 8. 

2 , Foot of Jakwa Mt., Henga-Nkamanga, "W. of Lake Nyasa, 

Jan. 28th ; S , Mrali, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2nd ; 

cJ, Nvankowa Mt., Nyika, April J 0th; ?, Cheni-Cheui Mt., 

4500 feet alt., Nyika, April 18th; c? 5 , Lurapi E. valley, 

Lower Nyika, April 21st, 1895. 

Mr. Crawshay calls the male " Double peacock-spotted hair- 
tailed Blue," and the female " Peacock-eyed double-tailed Blue " 
and " Chequered double peacock-eye Blue." 

The species is very common and. varies a good deal. 



120 dr. a. g. butlek ojt butterflies [jan. 14, 

49. Castalius hintza. 

Lycona liintza, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, ser. 3, vol. ii. 
p. 177 (1864); Bhop. Afr. Aiistr. ii. p. 243 (1866). 

$ , Cbikunguru, Lower Xj^ika, April 20th, 1895. 

"Black and white chequered violet-tinged Blue " {R. C). 

This species differs from my female C. resplendcns on both 
surfaces, the secondaries of the Abyssinian form being crossed 
from apex to inner margin by a continuous band above, the 
markings on the under surface being also more regular, those 
crossing the disc formino; a regular zigzag : the female before me 
corresponds with a male from Balapye, Kama's Country, and is 
doid^tless the true C. hintza ; but C. resplendens appears to be a 
distinct though allied form. 

50. Castalitts calice. 

Lycmia caUce, Hopffer, Ber. Verb. Ak. Berl. 1855, p. 642 ; 
Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. v. p. 405, pi. '2Q. figs. 4, 5 (1862). 

2 , Henga, W. of Lake Nj-asa, Jan. 30th, 1895 ; Chani-Cheni 
Mt., 4500 feet alt., Nyika, April 18th ; c? 2 , Chikunguru, Lower 
Kyika, April 20th, 18Uo. 

'" Black-bordered tiny white Blue " {R. C). 

A rare species in collections. 

51. LTaEXESTHES .U)HEB,BAL. 

2 . Li/cmm adherhal, Mabille, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, 
p. 217. 

S . Luccenesihes lunulata, Trimen, P. Z. S. 1894, p. 51, pi. vi. 
fig. 12. 

2 , Kambwivi, 3800 feet alt.. Lower Nyika, April 20th, 1895. 
"Three-tailed Blue" {R. C). 

The finest example which has hitherto come to hand of this 
beautiful species. 

52. ZlZEEA GAIKA. 

Lyccena gaiha, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 3rd ser. vol. i. 
p. 403 (1862). 

2 , Mrah, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2nd, 1895. 

53. Plebeiits teochiltis. 

Lycrena trochilus, Preyer, Neuere Beitr. v. pi. 440. fig. 1 (1844). 

Lumpi E., Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd ; Kondowi, April 4th ; 
Chiwayi, 3700 feet alt., April 20th, 1895. 

" Tiny dark-colom-ed orange-spotted Blue " (R. C). 

54. DUEBANIA HILDEGABDA. 

2 ? Teriomima ? hildeyarda, Kirbv, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 5, vol. xix. p. 367 (1887) ; Ehbp. Exot. i. Afr. Luc. pi. iv. 
figs. 7, 8 (1888). 



1896.] FROM NTASA-LAND. 121 

Kondowi, Lower Nyika, 4110 feet alt., April 5th, 6th, and 11th, 
1895. 

Quite a new species to us ; Mr. Crawshay calls it " Orange, 
black-barred Heath." 

55. TlNGKA AMEIfAIDA. 

Fentila amenaida, Hewitson, Exot. Butt. v. Pent. & lApt. pi. 2. 
figs. 4-7 (1873). 

Kambwiyi, Lower Nyika, "W. of Lake iSTyasa, Jan. 21st ; 
Mtambwi Hill, Deep Bay, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, April 3rd ; 
Kondowi, April 5th, 1895. 

" Orange and black-speckled " {R. C). 

56. Laeixopoda petjcetia. 

Fentila peueetia, Hewitson, Exofc. Butt. iii. Pent. & Llpt. pi. 1. 
fig- 3. 

Lumpi Valley, Lower Xyika, April 13t,h, 1895. 

" Black and white Wood-White with orange legs " (P. C). 

Previously unrepresented in the general Museum series, and in 
the Hewitson collection by the type specimen only. 

57. LACHNOCSEilA BIBTJLUS. 

Hesperia hihulus, Eabricius, Eut. Syst. iii. 1, p. 307. n. 163 
(1793). 

S ? , Chilindi (8 miles S. of Karonga), W. coast of Lake 
Nyasa, Eeb. 23rd ; 5 , var., Lumpi li. valley, 4000 feet alt.. 
Lower Nyika, April 21st, 1895. 

" Black and white silver-speckled undei'wing Blue " {R. C.) '. 
Yar. durbani: " Fluffy Blue. 5 , orange ova" (R. C). 

Formerly it was supposed that the two types of female 
indicated distinct species, but they are probably temperature 
forms. Wherever the species occurs, both types are to be found ; 
the present series contains typical females of L. bibulus and 
L. durbani. 

58. HtEEUS PALEJIOIf. 

Papilio jjalemon, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. cccxc. E, P (1782). 

Manchewi Palls, Lower Nyika, April 6th ; Nyankowa Mt., 
5425 feet alt., Nyika, April 8th ; Kantorongondo Mt., 5900 feet 
alt., April 14th and 15th; Cheni-Cheni Mt., 4500 feet alt., 
April 18th, 1895. 

" yilvery underwinged " and " Bronze-winged Blue. 2 , ova 
emerald-green " {R. C). 

59. Hteeus vlrgo, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 1.) 

5 . Snow-white : primaries with the base, costal and external 

^ By some oversight the sexual marks are reversed on the label, the white- 
banded females being labelled as males, and the uniibrm male as female. 



122 DR. A. G. BTTTLEE ON BXTTTEUFLIES [Jan. 14, 

borders, a transverse patch over the discoceUiilars, and a macular 
subapical bar, sometimes confluent with the external border, black : 
secondaries with a black external border, its inner edge slightly 
irregular, two metallic -blue siibmarginal spots, between which at 
extremity oF first median branch the usual tail, black tipped with 
white, is emitted ; fringes spotted with white : body black, margins 
of eyes and a transverse line on the vertex white ; antennae ringed 
with white. Under surface pure white, with black markings nearly 
as in IJ.juba, but more sharply dehned, the central irregular band 
across the secondaries only represented by a black Y-shaped costal 
patch, with the V portion filled in; the marginal border barely 
indicated, excepting towards anal angle, where the black spots 
touched with blue and green metallic scales are well-defined, as 
well as an irregular zigzng line at the back of them. Expanse of 
wings 33 millim. 

2 ? , Cheni-Cheni Mt., 4500 feet nlt.,]S7ika, April ISth, 1895, 

" Black-bordered' white Blue " {E. C). 

Two examples of this very fine species were obtained; one of 
which, however, was much shattered. 

60. TJeanotilvuma crawsilvyi. 

Uranothauma craiushayi, Butler, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 631, pi. xxxv. 
figs. 6, 7. 

d S , Nyankowa Mt., 6500 feet alt., Nyika, April 9th, 1895 ; 
$ , Kantorongondo Mt., 5900 feet alt., Nvika, April 15th; S, 
2 ? , 6975 feet alt.. i\pril 16th, 1895. 
" Giant Blue " (E. C). 

61. SPI]!n)ASIS CAEFEB. 

ApJmcBus caffcr, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1868, p. 88, 
and 1870, p. 368. 

Aphmeus naialensis, Hewitson (not Westwood), III. Diurn. Lep. 
p. 62, pi. XXV. figs. 1, 2 (1865). 

c?, Henga, west of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 22nd, 1895. 

" Orange and black-barred Blue" (i^. C). 

In his ' South 'African Buttertiies,' vol. ii. p. 150, Mr. Trimeu 
follows Hewitson in regarding this as S. natalends of West- 
wood — on the ground, principally, " of the large size of the 
orange anal-angular marking in the hind wing." We, however, 
possess what is clearly the original of the figure in the ' Genera,' 
a worn female with unusually large anal patch ; it was obtained in 
1846, labelled " Thecla natalii, Pt. Nat.," and agrees in all details 
of marking with the original figure. With regard to " the small 
development of the hind marginal lunulate whitish streak," also 
referred to by Trimen, the figm-e and specimen are both faulty, 
the latter being badly rubbed on one hind wing, and the same part 
broken away on the other; the imagination of Hewitson was not 
lively enough to enable him to supply this deficiency in the 
whitish streak. 



1896.] FROM STYASA-LAND. 123 

62. SpINDASIS ISTYASS^. 

AphncBus nyassce, Butler, Ent. Month. Mag. xx. p. 250 (1884); 
P.Z. S. 1894, p. 569, pi. xxxvi. fig. 4. 

c? . Mrali, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2ucl ; 5 > Henga, 
W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 1st. 1895. 

" Orange and black- barred long-tailed Blue " (R. C). 

63. AXIOCERSES AMAKGA. 

Zeritis amanc/a, Westv^ood, iu Oates's Matabele-Land, p. 351 
(1881). 

cS , Mtambwi, foot of Nyika plateau, Feb. 4th ; K\Tereru Hill, 
Deep Bay, April 22nd, 1895. 

" Crimson-plush undervving Copper " and " Spike-winged 
Copper " {H. C). 

64. AXIOOEESES PEEION. 

Papilio penon, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ccclxxix. B, C (1782). 

2, Henga, Jan. 30th; <S , Lumpi E., Feb. 2iid ; S , Mrali, 
coast of Lake Nyasa, March 2nd, 1895. 

S , " Scarlet and black Copper " ; $ , " Dull red Copper " {R. C). 

65. VlRACHOLA AXTA. 

Lycmaa anta, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 402 
(1862). 

2, Ngerenge Plains, Feb. 24th; Chilindi (8 miles S. of 
Karonga), March 1st, 1895. 

"Long-tailed curly-tufted Blue, black and orange spots" {R. C). 

66. TaTUBA BUXTOIfl. 

2 . Hypolyecena huxtoni, Hevvitson, Enfc. Mouth. Mag. x. p. 206 
(1874). 

(S 2 • Hvfoliic(PMa seamani, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 
1874, p. 332, pi. ii. figs. 3, 4. 

c? S , Lower JSTyika, W. of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Striped Blue \v-ith four tails " (RI C). 
A little larger than our solitary male from D'Urban. 

67. Tatdra c.eculus. 

lolaus cceculus, Hopffer, in Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. p. 402, 
pi. XXV. figs. 12-14 (1862). 

2 , Mtambwi, foot of Nyika plateau, Feb. 4th, 1895. 

" Grey underwing striped Blue " (R. C). 

The largest example of the female that I have seen, and almost 
as bright in colouring as the male. 

68. Epamera sidtjs. 

lolaus sidus, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 3rd ser. ii. 
p. 176 (1864) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. ii. p. 224, pi. iv. figs. 5, 6 
(1866). 



124- DR. A. G. BtTTLEE ox BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14, 

2 , Konclowi, 4110 feet alt., Lower Nyika, Jan. 1895. 

" Taken by M. Moffat, Esq., Livingstone's Mission, and given 
to me " (11. G.). 

New to the general Museum series ; unfortunately it has lost 
its abdomen. 

Among the Pierince, Mr. Crawshay's collection contains several 
rare and interesting species. 

69. MXLOTHRIS AGATHINA. 

Pcqnlio agathina, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iii. pi. ccxxxvii. D, E 
(1782). 

c7, Henga, Feb. 1st; Mtambwi, Feb. 4th; Mrali, March 2nd; 
$ , Vuwa sand-flats, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, March 3rd, 1895. 
" Soallop-sliell White " {li. C). 

70. Mtlothris narcissus, var. den^tatus. (Plate VI. fig. 3.) 
c? 2 . Mylothris narcissus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 95. 

d' , Kantorongondo Mt., Nyika, 5900 feet alt., April 15th, 
1895. 

" Chrome-yellow undei-wing White " (E. C). 

Tlie form now received differs from the typical male from 
Kilima-njaro in having the costal black border continuous, only 
interrupted by the upper discocellular veinlet ; a diffnsed black 
streak in the cell aboAe the median vein, the outer border iicutely 
quinque-dentate ; and sometimes a little oblique black streak below 
the submedian uervure and a broad apical black bar uniting the 
first two marginal spots of the secondaries : in some respects it 
more nearly resembles the typical female than the typical male 
does, while Miss Sharpe's M. jaclcsonl more nearly corresponds 
with typical male M. narcissus. Unless we have here three very 
closely allied species, it must be assumed that 21. 7iarcissus is 
dimorphic ; a better series will doubtless solve the problem. 

71. MxLOTHRis CRAWSHATi, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 4.) 

A very perfect copy, in both sexes, of Phrissura lasti, and there- 
fore intermediate in character between M. narcissus and J/, trimeni: 
in size, form, and colouring the male resembles the latter, but the 
apical patch extends in an oblique curve from just beyond the 
cell to the third median branch, its inner edge being zigzag, the 
remaining marginal spots not included in this patch are hastate ; 
the base of the wings is slightly more heavily blaciiened than in 
M. trimeni and the marginal spots of the secondaries reduced to 
mere points ; on the under surface the apex of primaries and entire 
surface of secondaries are bright lemon-yellow instead of saffron- 
yellow. Expanse of wings 57-64 millim. 

The female has pearl-white primaries, the cell, costal border, and 
base of internal border densely dusted with smoky grey ; an 
oblong patch of the same colour at external angle ; the apical area 
and outer border to below the first median branch smoky grey. 



1896.] TEOil NYASA-LAND. 125 

with sulphur-yellow internervular longitudinal lines ; inner edge 
of border acutely zigzag: secondaries sulphur-yellow, with mar- 
ginal rounded black spots : body normal, blue -blackish with yellow 
venter. Primaries below pearl-white, showing the upper surface 
pattern through the wing, apical border slightly Mashed with 
sulphur-yellow ; a marginal series of black points : secondaries as 
above, excepting that the base of the costa is chrome-yellow: 
pectus whitish, with yellowish hairs. Expanse of wings 59miilim. 
d d, 2, Nyankowa Mt., 6500 feet alt., April 9th ; d d , 
Kantorongondo Mt., 5000 feet alt., Nvika, April 14th and loth, 
1895. 

" Chrome-yellow underwing "\\''hite. A high flier, perching on 
trees high up, but of weak flight" {R. C). 

72. COLIAS EDUSA, Var. ELECTBA. 

Papilio electra, Linnosus, Syst. IN^at. i. 2, p. 764 (1767). 
d , N.yaukowa Mt., 5425 feet alt., April 8th ; c? 2 , 5575 feet, 
April idth ; d , Kantorongondo Mt., 59U0 feet, April loth ; d 2 , 
Cbeni-Cheui Mt., 4500 feet alt., April 18th, 1895. 

" Ova oblong and yellow " {B. C). 

The white female is only the ordinary C helice form. 

73. Teeias chalcomi.eta. 

Terias chalcomiata, Butler, Ann. & JMag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, 
vol. iii. p. 190 (1879). 

2 , Foot of Jakwa Mt., Henga-Nkamanga, Jan. 29th, 1895. 

" Black-tipped light-chrome Yellow ; ova oblong and sharp- 
pointed, not spherical '' {R. C). 

This is probably a seasonal form of T. senegalensis. 

74. Tekias DESJARDi3!fSii (seasonal form T. regularis). 

Terias reqularis, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii. 
p. 486 (1876). 

5 , Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 24th, 1895. 

" Black-bordered Yellow " {R. C). 

An interesting example of the female, showing the dotted 
margin to the secondaries characteristic of typical T. desjardinsii. 

75. Teeacoltts opalescens. 

2 . Teracolus opalescens, Butler, Ent. JMonth. Mag. xxiii. p. 30 
(1886). 

The male of this form has the black more largely developed than 
in any of the other members of the T. eris group, excepting perhaps 
T. ahyssinicus (the male of which is unknown to me) : the pattern 
of the primaries is almost the same as in T. eris, but the apex is 
more purple in tint with the spots upon it golden ochreous, the 
%™gs are moreover decidedly broader; the secondaries show a 
marginal series of well-defined black spots ; the colouring below 
is milky white ; the veins of the primaries tipped with black, the 



126 KB. A. G. BUTLEE ON BUTTEKFLIES [Jan. 14, 

first and second median branches terminating in black spots and 
the spots on the disc much larger; the secondaries show a broad 
bri<;ht saffron-vellow costal streak and a paler lontjitudinal sub- 
median streak, and the uervures are tipped with black. 

d' , I'oot of Jakwa Mt., 3210 feet, Henga-Nkamanga, Jan. 291h; 
6 2 , Henga, Jan. SUth and 31st, 1805. 

cT , " Black and gold-tipped White " ; J , " Black-tipped mother- 
of-pearl unilerwing White" (i?. C). 

The female no« received is !>mnller than the type from D^lagoa 
Bay, and has a broader black internal border to the primaries (in 
\^hich respect it more nearly corresponds ^ith the male) ; but of 
a pair received from the Victoria ]S'3'anza, this border in the female 
corresponds with that of the type. As more examples of these 
representatives of 2\ eris come to hand, the fact that they are true 
to locality seems to be gradually established on a firmer basis. 

76. Teracolus mutates. 

2 . Teracolus mutaiis, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. xix. p. 459 (1877). 

c? . Neaily resembles T. vesta on the upper surface, but the base 
of the wings is dusted with bluish grey instead of black, the outer 
area crcMUiy ochreous (less salmon-tinted than in 1\ vesta), pattern 
exactly as in the female, therefore much more yellow throughout 
than in T. vesta. 

c?, Henga, west of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 1st, 1895. 

"White-centred, yellow and black-uiottled White. Difficult to 
take and not common " (i?. C). 

The arrival of this male is especially interesting to me, as Prof. 
Aurivillius was inclined to believe my T. rlwdaina to be the male 
of T. mutans, considering that the differences of pattern might be 
sexual : it is now satis factorilj'' proved that there is no difference 
of pattern between the sexes, but only in the colouring of the 
outer half of the upper surface^ ; precisely what might have been 
expected, from what we know of the sexes of T. hanningtonil and 
T. amelia. 

'il. Teracolus anax. 

Calhsune anax, H. Gr. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. iii. p. 125 (1889); Ehop. Exot. i. Call. pi. i. figs. 5-8 (1889). 

Teracolus eliza, E. M. Sharpe. Ann. & Mag. jSat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. v. p. 441 (1890); Waterhouse, Aid, vol. ii. pi. 189. figs. 5,6 
(1890). 

cJ , Deep Bay, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Eeb. 7th, 1895. 

"Violet-tipped White" (B. C). 

An especially Mell-marked specimen, with bold black spots on 
the under surface. It has recently been suggested that this may 
be a seasonal form of T. rer/iiia, of which Mr. Trimen formerly 
regarded it as a vai'iety ; the only odd thing is that typical 

1 This buif colouring is limited by the black band as in T. vesta. 



1896.] FEOM I«TAISA-LA>"D. ]27 

T. rei/ina does uot come to hand from Central Africa. The collection 
made by Emin Pasha contained half a dozen examples of T. anax, 
but not one of T. rer/ina ; Mr. Crawshay's first collection, from 
Lake Mweru, contained one female T. anax and his present col- 
lection contains one male, again 2\ anax ; but perhaps this form 
is the only one in Central Africa, and typical T. regina is only 
produced, as a second form, as the species ranges southwards. 

78. Teeacoltjs jaloxe. 

Euchloe jalone, Butler, Cist. Ent, i. p. 14 (1869). 
Teracolm phegijas (piirt.), Butler, P. Z. S. 1?9;J, p. 664. 
(S , Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 25th, 1895. 
"Purple-tipped blaek-veined White" (ii. C). 
This form seems so rare that it may well be mistaken for 
T. pMeijyas ; in all probability it is the Xyasa form of that species. 

79. Teracolfs gatisa. 

S . Anthopstjche fjavisa, Wallengren, Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. 1857 ; Lep. Khop. Caffr. p. 13. n. 6. 

5 . Anthopsjiche omphale, Wallengren, loc. cit. p. 11. 

c? 2 . Teracolus suhvenoms, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 5, vol. xii. p. 105 (1885). 

6 , Henga, Jan. 24th ; 2 , Jan. 25th ; $ , foot of Jakwa Mt., 
Henga-Xkauianga, Jan. 29th ; J J in coitu, Henga, Jan. 3Utb, 
1895. 

Mr. Trimen (South African Butterflies, iii. p. 135) savs : — 
" Having examined the types of snhvenosus, Tint]., ivom Vicroria 
Nyanza, I find the female inseparable from that of T. r/avisa, while 
the m lie, though \ery near the corresponding sex of the species 
named, differs in wanting the inner black edging of the apical 
patch, and in the feeble development of the inner marginal blackish 
bar of the fore wings and the costal one of the hind wings." 
Although I do not admit that the type of T. suhvenosus agrees 
absolutely with the typical female of T. gavisa, inasmuch as the 
oblique subapical bar on the front wings is much narrower in the 
latter, I am compelled by the receipt of many transitional sjjecimens 
to agree with Mr. Trimen that my female is only a slight variety of 
Wallengren 's, and, moreover, that my male is only a better-marked 
variety, though absolutely inseparable as a species. The series 
received from Dr. Gregory, taken in conjunction with the five 
examples in the present collection, renders the discrimination of 
the two forms T. gavisa and T. suhvenosus simplv hopeless. 

Unless T. hero is another variety of T. gavisa (which I think 
possible), I am of opinion that the female of T. sipylus would be 
better placed under T. hero than under T. gavisa, the black veining 
of the under surface being barely noticeable ; the whole of these 
forms might then sink under T. achine, T. hyperides being included 
as a starved form, though in some respects it more nearly resembles 
T. helle=^a, race of T. antevippe. 



128 DR. A. G. BUTLEE ON BUTTEEFLIES [Jau. 14, 

80. Teeacoltjs iNEUMATUs, sp, n. (Plate VI. figs. 5, 6.) 

Nearest to T. arethusa, the male with a similar but less angular 
orange or vermilion patch on the black apical area ; the costa 
bliiekened almost to the base ; the spot at the end of the cell 
larger, and a broad blackish stivak along the inner margin as in 
some females of T. aretlnisa ; the secondaries witli a broad diffused 
blackish border, running inward along the nervures ; base and 
costa almost to apex broadly blackish ; body normal. Primaries 
below not yellow at base, but more so at apex ; ])lack discocellular 
spot Larger, a broad internal grey streak ending in a blackish 
diffused sj)ot : secondaries somewhat greyish at base, costal orange 
streak defined, black-dotted orange spot at end of cell larger ; 
female with better-defined, though small, orange dashes on the 
apic.il area than in most females of T. aretJnisa ; other black areas 
extended, so as more nearly to repeat the pattern of T. gavisa 2 , 
but only the two apical white spots on the border of secondai-ies 
large and well defined, the others small and greyish : below the 
colouring throughout is clearer and brighter than in T. aretJuisa 
and the primaries show a broad internal grey streak terminating 
in a blackish spot ; the costal oi-auge edging of the secondaries, as 
in the male, is bright and sharply defined. Expanse of \^ings, S 44 
millim., 5 42 millim. 

6 2 , Henga, 24th, 26th, and 30th January, 1895. 

" Dusky Orange-tip " (R. C). 

We have long had a single female of this very distinct species in 
the Museum collection, from Niomkolo, Lake Tanganyika, obtained 
in January 1890, and presented to the Museum by Alexander 
Carson, Esq. 

81. Catopsilia eloeella. 

Pctpilio jioreUa, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 479 (1775). 

2 , Nyankowa Mt.,Nvika, April 10th, 1805. 
" Brimstone '" {E. C.).' 

82. Belenois seveeina. 

Papilio severina, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. cccxxxviii. G, H 
(1782). 

(S 2 in coitu, Henga, W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 22nd, 1895. 
" Common black-bordered White" (B. C). 

83. Belenois mesentina, var. ageippina. 

Pieris agrippina, Felder, Keise der Nov., Lep. ii. p. 173 (1865). 

2 , Henga, Jan. 22nd ; Ngerenge, AV. coast of Lake Nyasa, 
Eeb. 27th ; J , Nyankowa Mt., 6500 feet alt,, April 9th, 1895. 

cS , " Common "AVhite"; 2, "Deep black-bordered White" 
{R. C). 

The females show almost the deep yellow under-surface colora- 
tion of the form to which I gave the name of B. auriginea, but 



1896.] FROM NTASAXAIfD. 129 

the upper surface and both surfaces of the male are quite like 
typical B. agrippina : possibly the yellow on the under surface of 
the females may be seasonal ; but if so it is characteristic of our 
winter months, the only awkward fact being that it reappears in 
July at Zomba ; then, again, many specimens of the pale type were 
collected by the late Emin Pasha at Wadelai from January to 
March. Altogether the question of seasonal dimorphism in this 
species becomes very complicated. 

84. HJEEPiElflA EKIPHIA. 

Pieris eriphia, Grodart, Enc. Meth. ix. p. 157 (1819). 

S , Foot of Jakwa Mt., 3210 feet, Henga, Jan. 29th, 1895. 
" Marbled White " (R. 0.). 

85. PapIMO COEItOfEUS. 

Papilio corinneus, Bertoloni, Mem. Ace. Bologna, 1849, p. 9, pi. 1. 
figs. 1-4. 

Henga, "W. of Lake Nyasa, Jan. 28th, 1895. 
" Mother-of-Pearl and Black " (R. C). 

86. Tagiades flesus. 

Hesp)eria flesus, Pabricius, Sp. Ins. ii. p. 135 (1781). 

Manchewi Palls, Lower Nyika, April 6th ; Lumpi R. vallev, 
April 21st, 1895. 

" Large grey-patched Skipper " {R. C). 

87. Sapjsa teimenii. 

Sapoea trimenii, Butler, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 264, pi. xv. fig. 5. 
(S 2 . No label with specimens. 

88. Hespeeia deomus. 

Pyrgus dromus, Plotz, Mitth. naturw. Vereins, 1884, p. 6. 

Mrali (25 miles N. of Deep Bay), W. coast of Lake Nyasa, 
Peb. 22nd ; Kaporo, Song^ve E. plains, Peb. 26 ; Deep Bay, 
March 16th, 1895. 

" Black and white Skipper " (R. C). 

89. OXYPALPUS Eirso. 

Pamphila ruso, Mabille, Comptes Eendus Soc. Ent. Beige, 1891, 
p. clxxxiii. 

cf , Lumpi E. valley. Lower Nyika, April 21st, 1895. 
" Orange and black barred Skipper '"' {R. C). 

90. OSMODES EAJfOHA. 

Pamphila ranoha, Westwood, in Oates's Matabele-Land, p. 353 
(1881). 

d , Lumpi E., Lower Nyika, Peb. 2nd, 1895. 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. IX. 9 



130 1)11. A . G. BUTLEE ON BUTTEEFLIES [Jan. 14, 

91. Heteeopterus roEMOstrs. 

Heteropterus formosus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, pi. Ix. fig. 8. 
S , Kondowi, 4110 feet alt., Lower Xyika, April 11th ; Kamb- 
wiyi, 3800 feet alt., Lower Nyika, April 20th and Jan. 21st, 1895. 
■"Orange and black Skipper" (R. C). 

92. HETEEOPTEErs BECiPiEJTS, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 7.) 

Much resembles the preceding species on the upper surface ; 
the base of the wings streaked with orange-yellow irrorations ; the 
band bright golden orange ; the terminal spot connected with it, 
not separate as in H. formosus ; the secondaries show a transverse 
bar at the end of the cell, a longitudinal dash below the latter and 
six or seven submarginal spots, the first, third, and fourth largest, 
all orange and squamose : the body above is like that of H. for- 
ii)osus, but below it is deep brown as above, the palpi and centre 
of pectus with golden-orange hairs ; the wings below are dark 
brown, the primaries alone showing a golden-orange band, formed 
as above, but not so deep in colour. Expanse of wings 30 miUim. 

Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 6th, 1895. 

" Orange-barred black Skipper " (E. 0.). 

93. Ctclopides miuas. 

Cyclojjides midas, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 671; 1895, pi. xv. 
fig. 6. 

c? , Kondowi, 4110 feet alt.. Lower Xyika, Aprd 11th, 1895. 
" Orange-spotted dark brown Skipper " (B. C). 

94. CrCLOPIDES QXT.U)EISIGXATTJS. 

Cifdopides qitadrisignatus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, pi. Ix. 
fig. 9. 

c? , Nyankowa Mt., 5425 feet alt., Nyika, April 10th ; Kondowi, 
4110 feet, April 11th; $ , Kantorong'ondo Mt., 5925 feet, April 
15th; cf , Cheni-Cheni Mt., 6500 feet, Nyika, April 17th, 1895. 

" Orange-spotted black Skipper " (R. C). 

In the specimens now sent, which are in good condition, the 
spots are bright ochreous and rather more numerous (especially on 
the secondaries) than in the type : indeed they more nearly 
approach typical C. metis; the wings are, however, decidedly 
blacker than in that species and there are never more than seven 
distinct small spots on the secondaries. This would appear to be 
the representative of C. lueils in Central Africa. 

95. Kedestes capexas. 

Cydopides capenas, Hewitson, Descr. Hesp. p. 43 (1868). 

2 , Lumpi E. valley, 3500 feet alt., Lower Nyika, April 2l8t, 
1895. 

" Orange and black speckled undervmig Skipper" (R. C). 

This rare species was previously only represented in the general 
collection by one male specimen. 



1896,] FROM IfYASAtAITD. 131 

96. Padeaona zexo. 

$. Pamphila zeno, Trimeu, Trnus. Eut. Soc. London, ^rd ser. 
vol. ii. p. 179 (186-4); d 2- South Air. Butt. vol. iii. p. 313, 
? pi. xii. fig. 2 (1889). 

Var. (S 2 . Padraona ivatsoni, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 671. 

Kondowi, 4110 feet alt., Lower ?^yika, April 6th aud 11th ; 
Kantorongondo Mt., Nyika, 6975 feet alt., April 16th, 1895. 

" Orange and browTi spotted Skipper " {R. C). 

The specimens now received link P. ivatsoni to P. zeno, the 
orange cell-spot of the primaries, which in P. ivatsoni extends 
almost to the base, pro^dng it to be variable; the discal band of the 
secondaries also varies in width, and the uuder-surface colouring 
from the bright yellow with badly defined darker bauds of 
P. ivatsoni to the duller browTi banded character of P. zeno : all 
the examples now received having been taken in April, the dif- 
ferences cannot be seasonal. 

97. Gegenes letteestedti. 

Hesperia letterstedti, Walleugren, Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. 1857, p. 49. 

cJ S , Nyankowa Mt., 5575 feet alt., N)dka, April 9th, 1895. 
" Smoky green Skipper " (R. C). 

98. Baoeis fatuellus. 

PampTiila fatuellus, HopfEer, Monatsber. k. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
1855, p. 643 ; Peters' Eeise n. Mossamb. v. p. 417, pi. 27. figs. 3, 
4 (1862). 

Ngerenge Plains, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Peb. 24th ; Cheni- 
Cheni Mt., Nyika, 6430 feet alt., April 17th, 1895. 

" Greenish Skipper " {R. C). 

99. Baoeis incoh-spictja. 

Hesperia inconspiciui, Bertoloni, Mem. Ace. Bol. 1849, p. 15. 

Kambwiyi, Lower Nyika, Jan. 21st ; Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd, 
1895. 

" Green Skipper (decided yellowish-green)." " Dark green 
speckled-with-white Skipper '' {R. C). 

100. Baoeis, sp. (A continental form of B. umhrata.) 

This species, which is almost certain to have been named by 
either M. Mabille or Herr Plotz, differs from B. umhrata of the 
Island of Johanna only in its slightly superior size, more elongated 
wings, and blacker colouring ; in markings, pale fringes and palpi, 
and the pale areas below it agrees, excepting that the pale colouring 
is less pronounced. 

Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 4th, 1895. 



132 on. A. G. BTJTLEB ON BUTTERFLIES [Jan. 14, 

101. Halpe nigeerima. 

Halpe iiigerriina, Butler, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 672. 

3>[ambwiyi, Lower Nyika, Jan. 2ud, 1895. 

" Dark green Skipper (speckled with white) " (B. C). 

102. Halpe amadhu. 

Pampliila amadhu, Mabille, Comptes Rendus Soc. Ent. Beige, 
p. Ixxviii (1891). 

Kambwiyi, Lower Nyika, Jan. 21st, 1895. 

" Greenish Skipper "\R. C). 

These species of Halpe never seem to come to hand in numbers, 
one or two examples in a large collection are all that we ever 
receive. 

103. Peeichaees albicoenis, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 8.) 

<S . Primaries sericeous olive-brown, sometimes suffused with 
purplish, the basi-costal area more or less suffused with cupreous ; 
interno-basal area clothed with olive-green hairs, fringe whity 
brown ; two yellowish-white superposed spots within the end of 
the cell, sometimes connate ; a small more or less triangular spot 
at the base of the second median interspace, a transversely oblong 
spot below the latter and crossing the first median interspace ; 
two or three small and yellower hyaline spots, separated by the 
subcostal branches, towards apex, and an opaque bright yellow 
oblong or oval spot just above the middle of the submedian vein : 
secondaries deep sericeous ohve-brown, central area occupied by a 
slightly paler patch having a somewhat reddish tinge ; base clothed 
with green hairs, abdominal area witli greenish and bronze hairs ; 
fringe whity brown : upper surface and fi'ont of palpi, head above, 
and patagia chocolate-brown ; antennae pure white, emitted from 
a whitish tuft on the vertex of the head. Primaries below mth 
the costal border aud a subapical patch golden copper-brown, the 
central area greyish black, the internal area paler with a large 
central diffused whitish spot ; hyaline spots necessarily as above : 
external border fi-om apex to fii'st median branch rosy greyish 
brown : secondaries golden copper-brown, shghtly darker on the 
costa and in a small subapical patch bounded by two black dots ; 
three ill-defined brown spots in a triangiilar position across the 
basal area, a black dot on the upper discocellular and a small black 
spot beyond ; a dust-grey interno-median stripe commencing in a 
point at base and gradually expanding to outer margin ; an 
irregular purplish-grey streak edged with blackish crossing the 
disc from the interno-median streak and tapering to apex ; outer 
border paler than the remainder of the wing, bounded internally 
by an ill-defined brownish line and enclosing two or three 
triangular grey marginal dots : palpi below dull straw-yellow ; 
antennae white, with a grey patch on the club ; neck and edges of 
eyes white ; pectus densely covered with dull tawny hair, Tenter 
rufous brown. Expanse of winp-s 40 millim. 



1896.] FEOM NTASAIiAND. 133 

d 6, Kondowi, Lower Nyika, 4110 feet alt., April 4tli to 6th, 
1895. 

" "White antennae Skipper *' (R. C). One specimen collected 
by Mr. "William Murray of the Livingstone Mission. 

This is the species of which we received a damaged example 
from Twambo (see P. Z. S. 1895, p. 266. n. 63). M. Mabille says 
that his specimen is a male ; and, although this may be an error, 
the number and character of the spots in the present species differ 
considerably and are evidently tolerably constant : the sexes 
rarely show so marked a difference in this group. 

104. Peeichakes telisignata, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 9.) 

cJ . Purplish black ; primaries with markings nearly as in the 
preceding species, but the discoidal spots united into one and only 
separated from the two median spots by the veins ; they thus form 
a single hyaline patch as in Colaclenia dan ; the subapical spots also 
form a short transverse trifid bar, and the yellow spot near inner 
margin is slightly paler ; the secondaries are small, without 
markings, with greenish hairs at base and white fringe; body 
blackish brown in front, but the thorax and abdomen densely 
covered with grey-greenish hair ; antennae pure white, with black 
terminal hook. Primaries below dull black ; the costal border, 
which expands into a broad subapical patch, fiery copper-brown, 
internal area grey, \^'ith a large central diifiised dull white patch ; 
external border to below second median branch rosy brown : 
hyaline spots as above : secondaries fiery copper-brown, purplish 
black on internal area ; an indistinct blackish discal bar, parallel 
to outer margin ; wing crossed by a clear sharply defined white 
■^ -shaped character ; fringe white : palpi chalky white, as also the 
front of the tibiae and tarsi of first pair of legs ; pectus blackish, 
venter densely clothed with grey hairs, anal tufts whitish. 
Expanse of wings 32 millim. 

Kantorongondo Mt., JSTyika, 5900 feet, April 15th, 1895. 

This is so distinctly marked a species that, if properly described, 
I could hardly have failed to identify it. 

105. EhOPALOCAMPTA EOEESTAJf. 

Papilio forestan, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. cccxci. E, F (1782). 

Henga, Eeb. 1st, 1895. 

" (3-reat black, white, and orange Skipper " (i?. C). 



Heteeoceea. 

Only thirteen Moths were in the collection, one or two of which 
had unfortunately been attacked by the larvae of a Micro- 
Lepidopteron, which were discovered stiU at work after the 
specimens had been mounted : all the species nevertheless are 
sufficiently well-preserved for determination. 



134 DK. A. G. BUTLER ON BTJTTERrLTES [.Tan. 14, 

106. Maceoglossa TEOCHiLrs, var. teochiioides. 
Macroc/lossa trocMloides, Butler, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 5. 
Nyankowa Mt., Nyika, 6500 feet alt., April 9th, 1895. 
" Green and orange Humming-bird Hawk " (i?. C). 

This form of M. trochihis appears to cross the African con- 
tinent from west to east ; it differs from the southern type 
principally in the blacker and therefore better-defined outer border 
to its secondaries. There can, however, be no doubt, from the 
fact that an example of the southern type was obtained by 
Mr. Scott Elliot, that the ranges of the two forms oA'erlap in 
South-eastern Africa : M. irocliiloides therefore will probably 
prove to be a dimorphic form of M. trocJiilus which becomes 
permanent on the N.W. coast. 

107. Meliitia iENESCENS, sp. n. (Plate VI. fig. 10.) 

Allied to M. natalensis ; primaries slightly narrower, purplish 
indigo, with the same transparent spot between the second and 
third median branches ; secondaries hyaline with black veins, 
narrow black margins, and dust-grey fringe paler at the edge ; 
head olive-brown ; antenn:e purplish black above, shining straw- 
yellow below, and deep ferruginous in front ; collar and thorax 
golden brassy, \\ ith green reflections ; abdomen purplish indigo, 
with dorsal golden brassy transverse bands on the front of each 
segment : primaries below becoming brownish grey from beyond 
the cell ; otherwise the M'ings are as above : palpi and face white 
stained with yellow; pectus slaty black, the sides in front and. the 
front legs golden brassy, tibial and tarsal joints reddish ; middle 
legs golden to the end of the tibia, tarsus purplish black ; posterior 
legs blackish brown, the tibial joints densely clothed with long 
black, red, and white hairs ; tarsi black externally, white inter- 
nally. Expanse of wiugs 37 millim. 

Karonga, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 28th, 1895. 

" Black-plumed Humming-bird. Taken in tent fluttering round 
candle-lantern by night" (B. C). 

When in fresh condition this must be an exceedingly beautiful 
insect. 

108. Xakthospiloptertx superb a. 

Eusemia superha, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xv. 
p. 141, pi. 13. fig. 3 (1875). 

cj, Ngerenge Plain, W. coast of Lake Nyasa, Feb. 24th, 1895. 
*' Crimson-underwing Tiger " {IL C). 

The smallest example »f this beautiful Agaristid that I have 
seen. 

109. .^GOCEEA MENETA. 

Noctim meneta, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pi. Ixx. D (1775). 
There is no label to this example. 



1896.] FEoar ntasalanb. 135 

110. Stntomis ceees. 

Syntomis ceres, Oberthiir, Etudes, iii. p. 33, pi. 3. fig. 5 (1878). 
Kambwiyi E., Lower Nyika, Jan. 21st and Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Scarlet and blue-bodied Forester " {R. C). 

111. Metaectia rubra. 

Anace ruhra, Walker, Lep. Het. vii. p. 1720 (1856). 
cJ, Kaparo, Songwi E. plains, "W. coast of Lake ISTjasa, 
Feb. 26tli, 1895. 

" Orange and grey striped Ermine " {B. C). 

112. Argina ajlanda, var. oceelina. 

Deiojpeia ocellina. Walker, Cat. Lep. He!-, ii. p. 571 (1854). 
2 , Kwereru Hill, Deep Bay, April 22nd, 1895. 
" Orange and black spotted. Full of lemon-coloured ova " 
(R. C). 

113. Deiopeia pttlchella. 

Tinea joulchella, Linnteus, Syst. IS'at. i. p. 534 (1758). 
Deep Bay, March 5th, 1895. 

" Pink, black, and white speckled. A day-flier apparently : 
taken on flowers in hot sunshine" (R. C). 

1 am surprised that Mr. Crawshay did not recognize this as a 
rare British moth, usually known as the "Crimson-speckled 
Footman." 

114. LoPEEA CEOCATA, var. ? 

Liparis crocata,'KevTich-Sch'aSer, Ausl. Schmett. pi. 24. fig. 112 
(1854). 

c?, Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 6th, 1895. 

" Eaw silk-coloured Ermine " {R. C). 

The single example obtained appears to have been at some time 
very wet, so that it is impossible to decide whether or not there 
have been any of the scarcely deeper bands across the primaries 
which a lens shows plainly on the front wings of L. crocata ; the 
orange spot at the end of the cell is more regularly circular than 
in most examples and is not dotted with black. Until better 
specimens are received, it is not safe to assume that we have to do 
with a species distinct from L. crocata. 

115. A LIMACODIB MOTH. 

The single specimen obtained was a female, not quite perfect : 
the neuration is slightly unusual, veins 7 and 8 of the front wings 
being emitted, from a footstalk, from 9. The sexes of some of the 
Limacodidte differ so much from the males, that it is hardly safe 
to name an unpaired female, as it may subsequently prove to be 
merely the other sex of some well-known male insect. 

2 , "Lower Nyika, Feb. 2nd, 1895. 
" Eggar moth " {R. C). 



136 ME. p. CHALMEBS MITCHELL ON THE [Jan. 14, 

116. Drasteeia judicans. 

Ophiusa judicans, Walker, Lep. Het. xv. p. 1831 (1858). 
Kondowi, Lower Nyika, April 4th, 1895. 
"Dusky grey moth" (i?. C). 

117. HETEBABRAX.VS BOSEOVITTATA. 

2 . Ueterahraxas roseovittata, Butler, P. Z. S. 1895, pi. xliii. 
figs. 2, 3. 

(S . The antennae have long radiating branches ; the black 
markings on the primaries are better defined than in the female ; 
the secondaries are straw-yellow, with a few scattered black spots, 
differing entirely on the opposite wings. Expanse 41 millim. 

Not labelled : body eaten out by caterpillar of Tineid. 

This is the example referred to in my previous paper and 
figured. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. Hyreus virgo, p. 12L 

2. Neptis incongriia , p. 112. 
.3. Mylothris narcissus, var. dentatus, p. 124. 
4. ,, crawshayi, p. 124. 
5, 6. Teracolus infumaius, p. 128. 

7. Heteropterus decipiens, p. 130. 

8. Perickares alhicomis, p. 132. 

9. „ telisignata, p. 133. 
10. Melittia tgnescens, p. 134. 



3. On the Intestinal Tract o£ Birds. 
By P. Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.Z.S. 

[Received December 13, 1895.] 

The material upon which this paper is based consists almost 
entirely of birds which have died in the Society's Gardens. The 
work has been done in the Prosector's laboratory. I have there- 
fore to express my great indebtedness to the Society and to its 
Prosector, Mr. P. E. Beddard, P.E.S. 

By his prolonged and beautiful investigations into the structure 
and disposition of the alimentary canal in birds. Dr. Gadow^ has 
not only proved the taxonomic value of the intestinal convolutions 
in birds, but has described the details of structure in a very large 
number of cases. Dr. Gadow paid particular attention to the 
number of loops and to their disposition in the abdominal cavity. 
His descriptions and figures refer chiefly to the intestines as they 
are seen from the right side of the bird's body when the right 
abdominal wall has been removed. The descriptions and figures 
now to follow are based on the method described in my paper 

' " Versuch einer TCrgleichenden Anatomie des Verdauungssystemes der 
Vogel," Jena Zeitschrift, xiii. pp. 92-171 ; pp. 339-403.—" On the Taxonomic 
Value of the Intestinal Convolutions in Birds," P. Z. S. 1889.— Bronn's 
' Thierreich,' Vogel, pp. 591-793. 



PZ,,, 3.18 9 6, Plate VI 




ECKnig'htacl etli£h. 



West.Ne-Aiaa-u. ckroinD. 



New LepidoptersL froTn Nyasa-lajad. 



4 ■ s:^ 






1896.] 



rNTESTINAL TRACT OF BIRDS, 



137 



upon Chauna \ I am thus able to display more clearly the relations 
of the individual cases to each other and to what I take to be the 
primitive type, and to show the mesentery and the intestinal veins. 
The intestinal tract was removed from the body-cavity after section 
of the oesophagus and of the rectum above the cloaca. The 
stomach was placed to the right with its ventral side uppermost, 
and the loops of the intestine were folded outward. The con- 
dition of the material made it impossible to inject the vessels in 
enough cases to serve for comparison ; but copious washing and 
the passage of a jet of water through the canal oxygenated the 
clotted blood in the veins and made it possible to trace tbeii* 
course. Where I was able to trace them, I found that the 
arteries followed the veins closely ; but it is only the veins that I 
describe here. 

In the simplest possible condition the intestine would run a 
straight course from the stomach to the cloaca, suspended to the 
dorsal wall of the body-cavity by a fold of mesentery. The 
intestine grows longer than the length of the body-cavity, and, 
in consequence, is thrown into a series of folds. The first of 
these, usually a single distinct loop, contains the pancreas ; then 
follows a more irregularly folded portion, the mesentery of which 
is an arc of a circle, with its diameter attached to the dorsal body- 
wall, and the median point of its circumference stretching toward 
the ventral body-wall in the region where the yolk-sac was attached. 
The rectum is a portion of the gut which usually retains the 
primitive straight condition. In fig. 1, which I drew from a dis- 

Fig. 1. 




Alligator mississipiensis ; intestinal tract, showing a simple condition. 



1 " On the Anatomy of Ckauna chavaria," P. Z. S. 1895, pp. 350-358. 



138 MR. p. CHALMERS MITCHELL ON THE [Jan. 14, 

section I made of an Alligator, is shown such a simple mode of 
increase in length. 

In fig. 2, which is drawn from the emhryo of an Argus Pheasant 
about thirty days old, a primitive type of the avian intestine is 
shown, and it is easy to compare with this the simpler Alligator 
type and the more specialized arrangement in other birds. The 
a^nan intestine consists of three divisions, each typically supplied 
-with a tributary of the portal vein. The first loop or duodenum 

rig. 2. 




Argus giganteits ; intestinal tract, from a chick after incubation for 

thirty days. 

is considerably elongated, and may be folded or even spirally 
twisted at the free end. It contains the greater part of the pan- 
creas, although in some cases the pancreas encroaches upon other 
parts of the intestine. Its mesentery is simply the elongated 
anterior portion of the common dorsal mesentery seen in the 
Alligator, audit contains the anterior mesenteric vein. The duo- 
denum, as Dr. Gadow has shown, lies most ventrally of all the 
folds of the intestine, it being folded backward and downward 
upon the other loops. As a result of this position it frequently 
happens that branches of the anterior mesenteric vein leave the 
mesentery, and, bridging the intervening space, supply part of the 
posterior region of the gut. I have found these bridging-vessels 
remarkably constant in the groups in which they occur, and they 
seem to present a striking instance of a feature which, apparently, 
could only have arisen from the " accident " of contiguous position, 
and is fixed as a normal part of the structure. For where the part 
of the gut obtains its veins from this extrinsic source, the normal 
vein, a branch of the middle mesenteric vein which I'uns backward, 
is present. The bridging-vessels from the duodenum are short 
circuitings which have been perpetuated. 

The duodenum, usually a simple loop, is in some instances ex- 
panded into a branching system of folds. This occurs in birds 
belonging to widely different groups, and must be taken as a con- 
vergent resemblance. 



1896,] INTESTINAL TBACT OF BIRDS. 139 

After it leaves the duodenum, the dorsal mesentery expands into 
a great, almost circular, fold, with the middle mesenteric vein 
running out to the yolk-sac in the centre of the fold. The gut is 
suspended at the circumference of this circular fold, and, in the 
simple type, is thrown into a number of corrugated folds around 
the circumference, which closely resemble the corrugated folds 
in the Alligator. At the posterior part of this circumferential 
part of the gut is the point where the cseca are attached, and the 
cffica run forward along the sides of the posterior part of this 
loop. In a simple case such as in this young bird the edge of the 
mesentery corresponding to its line of attachment, and represented 
by a dotted line in the figure, passes directly into the edge of the 
mesentery of the rectum. But in most fully grown birds the part 
of the gut with the attached caeca has been rotated under the 
rectum, that is to say over it as seen in the diagram, until the 
point of attachment of the caeca is brought close up to the 
starting-point of the duodenum. Consequently, when the gut is 
lying on the table with its primitive ventral side uppermost, the 
rectum and the rectal vessel are covered along the greater part of 
their length by the circular part of the gut. Finally, individual 
folds, from among the numerous small corrugated folds of the 
circular loop of gut, increase enormously in length, and Dr. Gadow 
has shown that the number of the loops that grow out, and the 
mode in which they lie, folded over or under each other within the 
body, are characteristic of avian groups. Where the folded loops 
come in contact with each other, minor short circuitings take 
place in the veins, and it occasionally happens, notably with 
Parrots, that secondary sheets of connective tissue, usually con- 
taining masses of fat, bind loops belonging to different parts of 
the circular fold very closely together. But even in these cases, 
and without difficulty in most birds, these loops may be dissected 
from each other, and the primitive circular loop of mesentery 
becomes apparent and is seen to contain the median branch of the 
mesenteric vein. The series of figures in this communication 
exhibit the gut when this unfolding dissection has been per- 
formed. 

The rectum, or last part of the gut, in the vast majority of 
cases retains its primitive straight position, and is closely attached 
to the dorsal wall of the body-cavity by the posterior part of the 
primitive straight mesentery. The rectal vessel or posterior 
mesenteric vessel runs in this. It leaves the common stem of the 
portal vein very close to the anterior mesentery or duodenal vessel, 
and runs backward to the cloaca. Just in front of the cloaca a large 
median vessel leaves this and runs upward to the surface of the 
kidneys. There it forks, and each fork, after receiving several 
veins from the parietes, runs forward along the under surface of 
the kidney. 

I shall now proceed to describe the deviations from this ground - 
type so far as I have had the opportunity of following them in the 
main groups of birds. The kaleidoscopic variety, in which the same 



140 ME. P. CHAIiMBBS MITCHELL OS THE [Jan. 14, 

end — extension of gut — has been attained in different groups, would 
seem to offer a field of enquiry that may ultimately give important 
results bearing on the problem of divergent evolution. Dr. Gadovv 
has sho\ra that the modes of coiling the gut have systematic 
value : so far as my material has been able to take me, it looks as 
if the divergencies were grouped indifferently around the common 
type. 

'R ATIT JE. 

In the Cassowary (fig. 3) the common type is retained with- an 
almost diagrammatic simplicity. The duodenum is a short, very 

Fig. 3. 



Casuarius ; intestinal tract. 

wide loop, and presents the peculiarity, which may have been 
an individual abnormality in my specimen, that the hepatic and 
pancreatic ducts open on a wide diverticulum of the distal limb of 
the loop. The circular fold of mes^tery has the very slightly 
folded gut suspended at its circumference, and the remains of the 
yolk-sac appear as a short csecum in the middle of the loop. The 
rectum is short and straight, and the cseca are in the typical 
position. The blood-vessels are absolutely typical. 

The Emu which I examined (^Dromceus novce-hollandice) was 
identical in its main features mth the Cassowary, and it is 
unnecessary to give a separate drawing. The duodenum was 
narrower and longer, and the hepatic and pancreatic ducts opened 
separately into the duodenum, not upon a common diverticulum. 

The Ostrich (fig. 4), which was the fine male known as the Queen's 
Ostrich, presented an important deviation. The first two parts of 
the intestine and the three great veins were according to type, 
the yolk-sac diverticulum being conspicuous on the circular loop 
opposite the end of the median mesenteric vein. The distal limb 
of the duodenum presented a short lateral diverticulum, and the 
caeca are relatively longer than in Casuarius and, as, has been 



1896.] 



INTESTiyAL TBACT OF BIRDS. 



141 



described frequently, were marked by the attachment of a spiral 
valve. But the rectal part of the intestine, that supplied by the 




^ Struihio camehis ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel cut across. 

posterior mesenteric vein, is expanded into an enormous coil 
svi'ung at the circumference of a semicircular expansion of its 
mesentery. Only in Chauna and in the Eagles and Petrels have 
I found the slightest trace of a convergent resemblance to this 
feature, but in the latter the subsidiary rectal loops, although sap- 
plied by the rectal vessel, lie above the caeca. 

I have not yet had an oppoi-tunity of dissecting a Ehea or an 
Apteryx i. 

It is plain that, so far as degree of divergence of type in the 
alimentary canal goes, the Eatites deserve their accepted place at 
the bottom of the avian scale. 



Caeinat^, 
coltmbiformes. 

In these {Podiceps not examined) (fig. 5, p. 142) the duodenal loop 
is straight and normal. The circular loop is pulled out into a series 
of minor loops that are arranged almost symmetrically round the 
middle mesenteric vein. The yolk-sac vestige lies in front of the 
middle point of the series. The last loop of the circular system 

■* [In a Bhea, amerioana which I have more recently examined the gut was 
intermediate in form between those of Casuarius and Struthio. The anterior 
portion resembled Casuarius ; the rectum had an expansion recalling that in the 
Ostrich, but much less strongly marked. — P. C. M., March 1896.] 



i42 Mb. p. chalmebs mitchell on the [Jan. 14, 

is longer than the others, as frequently happens when the caeca 
are relatively short. It is drained partly by the duodenal vein, 

rig. 5. 



Colyvibus septentrio nails ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel from 
duodenal to posterior mesenteric vein cut across. 

The last part of the intestine is long and straight, and the poste- 
rior mesenteric vein drains the caeca and part of the region in 
front of the caeca. 

Spheniscifoumes. 

In these (lig. 6) the primitive arrangement is disguised by the 
enormous length of the gut and consequent complexity of the 

Eig. 6. 




Eudyptes chrysocome ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel cut acrose. 



1896.] INTESTINAi TRACT OF BIEDS. 143 

three parts. In Eudyptes chrysocome the duodenum forms a 
subsidiary system of loops ; in Aptenodytes pennanti a spiral, bearing 
a convergent resemblance to the duodenum of the long-gutted Sea- 
Eagles. The circular loop is thrown into an enormous series of 
minor folds, about the middle of which, but in a position similar 
to that in the Divers, occurs the yolk-duct vestige. The last two 
loops are supplied from the duodenal vessel. The posterior part 
of the gut is quite like that of the Diver, although the caeca are 
still further reduced. 

Peocellabiiformes. 

The Northern Petrel (fig. 7) presents several interesting modifi- 
cations of the type. The duodenum is compound, the first part 
being twisted round the small gizzard, the second part forming a 

Fig. 7. 




Fulmar us glacialis ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel cut across. 

long loop containing the pancreas in the typical fashion. The 
circular loop is drawn out into a number of straight narrow loops, 
on the fourth of which occurs the vestige of the yolk-duct. The 
last loop is drained partly from the normal soui-ce and partly by a 
short-circuiting vein from the duodenum. The posterior part of 
the intestine is like that of Colynibus and the Penguin, with the 
exception that, as in the Sea-Eagle, the portion of the gut supplied 
by the posterior mesenteric vessel, but anterior to the origin of the 
caeca, is expanded into two subsidiary loops. 

CiCONIIFOBMES. 

The birds in this group that I have examined have all departed 
similarly from the type. The whole intestine is enormously elon- 



144 



ME. P. CHAiMERS MITCHELL ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



gated, the greater part of the elongation having occurred in the 
circular loop. The cseca are small, and lie on the third part of 
the gut, some distance below where it joins the circular loop. 
As usually happens when the cfeca are reduced, the last part of 
the circular loop is pulled out into a long free loop, which, in the 
natural position, is closely attached to the under surface of the 
duodenum, and gives a vein to the duodenal vein. Platalea leuco- 

rig. 8. 




Platalea leucorodia ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuitiug vessel cut across. 

rodia, the Spoonbill (fig. 8), shows the least differentiation among 
those that I have examined. The duodenum is very long and is 
curved far round to the left in the abdominal cavity. The circular 
loop is enormously expanded, and forms a rough spiral, of which 
the middle mesenteric vein, running out to the vestige of the yolk- 
duct, forms the axis. The figure represents this after it has been 
dissected out and is more diagrammatic than most of the drawings 
I give. The most important points to which I would call attention 
are : that the yolk vestige, though at the end of the spiral, is much 
nearer the posterior than the anterior end of the circular loop, 
owing to the greater development of the first half of the circular 
loop ; and the fact that on the whole the minor loops of the 
circular loop are of similar length, with the exception of the last 
loop. It is in this respect especially that the Spoonbill has departed 
less than other Cicouiiformes from the type. The veins of the gut 
are almost diagrammatic in the simplicity of their arrangement, 
the only peculiarity being the short-circuiting branch from the 
duodenal vein to the distal loop of the circular loop. 

In Pseudotantalus ibis the duodenum, which was curved in 
Platalea, is very much elongated and twisted into a spiral. The 
first portion of the circular loop is elongated into a separate 
loop : the remainder of the ckcular loop is more primitive 
even than in Platalea, consisting of a number of nearly equal 
radial folds at the circumference of the whole fold. There is a very 



1896.] 



INTESTINAL TRACT OF BIBDS. 



145 



slight spiral twist, the axis of which is the middle mesenteric vein, 
which runs out to the yolk-duct A'estige. The last loop and the 
third part of the intestine, and the veins, are as in the Spoonbill. 

Ciconia alba, Ciconia nigra (fig. 9), Leptoptilus crumeniferus, 
and Leptoptilus argila show the tendency to form spirals which is 
present throughout this group in an increasing degree. In these 
four birds the duodenum forms a spiral which, in C. nigra, is 

rig. 9. 




Ciconia nigra ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

twisted with a spiral formed from the first subsidiary loop of the 
circular loop. The remainder of the circular loop is elongated in 
them all, and the yolk-duct vestige occurs at the elongated point. 
The last loop of the circular system and the third part of the gut 
and the veins occur in the fashion typical of the whole group. 

Pelecanus fuseus, which is the only Steganopod I have examined, 
displays a simple variety of the Ciconiiforni type. The duodenum 
is straight and encloses a curiously lobulated pancreas. The 
circular coil begins with a short straight minor loop, and then 
forms an enormous bunch of short equally sized loops, supplied by 
radiating branches of the middle mesenteric vein. Upon one of 
these, nearer the posterior than the anterior end, occurs the yolk- 
duct vestige. The end of the circular loop is drawn out into the 
usual loop, with a short-circuit vein from the duodenum, and the 
third part of the gut is as in the other Ciconiiformes. 



ANSEBirORMES. 

The striking character of the Anseriformes is the small deviation 
from the primitive type represented in their intestines. As I have 
already pointed out in a communication on the anatomy of Ghauna, 
the gut of that bird has deviated from the avian type even less 
than the gut of the Ostrich. The result is a very striking similarity 
between the gut of the Struthious birds, of Chauna, and of an 

Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. X. 10 



146 



ME. P. CHALMERS MITCHELL ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



immature Gallinaceous bird. I reproduce here a cut from my 
paper on Clicmna (fig. 10). The duodenum is a distinct fold, and 
the duodenal vein receives short-circuiting branches from the 



Fig. 10. 




/'CAf. 

tia' ^a/' del. 



Intestine of Chauna chavaria. 

s. ProTentriculus with g the glandular patch. 

d. Duodenum enclosing the pancreas (the duodenum has been turned for- 
ward). 

I to I. The large loop of the intestine, with y the yolk-sac diverticulum about 
the middle of its length. This coil has also been raised up and turned 
forward. The remains of the ventral mesentery running from the 
diverticulum are not shown, as they lie mider the intestinal loop. 

cc. The C£eca. Li. Large intestine. 

r.v. Eectal mesenteric vein. This dips under the mesentery of the large loop, 
where its course is shown by a dotted line. It there joins with the large 
central vein of the large loop and with the veins from the duodenum and 
c4Eca, and the blood passes forward, its course being shown by a dotted 
line, to the portal vein p.v. 

hinder region of the circular fold, especially from one of the caeca, 
which, in the diagram, is represented as turned outwards. The 
circular loop differs in no essential respect from the primitive 
aA'ian type, as displayed in the Ostrich and youug Argus. The 



1896.] 



IKTESTLSAL TBACT OF BIRDS. 



147 



resemblance to the Ostrich is heightened bv the fact that in 
Channel and the Ostrich the rectum, by being thrown into a sub- 
sidiary set of folds, departs in a similar way from the common type. 
The resemblance between Chauna and Rhea is very striking. 

The Ducks and Geese (fig. 11) display a very definite and simple 
modification of the gi'ound-type. It consists simply in the elon- 
gation of a limited number, generally five, of the primitive irregular 
loops of the circular loop. In a young Bernirla mageUanica, still 
in its down plumage, the duodenum and the third part of the gut 
were in the typical condition, but the circular loop was already 
puUed out into three or four subsidiary loops, of which the longest 
bore the yolk-duct vestige. In adult Ducks, Geese, and Swans 
the arrangement differed in no essential respect from the drawing 

Fig. 11. 




Cygnus atratus ; intestinal tract. a\ sbort-circuiting vessel divided. 

(fig. 11). The duodenum was simple. The duodenal vessel received 
short-circuiting veins from the hinder portion of the circular loop. 
A strikiug feature of the minor loops on the front part of the 
mid-gut is the presence upon them of minor loops. The circular 
loop had a huge median mesenteric vein, which ran out to the 
much elongated subsidiary loop bearing the yolk-duct. It gave 
off three vessels to three expansions of the proximal part of the 
circular loop, vessels to a long and short distal expansion, and a 
vessel to the straight part of the loop along which the caeca were 
attached. The rectum w.ns straight and in the typical fashion 
was supplied by a posterior mesenteric vein. 



FALCOlfirOEMES. 

I have not had the opportunity of examining any of the Cathartae. 
The Accipitres show a marked divergence from the common type. 
The gut generally is enormously long, especially in the fish-eaters. 
From the point of view of relation to type, I cannot see that there 
is any special relation between the Accipitriae deviation and the 

10* 



148 MB. p. CHALMURS MITCHELL ON THE [Jan. 14, 

deviation among the Pelargi, although Dr. Gadow has laid some 
stress on the existence of such a resemblance. In some of the 
Vultures and Falcons there are spirals formed by the subsidiary 
loops, just as occurs, for instance, in Ciconia (fig. 9). On the 
other "hand, members of both groups exhibit a much simpler 
luethod of attaining increased length, and this seems to imply 
that the spiral formation is a convergent resemblance. When 
the simplest members of the groups are taken — I am speaking 
of them only from the point of view of gut-formation — the special 
spiral formation disappears and the relations between the groups 
are only their relations to the common type. The White-tailed 
Sea-Eagle (fig. 12) shows the general character of the group. Its 
gut is very long, and if the spiral twists were a character of the 



Eig. 12. 




Haliaetus albicilla ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

group one would expect the increased length to be displayed in 
the formation of complicated spirals. This does not occur. The 
duodenum is thrown into a complicated set of subsidiary loops, 
thus recaUing the similar modification in the Penguin. Among 
the Accipitrines generally the duodenum is a very wide irregular 
loop, but I have not found it thrown into secondary loops in other 
cases. The circular loop forms a very extended set of minor 
loops, some of which, especially on the lower side, are slightly 
twisted into spirals. In other Accipitres it is more often the 
upper loops of this series that are twisted. The vestige of the 
yolk-duct occurs at the end of the median mesenteric vein in the 
typical fashion, but is situated rather nearer the proximal end of 
the loop. The last loop of the circular system is very long and 
usually, as in Haliaetvs, spirally twisted. It gives a short-circuiting 
vein to the duodenal vein. The part of the hind gut between the 
CEeca and the circular loop is thrown into a complicated set of folds, 



1896.] INTESTINAL TRACT OF BIKDS. 149 

supplied by the posterior mesenteric vein. This structure is present 
in all the Accipitres I have examined, and Dr. Gadovv states that 
all the Accipitres and Cathartae have irregular kinks above the 
rectum. A similar deviation occurs in the Petrels (fig. 7, p. 143). 

Gallifokmes. 

I have not had the opportunity of dissecting any Galliforraes 
except Galli. The figure of the young Argas Pheasant (fig. 2) may 
serve as a type for the adult intestine of the Peacocks, Fowls, Quails, 
Tragopans, and so forth. The three great portions of the intes- 
tine and the three great mesenteric veins are always present in the 
typical form. The adult sliows the vestige of the yolk-duct at the 
end of the middle mesenteric vein. Branches radiate off from the 
middle vein to the irregular loops of the circular fold, and the_ last 
part of the circular fold, along which the enormous caeca lie, is 
drained partly by a recurrent branch of the middle mesenteric vein 
and partly by short-circuiting branches from the vein of the duo- 
denum. The rectum is always straight. 

GnUIFOEMES. 

Like the Galliformes, the Gruiformes closely conform to the 
primitive type. The gut is short, and instead of being thrown 
into a number of irregular minor loops the subsidiary loops are 

Eig. 13. 



Crex pratensis ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

few in number and definitely placed. The Common Land-Rail 
(fig. 13) may be taken as typical of the Eallidae. Porphryio and 
Aramides are practically identical with it, and the Cranes and 
Psophia differ only in minor particulars. The duodenum is a narrow 
regular loop : the circular loop is pulled out into four narrow sub- 
sidiary loops ; upon the distal limb of the second subsidiary loop the 
vestige of the yolk-duct is found. This is very large and is bound 



150 MR. p. CHALMEUS MITCHELL ox THE [Jan. 14, 

do\^Ti by the remnant of a primitive ventral mesentery. The last 
minor loop of the circular portion of the gut has the long ciBca 
running forward alongside it. It is drained in the usual fashion 
by a branch of the niid-mesenteric vein and by short circuit branches 
from the duodenal vein. At first sight there is a striking similarity 
between the gut of the Rails and the gut of Fulma)'iis(fi.g. 7, p. 143) ; 
but this is due simply to the narrowness and regularity of the loops. 
The position of the yolk-duct vestige differs in the two, while the 
short cajca and the kinks immediately above them make absolutely 
distinctive characters in the Petrel. 

In the Dicholophidas and the OtididaB the Ralline characters are 
still obvious, but the gut is still shorter and the loops more definite. 
Cariama cristata (fig. 14) shows the duodenum and the rectum 
identical with the Eails ; the last portion of the circular loop is 

Fig. 14. 



Cariama cristata ; intestinal tract, .r, sliort-circuiting vessel divided. 

identical in its arrangement and veins, although the casca are stiU 
larger. The rest of the mid-gut is reduced, the third loop being 
absent. The yolk-duct vestige is in the same place upon the 
second loop, but the first loop of the circular mid-gut is partly 
united with the second. In the Otididse the gut appears to be 
further modified in the direction in which Cariama differs from 
Crex. The duodenum, the rectum, and the last loop of the mid-gut 
are as in the Eails and Cariama ; but the remainder of the mid-gut 
is reduced to a single loop, corresponding to the second of that 
region in Crex, and bearing the yolk-sac vestige on its distal limb. 

Chaeadeiifoemes. 

The birds associated in this Order display a very varied series of 
divergences from the type. Among those Limicolae that I have 



1896.] 



rtfTESTINAL TKACT OF BHIDS. 



151 



examined, Numenius (fig. 15) certainly is nearest the common type. 
The duodenum is a simple loop supplied with the usual vein ; the 
circular loop is nearly symmetrical, and the vestige of the yolk-duct 



Fig. 15. 




Numenius arqiiata ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

occurs ahout the middle of its length. As in the Bails this is 
remarkably large even in adult life, and frequently is bent on itself 
and tied down by remains of the primitive ventral mesentery. 
The long caeca lie alongside the posterior part of the circular coil, 
which gives a short-circuiting vein to the duodenal vessel. The 
rectum is straight. Olareola resembles Numenius, but is even 
simpler. In other Limicolae the general tendency is to an asymme- 
trical extension of the circular loop and to a reduction of the 
caeca. The "Woodcock (fig. 16) may be taken as an extreme case of 
this kind of divergence. The general arrangement of the loops 

rig. 16. 




Scolopax rusticola ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 



152 



MB, P. CHALMEBS MITCHELL ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



and blood-vessels remains as in Numenius ; but the large subsi- 
diary loop, on the distal limb of which lies the yolk-sac vestige, is 
pulled out into an enormously long narrovs' loop, which is then 
rolled up into a spiral. The distal part of the circular loop is very 
much reduced, although there still remains a small loop in the 
position occupied by the long caeca of Numenius and giving a 
vessel to the duodenal vein. 

The Gulls display a type that is more divergent than Nume- 
nius, in that the caeca are reduced. Lams marinus (fig. 17) shows 
that in other respects they are as primitive as Numenius. The 
duodenum is a simple loop with the usual vessel. The circular 
coil of the mid-gut is thrown into a series of irregular loops, which, 
however, as in the Limicolae, are more developed on the side 



Pig. 17 




Larus marimis ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

anterior to the yolk-sac vestige. This lies in the normal position 
opposite the end of the median mesenteric vein. The last part of 
the circular loop forms an extended subsidiary loop supplied by a 
short-circuiting vein from the duodenal vessel. I have not found 
instances myself, but Dr. Gadow states that in some Gulls spiral 
folds occur in the region corresponding to the spiral fold of Scolo- 
pax. Thus the Gulls and the Limicolse would form a series of 
divergences from the common type, but in parallel directions. 

Pterocles (fig. 18) diverges in yet another direction. The ex- 
tremely primitive character of the gut is obvious at once. The 
duodenum, the circular loop, and the rectum are all distinct and 
have the usual veins. The middle of the mid-gut is marked by 
the vestige of the yolk-sac placed at the end of the median mesen- 
teric vein. As in Charadriiformes generally, the anterior portion 



1896.] 



INTESTIKAL TRACT OF BIRDS. 



153 



of the circular loop is expanded. In Pterocles it forms a long 
narrow loop, the end of which is bent upon itself. The posterior 



rig. 18. 




Pterocles bicinctus ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting yessel divided. 



part of the circular loop remains in the primiti\re condition, and 
has the long caeca attached to it. A short-circuiting vein from 
the duodenum is present. The rectum is sti-aight. 

In the Columbae whicli I have examined (Colmnhce of several 
species, Phloyoenas cruenta) (fig. 19), it is tempting to regard the 



Fig. 19. 




Columba livia ; intestinal tract ; the spiral is figured as rather too symmetrical. 
X, short-circuiting 'easel divided. 



154 MR. P, CHALMERS MITCHELL ON" THE [Jan. 14, 

gut as a simple derivative of the type seen in Pterocles. The duo- 
denum is longer and narrower. The circular loop is enormously 
expanded, but the three subsidiary loops seen in Pterocles remain. 
The first of these is somewhat shortened ; the second, that bearing 
the yolk-sac vestige at its end, is enormously lengthened ; the mesen- 
tery is folded along the line ot the median mesenteric vessel, so 
that the two limbs of the loop are brought in contact with each 
other, and, finally, the whole folded loop is rolled into a rough 
spiral. The third subsidiary loop of the circular part of the gut 
has the same arrangement and veins as in Pterocles ; but the caeca 
no longer run along it, but occur as very short stumps upon the 



rectum. 



CtJCULIFORMES. 



Of these, I have examined only Corythcdx (chloroclilamys and 
persa) and a number of Psittaci. So far as I can see, one has to go 
back to the common type for both. Corythaix (fig. 20) has a 
remarkably short and wide gut, in correspondence with its frugi- 



Fig. 20. 




Corythaix chlorochlamys ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

vorous habits. The duodenal loop is wide and straight. The cir- 
cular loop is short ; its anterior portion forms a normal coil, is slung 
at the circumference of the circular mesentery, and is supplied by 
radiating branches of the median mesenteric vein. No doubt the 
vestige of the yolk-duct occurs upon this ; but in my specimens, 
which were all affected with tubercular nodules on the gut, I 
failed to identify it. The distal portion of the circular coil, along 
which the caeca run in the primitive type, is pulled out into a narrow 
subsidiary loop, the distal portion of which gives a short-circuiting 
vein to the duodenal vein. The rectum is straight, and there was 
no trace of caeca. The gut ajjpears to be directly derived from the 
primitive type by shortening and by loss of the caeca, the distal 



1896.] 



IXTESirSAL TRACT OF BIKDS. 



155 



loop of the mid-gut with its special vein apparently being a remi- 
niscence of the stage with functional cseca. 

In the Parrots, Macaws, and Parrakeets that I have examined 
the gut presents no great divergences. It is invariably very long 
and slender, and the subsidiary loops are folded upon each other, 
and twisted and doubled in a very perplexing manner. Moreover, 
the masses of twisted gut are overgrown by connective tissue loaded 
with fat, and short-circuiting connections between the veins are 
common. The relation to the common type, however, is easily 
made out. Ara ararauna (fig. 21) may serve as an instance ; the 



Fig. 21. 




Ara ararauna ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

duodenum is considerably wider than the rest of the gut, and is a 
simple loop, partly curved at the end. The circular loop is enor- 
mously expanded and is pulled out into a number of subsidiary 
loops, four in number, as in Ara, but numerous minor subsidiary 
loops usually occur between them. The first of the four is short 
in Ara ; the second, as in the others that I have examined, bears 
the vestige of the yolk-duct at its extremity ; the third and fourth 
are very long, and the fourth has a short-circuiting vein to the duo- 
denum, and corresponds to the part of the circular loop along which 
the caeca run in the primitive type. The rectum is straight and 
bears no trace of caeca. The three main veins — the duodenal, the 
median, and the posterior mesenteric — occur in the typical fashion. 
When the minor loops between the four subsidiaiy loops are 
abundant, as, for instance, in Chryosotis, the gut bears a resemblance 



156 



MB. P. CHALMEBS MITCHELL ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



to that of the Accipitres ; but this, I think, is superficial, and merely- 
due to the relation to the common type. The marked features of the 
divergence from type in the Psittaci consist in the elongation of a 
definite number of loops and in the matting of these loops together, 
the loops being folded over each other backward and forward. 
There is no trace of the formation of a loop supplied by the pos- 
terior mesenteric vessel, which is the most striking Accipitrine 
character. 

COBACIIFOBMES. 

Of the birds in this group that I have examined, the Owls (fig. 22) 
and Caprimulgidae are the most primitive, and indeed differ very 
little from the primitive type. The duodenal loop, as in other 
Coraciiform birds, is very wide, especially towards its extremity. 
The circular loop of the gat remains in nearly the primitive con- 
Fig. 22, 




Buho maximus ; intestinal tract. 

dition, being thrown into a series of short convoluted lobes, 
supplied by radiating branches from the middle mesenteric vein. 
In Buho maximus, where the gut is relatively short, the only 
subsidiary loop of the mid-gut series that is prominent is the 
distal loop, along which, as in the common type, tlie large caeca 
run forward. In other Owls there is frequently another well- 
developed subsidiary loop on the part of the mid- gut between the 
duodenum and the vestige of the yolk-duct. The rectum is 
straight. The three branches of the portal vein, the duodenal, 
median, and posterior mesenteric veins, all are in the typical 
condition. I have not been able to see many of the other 
birds in this group which possess long caeca. Those without 
functional caeca display very simple divergences from the common 



]896.] 



INTESTINAL TRACT OF BIKDS. 



157 



type. The wide gut is very short : the Colies, for instance, have 
shortest guts of any birds that I have examined ; but the same 
general features are present in all. Khyiicloceros jjlicatus, for 
instance (fig. 23), shows the duodenum as a very wide irregular 

Fig. 23. 




Bhytidoceros plicatits ; intestinal tract. 

loop, with a pucker at its closed end. The circular part of the gut 
is thrown into three simple subsidiary folds. The first of these 
corresponds to that present in most Owls, but absent in the Eagle- 
Owl ; the second bears the yolk-sac vestige at its extremity, and 
the third corresponds to the part along which the lost caeca 
lay. The rectum is straight. The veins are in the typical form, 
and I have not found any short-circuiting veins. 

In the Woodpeckers (Gecinus) and Toucans {Rhamphastos) the 
duodenum is equally wide : the three loops of the mid-gut are 
present with the yolk-sac vestige on the median loop ; but all three 
loops are much wider and shallower than in the Hornbill. The 



Fig. 24. 




Colius capensis ; intestinal tract. 



158 ON THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF BIEDS. [Jan. 14. 

Colies (jBg. 24) have the same parts, but still wider and shallower. 
At first sight the gut of the Coly seems very different from that of 
the Hornbill. But the vestige of the yolk-duct orients the apex 
of the middle subsidiary loop of the mid-gut : the anterior and 
posterior loops of the mid-gut may then be seen as simple shallow 
cur\ es on the gut. The wide duodenum and the straight rectum, 
and the veins, are as in the Hornbill and Woodpecker. 

Passeeifoemes. 

I have proceeded only a short way in the examination of the 
members of this vast group, but those that I have examined 
show a simple and identical modification of the common type. 
Parus major (fig. 25) may serve as a fairly generalized example of 
the Passerine type. The duodenum is a simple loop. The circular 
con of the mid-gut shows a tendency to be spirally twisted, the 

rig. 25. 




Parus major ; intestinal tract, x, short-circuiting vessel divided. 

vestige of the yolk-duct forming the apex of the spiral, and the 
median mesenteric vein forming the axis of the spiral. The spiral is 
hardly visible in Parus ; it forms less than half a tui'n. In the Crows 
and Nutcrackers, and in a very large number of other Passeres, the 
spiral is long and forms several turns. Betweeu the sjjiral and 
the rectum there is a subsidiary loop on the mid-gut where in the 
primitive type the cffica ran forwards. This in Parus and in all 
other Passeres I have examined is closely connected with the 
duodenum, which is folded under it. Frequently a lobe of the 
pancreas passes across and lies in this subsidiary loop. The loop 
has a recurrent vein from the middle mesenteric vein, and a short- 
circuiting vein or veins opening into the duodenal vein. The 
rectum is short and straight, and where these are present, as in 
Parus, bears the caeca. The veins are normal. 

Some Passeres, as, for instance, the Xutcracker, show signs of a 
subsidiary loop of the mid-gut between the spiral and the duode- 
num. In others, as, for instance, the Poe Honey-eater (Prosthe- 
madera), the anterior part of the mid-gut and the spiral are reduced 
to practically a simple fold, while the last loop of the mid-gut is 
considerably expanded. 



1896.] Olf THE MTOLOGT OF EODENTS. 159 

Conclusion. 

I do not feel justified in attempting to draw any general con- 
clusions as to the relations of the A'arious divergences from the 
common type that I have described : but I think that I have 
brought together enough matter to show that w hen a much larger 
number of facts has been collected, tlie method of investigation I 
have been following may furnish anotlier clue to that riddle of 
zoology, the classification of birds. But in addition to this systematic 
interest, the comparative anatomy of a group of creatures so large in 
numbers and so alike in anatomical structure offers a field for the 
investigation of the innumerable divergences and convergences 
that have taken place in the evolution of the group. I cannot see 
that interpretations of isolated characters have any value. AVhen 
we know the comparative anatomy of the greater number of 
characters that make up an animal, and not only those that seem 
to distinguish it as a species, the time may come for interpre- 
tation. But to those who care for discussions concerning isolated 
characters, I may suggest the problem : in these loopiugs of the 
gut in birds, there is an almost kaleidoscopic variety, and appa- 
rently these vaz'ieties are of systematic value ; v hat are their 
utilities ? 



4. Myology of Rodents. — Part II. An Account of the 
Myology of the Myomorpha, together with a Com- 
parison of the Muscles of the various Suborders of 
Rodents. By F. G. Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S., 
Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy at St. Thomas's 

Hospital, 

[Receifed December 14, 1895.] 

The present paper is intended to be a second instalment to the 
one " On the Myology of the Sciuromorphine and Hystricomor- 
phine Rodents," which I had the honour of reading before this 
Society in 1894 (see P. Z. S. 1894, p. 2.51). I am again indebted 
to the kindness of the Society's Prosector, Mr. F. E. Beddard, for 
a large proportion of my material ; indeed, it was bis suggestion 
that a detailed examination of the muscles of Rodents would be 
of practical value in the Dissecting-Room at the Gardens that 
determined me to undertake the work in the first instance. 

The first part of this paper contains an account of the muscles 
of thirteen Myomorphine Rodents, and as a statement of actual 
facts will, I hope, prove of some value. 

The second part is devoted to a series of summaries and 
generaUzations founded upon the facts with which these and 
previous dissections have furnished me. This part I regard as of 
less value than the first, because future dissections may make 
many alterations necessary. It seems well, however, to take 
stock of the mass of material from time to time as it accumulates. 



160 MR. r. G. PARSONS ON THE [Jan. 14, 

The folloTsing is a list of the animals dissected for the first part 
of the present paper : — 



Myoxus dry as. 
Gerbilliis sliawi. 
Cricetus frumentarius. 
Cricetomys gambianus. 
Microtus amphibius. 
Myodes lemnms. 
Mils decumanus. 



Mus rattus. 
Mus barbarus. 
Ehyzomys badius. 
Georyrhus capensis. 
Bathyergus mariiimus. 
Heteroniys longicaudatus. 



Also 



Lepus timidus and Lepus cuniculus 



for the sake of comparison. 

Accounts of the muscles of other animals by various authors 
have been used and their sources acknowledged in the text. 

Muscles of the Head and Neck. 

Temporal. — In all the Myomorpha the three parts of the tem- 
poral are more closely fused than they are in the Sciuromorpha, in 
this respect resembling the Hystricomorphine arrangement. 

In the Water- Vole the parietal part of the muscle is very large 
and arises from the temporal fascia, as well as the parietal, maxil- 
lary, and frontal bones. It runs down as a flat tendon to be 
inserted, opposite the anterior molar teeth, into the mandible. 
The anterior deep part of the masseter, after coming through the 
infraorbital foramen, joins this tendon. 



rig. 1. 



PxaiETAL part of Temp. / E M P. 



ANT. 




MAS. 



^ POST DEEP MA.S. 

Masticatory muscles of Vole. 

In the MyoxidsB and Muridse the muscles of opposite sides are 
separated by an interval which is often, as in Mus rattus, of 
considerable extent. In the Spalacidae, on the other hand, the two 
muscles rise close together, and the superficial layer described bj' 
Allen ' is distinct and rises by aponem-osis from the sagittal crest. 
These animals, moreover, bear out the statement in Bronn's 

1 Pr. Acad. Nat. So. of Philadelphia, vol. iii. p. 385. 



1896.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 161 

' Thierreich,' that the size of the temporal varies inversely with 
that of the eyes, for in them the eye is rudimentary while the 
muscle is very large (Shizomjjs. Gtori/chus, Bathyergus). 

Masseter. — The four parts of the muscle already described are 
present in the Myomorpha, but the posterior superficial and 
posterior deep parts are usually difficult to separate satisfactorily. 
The anterior superficial portion is constant and rises in front of 
the infraorbital foramen, from the side of the maxilla, by a narrow 
tendon. It is very strongly marked in the Spalacidse, in which 
the lower jaw has a broad pulley-like groove under which the 
muscle passes to be inserted into the inner surface of the bone; 
this arrangement is very well seen in Gfon/chus and Batki/erc/its. 
The anterior deep part shows an intermediate arrangement between 
the Sciuromorphine and Hystricomorphine type and throws a 

Fig. 2. 

TtV\P. 

; Ant. DEEP M^S. 




Superficial dissection of Hamster's masseter. 

good deal of light on the morphology of this portion. In the 
Hystricomorpha thei'e is a large infraorbital foramen through 
which the anterior deep part of the masseter passes to be inserted 
by a narrow flat tendon into the mandible opposite, or just in 
front of, the anterior cheek-teeth. In the Sciuromorpha the part 
which I have hitherto described as " anterior deep " rises from a 
vertical groove in front of the zygoma, and passes down to the 
same insertion without traversing any bony canal, the infraorbital 
foramen being only large enough to allow the passage of the 
nerve. As the insertion of a muscle is justly regarded as of more 
importance than the origin in determining homologies, I have 
hitherto looked upon these two portions as homologous, but the 
arrangement in many of the Myomorpha has made me change this 
opinion. In the Myomorpha the infraorbital foramen is inter- 
mediate between the arrangement found in the other two sub- 
orders ; it is usually present as a vertical slit, through which 
passes a small bundle of muscular fibres corresponding to the 
anterior deep part of the Hystricomorphine masseter; but in 
adchtion to this there is another slip, corresponding to the Sciuro- 
morphine anterior deep part, which rises in front of the zygoma 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XI. 11 



162 



MR. F. G. PAKSOSS OK THE 



[Jau. 14, 



and runs down to be inserted, also bj^ a narrow flat tendon, just 
external to the former and covering its insertion. This part is 
especially well marked in Heteromys. This arrangement, which is 
present in all the genera of the Muridse that I have dissected, 
shows that, as the two muscles coexist in the same animal, they 
cannot be homologous, and I am now of opinion that the so-called 



Pig. 3. 



A.NT. DEEP MAS. 

! HpTricomcrfih/'ne-, 




Deep dissection of Hamster's niasseter. 




Post. Sup. 
X-DEEP ^U3. 



\NTf SUP.MAS, '• '^^'^- °^tP ^>^' 

■<Sc lZ2.TomoTphi7ie<. 

Masseter of Heteromys. 



anterior deep part of the Scinromorphiue masseter is an exten,sion 
forward of the posterior superficial plane of fibres. The arrange- 
ment in the Spalacidie gives a clue to the way in ■« liich the infra- 
orbital slip appears ; in these animals it is very feebly marked, rises 
from the mai'gius of the infraorbital foramen, and runs back to 
blend with the temporal instead of having an independent insertion 
opposite the anterior cheek-teeth. 

Facial Muscles. — These muscles are best developed in the 
Spalacidae, especially in Batliijergus. In this animal the frontalis 
is continuous dorsally and laterally with the superficial panniculus, 
and the muscles of the small auricle are extensions from this. 
The orbicularis palpebrarum in Baihyergus is very small, corre- 
sponding to the feeble development of the eye. The levator labii 
superioris corresponds with the description of it in the other 
Rodents '. The dilatator naris rises deep to this and passes to the 

' P. Z. S. 189i, p. 253. 



1896.] 



MYOLOGY OF RODESTS. 



1G3 



side of the nasal aperture. The zygomaticus rises behind and 
belo\y the eye and runs tn the angle of the mouth. The orbicularis 
oris is feeble, as the mouth never closes over the enormous lower 
incisors, and the infra-labial muscles are hardly developed at all. 

Fig. 5. 



OlLAToi?^ NiBIS 



Lev. l»bu 




Face-muscles of Bathyergus. 

This description applies to the other animals examined, with the 
exception that a depressor labii inferioris can be made out, and 
that the orbicularis palpebrarum is better developed than iu the 
Spalacida;. The other facial muscles, especially the zygomaticus, 
are more difficult to separate from the facial panniculus. Windle, 
liowever, made out a levator ala3 nasi, a dilatator naris, and a 
levator labii inferioris in Hydromijs chri/sogaster '. 

Buccinator. — The buccinator has the normal arrangement, 
except in Cricetomys aud Cricetus : iu the former animal I was 
unfortunately unable to examine the face owing to its damaged 
condition ; iu the latter the muscle is prolonged into a pouch 
which runs back along the side of the neck as far as the scapula, 
at its blind extremity a muscular fasciculus is attached to it, which 
runs backward to the posterior thoracic spines parallel to the 
posterior border of the trapezius, of which it seems a part, as it is 
supplied by a continuation of the spinal accessory nerve coming 
out of the trapezius. The action of this muscle would be to draw 
back the pouch and possibly to assist in emptying it. 

Pteri/yoids. — The description of these muscles already given 
applies to the arrangement in the Myomorpha. In the Spalacidse, 
especially in Bathyergus, the large anterior superficial part of the 
masseter is inserted into the inner surface of the mandible above 
the insertion of the internal pterygoid, so that the latter seems to 
stand out in a more isolated manner than is usually the case. 

Digastric. — Distinct Hystricomorphine and Sciuromorphine 
types of this muscle have already been described. In the 
Myomoi'pha the type is usually Sciuromoi-phine, but certain 



P. Z. S. 1887. p. ri4. 



11* 



164: MR. r. G. PAKSoxs ON THE [Jan. 14, 

animals approach more or less closely to the Hystricomorphine 
arrangement. 

In Myoxus the type is essentially Sciuromorphine, there is a 
distinct central tendon and a tendinous arcade connecting the 
anterior bellies of opposite sides ; the two anterior bellies, more- 
over, are in contact in the middle line. The same arrangement is 
found in GerbiUus (where, however, the posterior bellies rise from 
the bulla tympani), in Cricetomys, in the Murinse (Mus raitus, 
M. decumanus, and M. larbarus), and in Rlvzomys among the 
Spalacidae. In Cricetus, Microtus, Myodes, and Hydromys (Wmdle) 
the central tendon is reduced to a mere tendinous intersection as 
in the Hystricomorpha, but the two anterior bellies are still in 
close contact. In Batliyeryus and Georyclms among the Spalacidae 
a similar arrangement is found, but, as in all other cases, the 
double nerve-supply of the muscle is preserved. J/eteromys 
approaches most nearly to the Hystricomorphine type, since the 
two anterior bellies are not in contact and there is no tendinous 
arcade ; there is, however, a distinct constriction and tendon 
between the anterior and posterior bellies. 

Transverse Mandibular Muscle. — This muscle is present in all 
cases ; it is perhaps better developed in the Muridie than in the 
other families. When the mylo-hyoid comes far enough forward 
the transverse mandibular is superficial to it. 

Mylo-hyoid. — The mylo-hyoid is attached postei-iorly to the 
tendinous arcade connecting the digastrics and to the hyoid bone. 
Anteriorly the two muscles usually form a V-shaped border, with 
the aperture of the V forward, and do not reach the symphysis. In 
Myoxits, Microtus, the Murinse (M. ratiiis, decumanus, and barbarus), 
and in Heteromys the muscle extends farther forv^ard than in the 
rest and is then deep to the transverse mandibular. 

Ge7iio-hyoid.— The two muscles of opposite sides tend to coalesce 
posteriorly as in the Sciuromorplia. 

Genio-Jiyo-cflossus. — This has the usual attachments ; it is speci- 
ally large in Rhizomys. 

Styloid Mv-scles. — The stylo-hyoid has the usual Eodent arrange- 
ment in passing deep to the digastric. 

In Rhizomys these two muscles are closely blended, while in 
Georychus the blending seems to be more complete, for no distinct 
stylo-hyoid could be made out. The stylo-glossus rises by tendon 
from the posterior part of the bulla ; it is very well marked in 
Cricetomys, while in Georychus and Bathyergus it rises by tendon 
from the stylo-hyal element of the hyoid arch. As in other rodents 
the styio-pliaryngeus was not seen as a distinct muscle. 

Sterno- and Cleido-mastoid. — In the Myomorpha these two 
muscles are perhaps not quite so distinctly separated one from 
another as in either of the other suborders. 

In Cricetus, Myoxus, Microtus, Myodes, Mus harharus, M. rattus, 
and Heteromys the cleido-mastoid rises from the inner part of the 
bony clavicle under cover of the clavicular insertion of the trapezius ; 
it is inserted into the curved line of the occipital bone, close to the 



1896.] MYOLOGT OF ROUKXXS. 165 

paroccipital process, by fleshy fibres. The sterno-mastoid has the 
usual origin and is inserted by tendon into the base of the par- 
occipital process in front of the last muscle ; it is the larger muscle 
of the two. In Cnct;tom)/s the cleido-mastoid is not covered by 
the trapezius at its origin, it is, however, overlapped by the sterno- 
mastoid at its insertion. In the Gerbille the two muscles are con- 
tinuous at their origin, the cleido-mastoid being the larger and 
rising from the inner half of the clavicle. Rhizomys resembles 
C'ricetus, Mi/oxus, and the Murincn in the origiu of the cleido- 
mastoid being overlapped by the trapezius, and Cricetomys in the 
insertion being overlapped by the sterno-mastoid. In Bydromys * 
the cleido-mastoid is the smaller muscle and is overlapped at its 
insertion by the sterno-mastoid. Ln Georychus and Bathyeryus 
the cleido-mastoid is not overlapped by the trapezius ; in the latter 
the two muscles tend to fuse as in the Gerbille, but to a greater 
extent ; at their insertion they are completely fused and are attached 
by a narrow tendon to the base of the paroccipital process. 

Sterno-liyoid and thyroid. — In most cases these muscles have the 
human attachments. In Bathyeryus, however, the sterno-hyoid 
misses the hyoid bone and continues on to the symphysis menti, 
in this respect somewhat resembling the arrangement found in 
Myopotamus-. In Hydromys the arrangement seems ideiiticai 
with that of Myopotcnnits ^. 

Omo-hyoid. — As in the Sciuromorpha the omo-hyoid is always 
present in the Myomorpha ; it has the same attachments, never, as 
far as I have seen, being attached to the clavicle. There is no 
central tendon. In Bathyeryus the muscle is not attached to the 
hyoid bone, but is continued forwards with the sterno-hyoid to the 
symphysis menti. 

Levator ClavicuJee (Acromio-tracheliati). — In all the animals 
examined this muscle rose from the anterior arch and transverse 
process of the atlas. Its usual insertion is into the acromial pro- 
cess, but sometimes it extends to the spine of the scapula. This 
description applies also to Hydromys '. In Bathyeryus the muscle 
is very large and extends from the acromion on to the outer half 
of the clavicle at its insertion, in this respect resembling the 
Dipodidse. 

Bectus Capitis Anticus Major and Minor and, Longus Colli. — 
These muscles have the Hystricomorphine attachments. 

Scalene Muscles. — A scalenus anticus, that is a muscle passing 
to the first rib in front of the subclavian artery and brachial plexus, 
was only seen in the following animals — Gerbillus, Georychus, and 
Bathyeryus. In these it resembled the same muscle among the 
Hystricomorpha, in rising from the basioccipital bone. The sca- 
lenus medius and posticus of human anatomy are represented by 
one mass, which rises from the transverse processes of all the cer- 
vical vertebras, passes behind the brachial plexus, and is inserted into 

1 P. Z. S. 1887. p. 55. 
=> P. Z. S. I«n4. p.256. 
' P. Z. S. 1887, p. 55. 



166 



ME. F. G. PARSONS ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



the first four or five ribs. In Cricetomys, Gerhillus, Microtus, Mus 
rattas, Jihjodes, and Heteromys the muscie rose from all the cervical 
vertebrse and was inserted into the fii'st five ribs. _ In Myoxus and 
Cricetus it was only inserted into the first four ribs. In Geory- 
cJuis the muscle came from the anterior four cervical vertebrae and 
was inserted into the first four ribs. In Bathyergvs the arrange- 
ment was the same except that it reached the fifth rib. In lUiizomys, 
no scalenus anticus, the scalene mass was 



although there was 



rig. 6. 



.SER- M*.G 




!EXT. OBL. 

Scalene muscles of Ehizo7nys. 

divisible into an anterior and a posterior part : the anterior part 
rose from the second to the seventh cervical transverse processes 
and w'as inserted into the first rib, while the posterior part only 
came from the transverse process of the atlas and went to the first 
four ribs. 

Muscles of the Anterior Extremity. 

The Pectoral Muscles. — For purposes of description, and for 
comparison with other Eodents, the same four di\isions of the pec- 
toral mass which have already been defined ^ will be here adhered 
to. The chief differences noticed in the Myomorpha are that a is 
not so oblique a muscle, and, as its fibres correspond in direction 
with those of /3, the two parts are much less easily distinguished 
from one another. In Cricetomys, with which Myoxus closely 
agrees, a rises from the anterior part of the sternum and runs 
horizontally outward to be inserted into the pectoral ridge ; 
' P. Z. S. 1894, p. 259. 



1896.] iiyoLOGT OF eodexts, 167 

/3 rises from the whole length o£ the sternum ; y (the abdominal 
fibres) are feebly marked ; o (the part corresponding to the pec- 
toraUs minor) comes from the lower true rib-cartilages and runs 
forward and outward to the head of the humerus and to the cora- 
coid process. Heteromys only differs from this description in 
having the abdominal fibres more closely united with the panni- 
culus than in any other animal. In the Gerbille, a and /3 are fused, 
while y and ^ unite near their insertion, which is into the capsule of 
the shoidder and into the humerus just internal to the pectoral ridge. 
The Hamster differs from the last only in having the abdominal 
fibres better developed and running quite separately to the cora- 
coid process. The Vole closely resembles the Gei-bUle, but is 
remarkable for the great development of the fibres from the 
cartilages (S) ; these fibres unite with y, and are inserted into the 
coracoid. 

In the Eat and Mouse the arrangement is almost identical \vith 
that of the Gerbille. 

In S'qjhiieus Milne-Edwards describes a large and distinct pec- 
toralis minor inserted into the coracoid process and coining from 
the second rib ; this is interesting when one notices the similar 
arrangement in the Vole, an animal to which he regards Sii)hneus 
as being more closely related than to the Mole-Rats '. 

Ehizoiiij/s resembles Cricdomys except that I is larger, rises from 
the 2nd to the 7th costal cartilages, and is inserted into the clavicle 
as well as the head of the humerus. Georychus has a and /3 fused ; 
y is inserted into the neck of the humerus ; S rises from the 2nd, 
3rd, and 4th costal cartilages aud is inserted into the coracoid and 
shoulder-joint. 

In Baihyeryus the pectoral mass is very large, and resembles the 
last in having a and /3 fused ; but near the insertion the posterior 
fibres become tucked under the anterior and are inserted deep to 
them into the pectoral ridge. The abdominal fibres (y) rise from 
the end of the sternum to the middle of the linea alba ; they are 
inserted together with a large part of the latissimus dorsi into the 
capsule of the shoulder. The pectoralis minor (iJ) rises from the 
posterior two-thirds of the sternum and the posterior true rib- 
cartilages, and is inserted into the outer half of the clavicle, having 
its anterior border in contact with the posterior border of the 
subclavius; between these two contiguous borders the external 
anterior thoracic nerve emerges to reach the superficial parts of 
the muscle. 

Sterno-scajmlaris. — In the greater number of the Myomorpha 
this muscle is only represented, as in Man, by the subclavius, which 
rises from the cartilage of the first rib and is inserted into the 
outer half of the posterior border of the clavicle. Georychus and 
Bathyergtis are the only exceptions which I have met with ; in these 
there is a large and distinct claviculo-scapularis, as in the Hystrico- 
morpha. in Sijjhneus, according to Mihie-Edwards, the arrange- 
ment is the same. 

^ ' Eecherches des Mammiferes,' tome i. p. 99. 



168 



ME. F. G. PAESOjSTS as THE 



[Jan. 14, 



Deltoid. — This muscle iu the Myomorpha has the usual three 
parts, but the intervals between them are hardly noticeable ; more- 
over, they are all inserted into the humerus at the same point. The 
portion rising from the spine of the scapula, instead of being the 
smallest, as in the Hystricomorpha, is usually the largest. This 
description applies to all the animals examined, with the exception 
that in Bathyergiis, Ocorijchus, and Siphneus the intervals are so 
ill-marked that the muscle appears single as in Man. 

Siqrrasj}inatus,l7}fraspinati(S, and Subscapidaris. — These resemble 
the same muscles in the other Rodents in having the human attach- 
ments. In some, e. g. Cr?ce<o»;,!/s, the supraspinatus is larger than 
the infraspinatus ; but, as a rule, the reverse is the case. Milne- 
Edwards points out that in SipJmeus the supraspinatus only occupies 
the anterior three-fourths of the fossa, the posterior part giving 
attachment to the rhomboid. 

Teres Major. — This has the usual attachments, its relation to the 
tendon of the latissiraus dorsi is variable, and depends on the extent 
to vi'hich that muscle is wrapped round the lower border of it. In 
Myoa'vs, Crivetus, Hhizomys, Microtus, Mus harharus, and M. rattus 
the teres major is wrapped round by the latissimus dorsi, so that 
the latter is inserted anteriorly to it. In Cricetomys, Georychus, 
and Bathya-yus the wrapping round is not so complete, and the 
teres major is inserted in front of the latissimus dorsi. In Siph- 
tievs the arrangement seems to be the same. 

Teres Minor. — This muscle closely agrees with the description 
given of it in tlie other Eodents. It is very rarely a distinct 
muscle, Cricetomys being the only animal in which it could be 
described as well-marked. It is interesting to notice that a strong 



Fig. 7. 




R..MIN. 



Sliotililer-jiui.-ic'les ol Rhuom^s. 



1896.] MYOLOGY OF R0DENT3. 169 

ligament was seen in Rhizomys running from the axillary border 
of the scapula, between the origins of the teres major and minor, 
across tbe latter muscle to the metacromiou process. A similar 
ligament has already been described in Lagostomus \ 

Biceps Ciibiti. — There can be no doubt that, speaking generally, 
one of tbe characteristics of the Myomorpha is a double-headed 
biceps. This was noticed in every specimen which I dissected. 
Milne-Edwards, however, found only one bead in Siphneus, but it 
is possible that further investigation may prove that this was 
merely an individual variation. In Hydromys Windle does nob 
notice the condition of tbe biceps. 

As a rule the insertion is into both bones of the forearm, but in 
Cricetus and Myoxus the muscle only goes to the radius, while in 
Bhizomys the ulna is tbe ouly bone to which it is attached. In 
Georychus and Batkyerytis the two beads are easily separable 
down to the insertion by a little force. In tbe former the coracoid 
head goes entirely to the radius, the glenoid head to the radius 
and ulna ; in tbe latter both heads can be traced to both bones. 

Coraco-hrachialis. — In the Myomorpha the most usual arrange- 
ment is to find the second and third parts, described by Wood', 
present ; they are, however, fused, and the muscle has one 
continuous insertion from the middle of the humerus to the 
internal condyle. This description applies to Rhizomys, Si2jhneus, 
Microtus, Myodes, Heteromys, Hydromys, and the Murinaa. The 
Cricetinae {Cricetus and Cricetomys) have the same arrangement, 
but in addition the first part or rotator humeri is present. In 
Gerhillus and Myoxus only the second part was seen. 

In Oeorychus the muscle was absent, while in Bathyerfjus it 
was very small, and was only represented by the second part. 
Milne-Edwards says that the muscle is absent in " le Eat-Taupe 
du Cap," by which, I suppose, Bathyergus is meant. In all the 
animals dissected, as in other Rodents, the musculo-cutaneous 
nerve passes above the second part of the muscle. 

BracMalis Antkus. — All the Myomorpha have the external and 
internal heads of the brachial is anticus, and these are more or 
less completely fused ; perhaps Bathyergus shows them most 
clearly separated from one another. The insertion, in every case 
that I dissected, was into the ulna only, but Milne-Edwards 
describes an additional feeble attachment into the head of the 
radius in Siphneus. 

Triceps and Anconeus. — There is no difference between the 
Myomorphine triceps and that of other Eodents. In Cricetomys 
it was noticed that the outer head was inserted largely into the 
fascia of the outer side of the forearm. Bathyergus resembles 
Castor in the great development of the muscle, and in the fact 
that it is attached to both sides of the olecranon, as well as to the 
top. The anconeus has the usual attachments, and shows nothing 
of special interest. 

1 P. Z. S. 1894, p. 2G3. 

' Journ. of Anat. vol. i. p. 45. 



170 MR. 1\ G. PARSONS OS THE [.Ja!l. 14, 

Epitrochleo-anconeus. — This is present in all the Myomorpha ; it 
is supplied by the ulnar nerve. 

Pronator Radii Teres. — This muscle agrees with the description 
given of it in other Kodents ; in Mus barbarus and Oricetus it is 
inserted into the second quarter ol: the radius, while in all the 
other animals examined it goes into the middle of that bone. 
Oricetomys resembles Sciurus in possessing a supracondylar 
foramen, but in it the pronator teres does not rise from the supra- 
condylar arch, as it does in Sciurus. 

Flexor Carpi Radialis. — The attachments of this muscle were 
normal in all cases. In the Vole, and, to a lesser extent, in all 
Eodents, the tendon of this muscle is bound down to the flexor 
surface of the radius by a fibrous pulley just below the attachment 
oE the pronator radii teres. 

Palmaris Longus. — The muscle is present and large in Gricetomys, 
Cricetus, Microtus, Georychus, Bathyerijus, Mus rattus, Sij^)hrieus, 
and Heteromys ; it is inserted into the palmar cartilage or ossicle 
and into the fascia of the palm. In lihizomys and Gerbillus it 
is only inserted into the fascia, while in Myoxus it is absent. 
In Mus barbarus it is developed as a slip from the surface of the 
flexor sublimis digitorum, an arrangement which recalls that found 
in Coelogenys and Xerus. 

Flexor Sublimis Digitorum. — In all the animals examined, except 
Myoxus, this muscle rises from the internal condyle aud forms 
the flexor perforatus for the 2ud, 3rd, and 4th digits. In Myoxus 
it also goes to the 5th digit. Milne-Edwards describes the slip 
to the 2nd digit as a distinct muscle in Sij.)h)ieus. 

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. — This muscle has the usual attachments, 
except that in Rliizomys and Bailiyergus the origin from the 
internal condyle is wanting. The tendon is specially thick in 
Oeorychus. 

Flexor Profundus Digitorum. — The deep flexor of the fingers is 
composed, as in other liodents, of two superficial heads from the 
internal condyle and of two deep heads from the flexor surfaces 
of the radius and ulna. A small slip is given off' to the pollex 
from the front of the teudon formed by these heads in Cricetomys, 
Gerbillus, Microtus, Mus barbarus and rattus, Myodes, Georychus, 
Batliycrgus, and Rhizomys. In Myoxus, Cricetus, and Siphneus 
(Milne-Edwards) no tendon goes to the thumb. In Bathyergus 
the fibres derived from the different heads were traced downward 
through the tendon, and it was found that the two condylar 
heads join together to form the superficial part of the tendon, 
which gradually winds roimd the outer side to eventually become 
deep. When the tendon divides into its ultimate five slips for 
the four fingers and the thumb, each slip receives fibres both from 
the condylar and the radio-ulnar origins. This twisting of the 
tendon reminds one of the arrangement of the fibres of the tendo 
AchiUis ^. There are usually four lumbricals which arise from 
the flexor surface of the tendon at or before its point of division. 
^ Author's paper, ' Journ. Anat.' vol. xxvii. p. 414. 



1890.] MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 171 

lu Microtus, Bhizomi/s, Batliyergus, and Hydromys, however, only 
three luinbricals were seen, the radial one having been suppressed. 

Pronator Quadratus. — This muscle is less well developed as a 
rule than in the Hystricomorpha, never, so far as I have seen, 
extending along the length of the bones. In Myoxus and Microtus 
it occupies the middle third o£ the forearm: in Cricetomys, 
C'ricetus, and Mus harharus the lower half. In the G-erbiUe it 
attains its raaxitnuni of development, and is attached to the lower 
three-quarters of the two bones. In Georyclms, Bathyergus, 
lihizomys, and Sq^hneus it is a very feeble muscle — in the two 
former being found only opposite the insertion of the pronator 
radii teres, while in the two latter it is represented by a few fibres 
between the lower ends of the two bones. 

■ Supinator Lonyns. — This muscle was wanting in every animal 
dissected. Windle found it absent in Hydromys, and Milne- 
Edwards says that it is also wanting in SipJuieus, Spalax, and 
Helamys. He states, however, that it is present in the Hamster, 
and, although it was most certainly absent in the Hamster I 
dissected, I take his statement to mean that very occasionally a 
supinator longus may be found among the Myomorpha as a 
reversion to the Sciuromorphine type. 

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longior and Brevior. — In all the 
animals examined these muscles had the usual attachments. 
When there is any difference in size, as in the case of Myoxus, 
Georychus, EJiizomys, and Siphneus, the brevior is the larger 
muscle. Milne-Edwards says that in Georyclms and Spalax there 
is only one radial extensor, hue he does not mention where that 
one is inserted. Unless the insertion is carefully looked for the 
two muscles may easily be mistaken for one, as they lie very close 
to one another. 

Extensor Communis Digitorum. — The only point of interest in 
the Myomorphine common extensor is whether it goes to the 
fifth digit or not. In Georychus, Bathyergus, Siphneus, and Mus 
harharus no slip is given to the little finger. In Cricetomys two 
tendons pass to the middle, and in Rhizomys two to the ring 
finger. 

Extensor Minimi Digiti. — The insertion of this muscle was into 
the fourth and fifth fingers in OerUUus, Microtus, Myodes, Mus 
harharus, Hydromys, Georychus, Bathyergus, and Bhizomys. In 
Bathyergus, ' however, the tendon to the fourth digit was very 
small. In Cricetus it was attached to the third and fifth digits, 
while in Myoxus and Cricetomys it only went to the fifth. 

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris. — Nothing special was noticed^ in the 
attachments of this muscle. Milne-Edwards describes it as a 
double muscle in Siphneus, one tendon going to the base of the 
fourth, and the other to the base of the fifth -netacarpal bone, 
at the same time he does not describe any extensor minimi digiti. 
Considering the very constant character of the extensor carpi 
ulnaris in Eodents, and the couiparative inconstancy of the 
extensor minimi digiti, I expect that the explanation of what he 



172 5jn. r. g. parsons on the [Jan. 14, 

found is that the outer di\-ision of his extensor carpi uhiaris is 
really the extensor minimi digiti, the tendon of which has lost its 
digital attachments and has become inserted into the base of the 
fourth metacarpal bone. 

Supinator Brevis. — The description of this muscle given in the 
other Bodents applies to the Myomorpba, with the exception that 
in the latter a sesamoid bone is usually found in the tendon. 
The only animals in which this bone was wanting \iere Bathyenyus 
and Georychus. The relationship of the tendon of the supinator 
brevis to the external lateral ligament of the elbow- is interesting, 
in some cases, as in that of BatJn/ergus, there is a well-marked 
external lateral ligament, situated behind the tendon, but in 
others, of which Cricetomys is an example, the tendon itself seems 
to form the lateral ligament, and has the orbicular hgament 
attached to it. 

Extensor Ossis Metacarpi PolUds. — In all cases this muscle rises 
from both bones, and is inserted into the base of the metacarpal 
bone. In the Gerbille its tendon was double. In Cricctus and 
Cricetomys it had an extra insertion into the radial sesamoid bone 
or palmar cartilage. 

Extensor Primi Internodii PoUicis. — In every animal examined 
this was absent. 

Extensor Secundi Internodii PoUicis. — This muscle was only seen 
in Georychus, -where it was well-marked, it accompanied the 
extensor indicis and separated on the back of the hand. This 
arrangement is practically the same as that already described in 
Castor. 

Extensor Indicis. — As in other Eodents the extensor indicis 
rises from about the middle of the back of the ulna, and is inserted 
only into the dorsal side of the index. In Afyo.rvs it rises from 
the top of the back of the ulna close to the olecranon. In the 
Vole I dissected the tendon had acquired a secondary attachment 
to the prominent ridge on the back of the radius at its lower end, 
•while the part of the tendon between this and the index was 
wanting. 

Palmaris Brevis. — When a palmar ossicle is present, which is 
not so often the case as in other Eodents, the muscle is attached 
to it. When there is no ossicle it is attached to the palmar fascia. 
In Microtvs and Bathyergus no palmaris brevis was found. 

Flexor Brevis Digiiorum Mamis. — This muscle was found in 
Cricetomys, Cricetus, GeorycTins, and Bathyergus. In the first three 
it arose from the palmar ossicle, but in the last from the fascia 
just external to the pisiform bone. 

Muscles of the Thumb. — In almost all eases the abductor poUicis 
cxin be made out, and has its origin from the palmar ossicle. The 
flexor bre^^s was made out with difficulty in Myoxus, Georychus, 
mxti Bathyergus ; in the two latter the thumb is provided with a 
pair of sesamoid bones, as in all the other fingers. Bathyergus 
has a prominent cartilaginous spur on the outer and inner side of 
the hand; these probably represent the prepollex and postminimus. 



1896.] MTOLOGT OF RODEN'TS. 173 

In no cass could I satisfy myself of the existence of an adductor 
or opponeus poUicis. 

M'lscles of the Litth Finger. — These are not so easily made out 
as in the othjr Roients. The abdactor is present, but is not 
double. The flexor breads is represented by the ulnar slip of the 
interosseus muscle to the little finger, when there happens to be a 
muscle in that position. I have never been able to find an 
opponens, although Windle describes it in Hyilromys. 

Iiiterossei. — In all the animals examined, except Geortjchus and 
Bathijergus, there were eio;ht interossei, the inner of which formed 
the fiexor brevis minimi digiti. In these two animals there were 
no interossei attached to the fifth finger, although the two 
sesamoid bones supposed to be developed in them were present. 
Practically the same arrangement was found in the Beaver. In 
Cricetomys, Mici'otus, and possibly in Crlcetns, there was an 
adductor minimi digiti, which recalls the fisjure already published ' 
of the same muscle in Coelojeni/s. In Rhizomya and Gerhilliis 
there is an adductor indicis. These two muscles are situated on 
a plane superficial to that of the interossei, and I have not come 
across any Myomorphine animal which possesses both of them, 
although they frequently co-exist in the Hystricomorpha. 



Muscles of the TrunTc. 

Panniculus Carnosus. — In the majority of the Myomorpha the 
panniculus corresponds to the rodent type already described. 
The sterno-facialis is always present, but seldom large. In 
Georychus and Bathyergus the panniculus, especially the anterior 
part, is very weU developed ; in the former the platysma is 
very strong and rises from the angle of the mouth and from the 
median raphe running back from the symphysis menti, it runs 
backward and upward to be lost over the region of the shoulders, 
though some of the more posterior fibres are attached to the 
metacromial process. When this is removed, the whole length 
of the sterno-facialis and epitrochleo-facialis comes into view, 
the former rising from the posterior half of the sternum, the 
latter from the internal condyle of the humerus ; they both run 
forward to be inserted into the fascia on the surface of the 
masseter. In Bathyergus the sterno-facialis has undergone greater 
development, and is continuous posteriori}' \^Tith the panniculus 
of the abdomen ; this I have figured, and have pointed out ^ that it 
is a possible foreshadowing of the human sterualis muscle. The 
posterior part of the panniculus in Bathyergus is also well marked, 
and gets an attachment to the external tuberosity of the tibia and 
to the ramus of the ischium. In Heteromys among the Geomyidae, 
the pouch causes a good deal of modification in the facial 
panniculus. The superficial part or platysma rises from the 



' P. Z. S. 1894, p. 273. 

* Journ. Anat. vol. sxix. p. xii. 



174 



MR. F. G. PARSONS ON THE 



[Jau. 14, 



surface of the pouch, and runs backward aud upward under the 
ear to be lost on the back of the neck. When this is dissected 
away, there is seen to be a deeper layer of muscle having exactly 
the same direction, and also coming from the surface of the pouch. 
By far the larger portion of the outer wall of the pouch is formed 
by the sterno-facialis muscle, which is especially thick at the 
orifice forming a partial sphincter ; the fibres of this muscle run 
downward aud backward to be inserted into the anterior half of 
the sternum, superficial to the pectoralis major. There is no 
panniculus in the inner M'all of the pouch, which consists solely of 
skiu covering the masseter and bacciuator muscles, with the 



Fig. 8. 




..-POUCK 






Pouch-museles of Heteromys. 



exception of one narrow slip \^diich I'ises from the mental 
symphysis, runs round the inner side of the opening of the pouch, 
aud when it reaches the lower margin turns sharply outward, 
superficial to the fibres of the sterno-facialis, to run to the side of 
the neck, where it joins the platysma. This decussation of the 
fibres guarding the outer and the inner side of the aperture 
gives a powerful sphincteric action by which the pouch can 
be closed at will. It is worth while to compai-e the anatomy of the 
pouch in the Geomyida3 with that in Criceius, and to notice that, 
whereas in the former the pouch is formed by an inxagiuation of 
skin probably perforating the platysma, so as to leave some of 



1896.] 



MYOLOCrT OF P.ODENTS. 



lO 



that muscle on the inner side o£ the opening, while the pouch 
itself is deep to the whole of the panniculus, in the latter the 



Pig. 9. 




0PE^31N& 

/cJ^ /^^^^ NSPHINCTEK. 

OP Pouch, 
STEHNO FACIALIS,, 

Pouch-miiscles of Hrteromys. 

pouch is formed by an evagiuation of the buccinator, to the fundus 
of which a slip of platysma has become attached. 

Latissinms Dors'. — This muscle has the same attachments that 
it possesses in other Rodents ; the dorso-epitrochlearis is always 
present, and reaches as far as the olecranon, though in Cricetomys 
it is also inserted into the fascia of the forearm. 

Trapezius. — In most of the Myomoi-pha as in the Sciuromorpha 
there are three separate parts of the trapezius. The first of these, 
described by Milne-Edwards^ and by Strauss-Diirckheim as the 
clavo-cucLillaris, consists of the fibres passing between the occiput 
and the clavicle ; it is separated from the rest of the muscle by the 
levator claviculae, and was found in the following animals : — 
Myoxus, Cncetus, Cricetomys, Microtus, Myodes, Mus decumanus, 
Hateroimjs, Batliyergus, and Siphneus. In GeorycJius and Mus 
barbarus, however, this part of the muscle was not seen. The 
second part, or acromio-cucullaris, consists of the fibres running 
between the ligamentum nuchse and the anterior thoracic spines 
on the one hand, and the acromial process and spine of the 
scapula on the other ; it is usually separated from the third part 
or dorso-cucuUaris by a pad of fat. In all the animals dissected, 
these two parts were separate with the exception of Cricetomys 
and Myoxus. 

Rhomboidei. — The rhomboideus capitis is a distinct muscle, 
while the major and minor are not separable one from another. 
In Cricetus, Myoxus, Microtus, Qeorychus, Bathyergus, and 
Heteromys, part of the rhomboideus capitis rising from the outer 
part of the occipital curved line is separated from the rest and runs 
to the inner half of the spine of the scapula, covering part of the 
supra-spiuatus instead of going to the vertebral border. 

Serratas Magnus and Levator Anguli ScapulcB. — The origins of 



' Etudes pour servir, &c 



'.n. 



176 MB. F, G. PARSONS ON THE [Jau. 14, 

these combined muscles ia the various animals dissected are the 
following : — 

Myoxus 2-7 c. v. 1-7 ribs. 

Cricetus 3—7 ,, 1—7 ,, 

Gerbillus 2-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Mic.rotus 2-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Myodes 2-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Mus barbaras 2-7 „ 1-7 „ 

„ rattus 2-7 ,, 1-7 „ 

Rhizomys 1-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Georychus 3-7 ,, 1-10 ,, 

Bathyergus 3-7 „ 1-10 „ 

Heteromys 2-7 „ 1-8 „ 

Se7Tatus Posticus. — lu the Myomorpha the anterior part of this 
muscle is always present and well marked ; it is usually inserted 
into the ribs from the 4th to the 7th, but iu Cricetomys it is 
continued back to the 9th, and in Rhizomys to the 11th. In 
Georychus and Bathyergus it is inserted into the 6th, 7th, and 8th 
ribs. The posterior part of the serratus posticus was only seen in 
Microfus, Bathyergus, and Myodes ; in the first it was inserted into 
the last 4, and in the two latter into the last 5 ribs. 

Fig. 10. 



PLiN.CAP. 

CM PLEXUS. 
RACH.MAa. 




LEV.ANa.SCAP, 



S EH. Post. 
Neck-muscles of Hamster. 



1896.] MTOi/OGX OF BODBIS'TS. 177 

Sacro-lumbalis and Longissimus Dorsi. — These muscles show 
nothing remarkable in their attachments. 

Transversalis Capitis et Colli. — In Myoxus the trachelo-mastoid 
or transversalis capitis was absent, in all the other animals both 
muscles were found. 

Splenius Capitis et Colli. — The splenius capitis rises from tlie 
ligamentum nuchae nearly as far forward as the occiput, and 
almost entirely covers the complexus; it has the usual attachments. 
The splenius colli was not seen at all. 

Complexus. — There is usually a slight tendency to longitudinal 
division, but this is not seen in Geonjchus, Bathyeryus, Myoxus, or 
Myodes. Cncetus shows two intersections extending across the 
whole muscle, while in Rhizomys they only extend across the outer 
half of it. 

Tail-Muscles. — In those animals which have tails, the 
ment of the muscles is the same as in other Rodents. 

Obliquus Externus Abdominis. — This muscle usually rises from 
the posterior nine or ten ribs. The description already given 
of it in the other Eodents applies to the Myomorpha, with 
the exception that it never runs upward to the first rib with 
the rectus. The outer pillar of the abdominal ring is large 
and muscular, and is inserted into the whole length of the 
body of the pubes, external and parallel to the symphysis. The 
inner pillar is thin and fascial. In Cricetomys five or six lineae 
transversse were seen extending across the muscle from the rectus, 
while in Microtus the same thing was also noticed, but much less 
distinctly. 

Obliquus Intenms and Transversalis. — These muscles can be 
separated with great care. In Bathyergus they are very well 
marked, and in that animal the relation of the aponeurosis to the 
rectus can be made out, and is found to be as in Man. In Mus 
rattus the scrotal pouches are very large, and are composed entirely 
of the internal oblique. 

Rectus Abdominis. — In all the specimens of the family of 
Muridse examined there was a decussation resembling that already 
described in the Octodontidae ' ; this was not seen in Myoxus, 
Georychus, or Bathyergus, though it was found in Rhizomys. 

Supracostalis. — In no Rodent was this muscle seen. 

Psoas Parvus. — The psoas parvus was present in all the 
specimens except the Gerbille ; in Microtus, Rhizomys, and 
Georychus, however, it was small. 

Psoas Magnus and Iliacus. — These muscles have the usual rodent 
attachments. 

Quadratus Luniboruni. — In most of the Myomorpha the quadratus 
lumborum does not seem to rise from as far forward in the dorsal 
region as it does in the other Rodents. It is attached to all the lumbar 
vertebrae except in the case of Rhizomys, where it only comes from 
the first three. 

1 P.Z.S. 1894, p. 280. 
Pboc. Zooi. Soc— 1896, No. XII. 12 



17S M&. F» G. PAESONS ON THE [Jan. l4, 

Muscles of Posterior Extremity. 

Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fasciae Femoris, and Sartorius. — The 
description already given ^ applies perfectly to the Myomorpha ; the 
tensor fasciae and sartorius are, however, as a rule less well marked, 
and there is also a closer union between the posterior border of the 
gluteus maximus and the anterior border of the biceps femoris. 
The bony insertion of the gluteus maximus is into the middle of 
the femur except in Cricetus, where it is also attached to the 
external supra-condylar ridge of the femur, and in Rhizomys, 
where it is attached almost entirely to the third trochanter in the 
upper part of the bone. The sartorius and tensor fasciae femoris 
are best marked in Cricetus, while in Georychus they are practically 
absent. 

Gluteus Medius and Minimus. — These muscles present no 
differences from those already described in other Eodents. 

Scansorius. — The scansorius is so closely fused with the gluteus 
minimus, that it is only possible to make it out as a distinct muscle 
in Cricetomys, though even there the separation is not very 
clear. 

Pyriformis. — This muscle is also much more closely fused with 
the gluteus minimus than in the other Eodents; indeed, the 
Myomorpha are remarkable for the unsatisfactory differentiation 
of the muscles composing the gluteal mass. 

Obturator Internus, Ea-ternus, and Gemelli. — These muscles 
correspond to their descriptions in the other Eodents. The 
anterior gemellus is always better marked than the posterior 
one. 

Quadratus Femoris. — There is usually a very slight tendon at 
the insertion, the muscle being triangular as in the Hystricomorpha 
and differing from the quadrilateral Sciuromorphine type; it is 
always large and distinct. 

Bicejys Femoris. — In Myoxus, Mus barbarus, and Mus rattus the 
two parts of which the biceps is composed are closely united and 
have one continuous insertion, as is the case in the Hystricomor- 
phine Eodents. In the other Myomorpha the two parts are easily 
separable, as they are in Sphingurus'^ . When this happens, it is 
the upper part which rises from the anterior caudal vertebrae and 
is inserted into the outer side of the patella and ligamentum 
patellae, while the lower part rises from the tuber ischii and is 
inserted into the fascia on the outer side of the leg. In certain 
cases, e. g. Cricetomys and Myodes, the upper portion is very closely 
connected to the gluteus maximus; while in Cricetus' it is so 
closely blended with that muscle, that it has already been described 
as a part of the gluteus maximus which is inserted above the 
external condyle of the femur. 

In Georychus, Bathyergus, Rhizomys, and Heteromys the two parts 
are separate from one another and from the gluteal. 

1 P. Z. S. 1894, p. 282. 
^ P.Z.S. 1894,p. 284. 



1896.] MYOLOGY OP RODENTS. 179 

Semitendinosus. — The normal arrangement seems to be, as in the 
other Rodents, that one head should rise from the posterior sacral 
and anterior caudal vertebrae, while the other comes from the tuber 
ischii. Either of these heads is often wanting. In Geonjchus, 
Bathi/ergus, and litis harharus the head from the tuberosity alone 
was found, while in Microtus and Heteromys only the spinal head 
was present. With regard to the arrangement iu Mns harharus, 
it is interesting to note that Mus rattus has both heads. The 
insertion in all cases is the same as that described in the other 
Rodents. 

Semimembranosus. — The two parts of this muscle are always 
present, and correspond to the description already given iu other 
Rodents. The semimembranosus proper is quite constant, always 
rising from the tuber ischii and being inserted into the back of 
the internal tuberosity of the tibia. The supracondylar slip, as 
in the Hystricomorpha, is variable both in size and in origin ; its 
insertion, however, above the internal condyle of the femur is 
quite constant. In GerbiUus, Mus barhams, and Mus rattus the 
supra-condylar portion rises from the anterior caudal vertebnc. 
In Cricetus it is small and comes frotu the caudal vertebrae and the 
tuber. In the other animals examined it rises from the tuber 
ischii only in common with the rest of the semimembranosus 
except in the case of BatJu/err/us, where its origin is more in 
common with that of the semitendinosus from the tuber. This 
supra-condylar slip is largest in Geori/cJms, where it is greater than 
the rest of the muscle; in Bathyergus it is not so large; in lihizomys 
it is only half the size of the rest of the muscle ; while in Cricetus 
it is quite small. In Jfydromys, Wiudle says ' that the semimem- 
branosus is inserted into the condyle of the femur alone, that is 
to say, the main part of the muscle is wanting. His dissection 
must of course be repeated, to see whether he had chanced upon 
an individual variation or whether this arrangement is constant 
in Hydromys. The nerve-supply of the two parts of the semi- 
membranosus is as in other Rodents. 

Gracilis. — This muscle is usually double and the two parts have 
approximately the attachments described iu the Hystricomorphiue 
Rodents ; the anterior muscle usually overlaps the posterior a good 
deal. In Myoxus, Bhizomys, and Heteromys no separation was seen. 
In Georychas and Bathyergus the separation was very marked, 
there being quite an interval near the insertion. In Myodes the 
interval is greatest at tlie origin. Hydromys according to Windle 
agrees with Myoxus and Bhizomys. 

Pectineus. — This muscle corresponds to the account of it in the 
other Rodents. In GerbiUus, Cricetus, Myoxus, and Bhizomys the 
muscle is double, but I am inclined to regard the inner part as 
belonging to the adductor mass, possibly representing the adductor 
longus. 

Quadriceps Extensor. — In all the animals dissected, the two heads 
of the rectus could be made out, though in Bhizomys, Georychus^ 

1 P.Z.S. 1887, p. 57 

12* 



ISO MR, r. G. PAESONS ON THE [Jan. 14. 

aud Bathyergus the straight head was reduced to a minimum ; the 
reflected head has usually some fleshy fibres rising directly from it. 
With regard to the other muscles the vastus externus is large and 
separate, while the internus is small and closely blended with the 
crureus. 

Adductors. — The adductor mass in the Myomorpha resembles in 
its complexity that o£ the Sciuromorpha, although one frequently 
finds attempts at the more simple arrangement of the Hystrico- 
morpha by fusion or non-differentiation of contiguous parts. As 
in the other Eodents, the supracondylar slip has been described 
with the semimembranosus, to which it undoubtedly belongs. 
Perhaps the animal M^hich shows the greatest differentiation is 
Cricetomys: in it the mass consists of the following parts : — (1) The 
most anterior portion from the ilio-pectineal line to the middle 
of the posterior border of the femur by a narrow flat tendon. 

(2) Deep to this is another bundle which has the same origin but 
comes from rather more of the symphysis and goes to the whole 
of the femur as low as the ligamentum patellae. (3) Behind the 
last is a thin flat portion rising by tendon from the horizontal 
i-amus and being inserted into the lower half of the femur. 
(4) Most posteriorly, there is a thick mass from the ramus aud 
tuber ischii which is inserted into the whole length of the back 
of the femiu' from the insertion of the quadratus femoris to the 
internal condyle. 

In Cricetus (1) and (2) are fused and (4) only goes to the upper 
half of the femur. In Microtas (1) aud (2) are fused, as are also 

(3) and (4). In Gerbillus, Mm harbarus, and 2Ius rattus (3) was 
not identitied, while (4) was only inserted into the upper half to 
two-thirds of the femur. Ehizomys closely resembles Cricetomys. 
In GeorycJius and Bathyergus (1) is inserted into the middle third 
of the femur behind the pectiueus, while the other three parts are 
fused into one great mass, which in Georychus is inserted into the 
middle two-fourths of the back of the femur, while in Bathyergus 
it goes to the whole length of that bone. In Hydromys, according 
to Windle, the adductor maguus, which apparently corresponds 
to the part which I have described as (4), reaches as low as the 
head of the tibia \ 

Tibialis Anticus. — This muscle always has the human origin ; it 
never rises from the femur as in some of the Hystricomorpha. 
In Georychus the tibia above the cnemial crest is flattened, and 
forms a triangle with the apex downward and the surface a little 
concave; from this the muscle rises. As a rule, the tendon divides 
slightly below to be inserted into the internal cuneiform and the 
base of the first metatarsal, the latter insertion being the smaller. 

In Microtus, however, the tendon divides into two equal parts. 
In Gerbillus, Mus barbarus, Mus rattus, and Myodes the tendon 
does not divide at all, but goes entu-ely to the cuneiform. In 
Heteromys the division is well marked, but both parts are inserted 
into the cuneiform. 

' P.Z.S. 1887, p. 58. 



1896.] MTOLOGT OF EODENTS. 181 

Extensor Lonrjus Digitoi-um. — As in all other Eodents, this muscle 
rises by tendon from the front of the external condyle of the 
femur. In Mus barharus, however, as in >Sp7iiHr/?o'us and Dipn-s, a 
few accessory fibres came from the head of the tibia. The insertion 
is into the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes except in Mus 
harharus, where the slip to the little toe was wanting, and in 
Gerbillus, where there was in addition a feeble slip to the first toe. 

Extensor Proprius Hallucis. — This is always present and has 
the normal insertion. Its exact origin varies a good deal, and 
apparently is of little importance from a classificatory point of 
view. In Gerhillus, Myoxus, Mus harharus, GeorycJtus, and Bathy- 
ergus it rises from the second quarter of the fibula ; in Criceiomys, 
Cricetus, and Miis rattus from the third quarter : in HMzomys, 
Microtus. and Heteromys from the middle two quarters. 

Extensor Brevis Di'jitorum. — As a rule this muscle has two 
tendons, one for the second, the other for the third toe ; this is 
the case in Cricetomys, Cricetus, Gerhillus, Bhizomys, Microtus, 
Heleromys, Mus harhanis and M. rattus. In Georyclius the fourth 
toe has a slip as well. In Myoxvs and Bathyerrjus I was interested 
to find a distinct but small tendon to the proximal phalanx of the 
first toe, these being the only Eodents in which I have ever seen 
the extensor brevis going to the equivalent of our great toe. In 
no Rodent, so far as I know, is there ever a tendon to the fifth toe. 

Peroneus Lonyiis. — This is always a constant muscle rising from 
the upper quarter of the fibida, and passing through a groove on 
the outer side of the external malleolus anterior to the other 
peroneal tendons. In no animal dissected does it call for any 
remark. 

Peronetts Brevis. — This arises from the middle two quarters of 
the fibula and passes between the tendons of the peroneus quarti 
and quinti digiti behind the external malleolus ; it then runs above 
the peroneal spine on the calcaneum, \^•hich is usually large, to the 
base of the fifth metatarsal. It is in many eases a powerful 
abductor of the little toe. 

Peroneus Quarti Digiti. — This muscle is always present, and 
generally rises just above the fusion of the fibula with the tibia. 
It has the usual insertion. 

Peroneus Quinti Digiti. — This is quite constant and rises just 
above the last. 

Gastrocnemiiis. — The gastrocnemius difiers in no respect from 
the description given of it in the other Eodents. The three Mole- 
rats Bhizomys, Georychiis, and Bafhyergus have no fabellse developed 
in the origin of the muscle, while in every other animal examined 
one was present in each head. 

Soleus. — The soleus rises from the back of the head of the fibula 
and joins the tendo Achillis just below the middle of the leg. In 
Myoxus, however, it rose from the middle of the fibula. The rope- 
like twisting of the rendo Achillis already referred to ' is always 
evident. 

* Author's paper, Journ. Anat. vol. xrriii. p. 414. 



182 ME. F. G. PARSOifs ON THE [Jan. 14, 

Flantaris. — This has the typical rodent arrangement, the only 
point of interest heing the extent to which the muscular fibres of 
tlie flexor brevis digitorum are developed in the sole. In Oerbillus 
three little slips of muscle are alone seen in the intervals between 
the four tendens where they first separate. In Microtus the flexor 
brevis has no muscular fibres at all, while in Myoxus and Myodes 
there are very few. All the other animals examined had well- 
developed muscular bellies to the flexor bre\is. 

Pojolitms. — The popliteus always rises from the external condyle, 
and is inserted into the upper part of the internal border of the 
tibia. 

Flexor Longus Hdllncis {Flexor Fihularis). — This is always a 
large muscle, rising from both the tibia and fibula and being 
inserted into the distal phalanges of all the toes. 

Flexor Longus Digitorum {Flexor Tibialis). — Dobson * states that 
this muscle in the Myomorpha is always separate from the flexor 
tibularis tendon in the sole. I have, however, met with two 
remarkable exceptions to this generalization, viz. Rhizomys and 
Heteromys. In both of these animals the tendons unite in the sole 
exactly as they do in the Hystricomorpha. I should mention that 
this arrangement was present in both the right and left feet. In 
Georychus and Bathyergus the muscle is better developed than in 
most of the Myomorpha, and ends in a bone beneath the base of 
the first metatarsal which I am inclined to regard as a rudiment of 
a praehallux. In all the other animals examined the muscle ends 
chiefly in the fascia of the foot. 

Tibialis Posticus. — This is always a small muscle and rises from 
the upper part of the posterior surface of the tibia below the 
attachment of the popliteus, and also very often from the back of 
the head of the fibula. As a rule it has a groove of its own behind 
the internal malleolus, but in Myoxm it shares the groove of the 
flexor fihularis. It is inserted into the under surface of the navi- 
cular, though in Mus rattus it goes chiefly to the plantar fascia. 

Muscles of the Foot. 

Lumbricales. — InGeorychus, Bathyergus, Rhizomys, and Heteromys 
only three lumbricales are present. All the other animals dissected 
have four. 

Accessorius. — This muscle is very ill-developed in the Myo- 
morpha. The only animal in which I found it really well marked 
was in Bathyergus, although traces of it could be made out in Mus 
rattus. 

Abductor Hallucis. — This is usually present and rises from the 
navicular in Cricetomys, Rhizomys, 3Ius barbanis, and M. rattus. 
In Oerbillus, Cricetus, Microtus, Myoxus, Heteromys, and Georychus 
it came from the internal cuneiform. In Bathyergus it was well- 
marked and rose from the sustenaculum tali of the calcaneum, 
its proximal part forming the calcaneo-scaphoid ligament. 

Journ, Anat. xvii. p. 142, 



1896.] MYOLOGY OF EODENTS. 183 

Adductor Indicis. — The adductor indicis was preseut in all the 
animals examined except Bathyergus, Geori/chus, and ffeteromys ; 
in the latter it was replaced by an adductor hallucis, which in the 
other specimens was wanting, although Windle describes it in 
Hydromys \ 

Prof. Cunningham has pointed out (Journ. of Anat. vol. xiii, 
p. 11) that the toot of BatTiyergus is peculiar in the total absence 
of plantar adducting and dorsal abducting muscles. This state- 
ment, which also applies to GeorycJtus, I am able to corroborate. 
The muscle which I have described as abductor hallucis corresponds 
to Prof. Cunningham's inner head of the flexor brevis hallucis, 
though in his specimen the origin of the muscle was not so far 
back as in mine. In no Eodent were any distinct dorsal inter- 
osseous muscles found. 

Interossei. — There are two interossei, or flexores breves, to each 
toe inserted into the sesamoid bones beneath the metacarpo- 
phalangeal articulation. 

Myoloyical Characteristics of the various Families of Myomoi'pha. 

The animals of which the muscles have been described furnish 
examples of four families of the JMyomorpha, namely the Myoxidoe, 
Muridce, Spalacida, and Geomyidcp, Unfortunately the first and 
last of these are each represented in my dissections by only one indi- 
vidual, and for this reason any generalizations must be made very 
tentatively. Still it seems worth while making an admittedly 
imperfect contribution in the hope that it may be added to and 
corrected whenever fresh material is available. 

In the first place, taking Myoxus dryas as a type of the Alyoxidce, 
one notices that : — 

1. The biceps cubiti is only inserted into the radius. 

2. The coraco-brachialis is only represented by the second part. 

3. The palmaris longus is absent. 

4. The flexor sublimis digitorum is inserted into the fifth digit 
as well as into the second, third, and fourth. 

5. The extensor minimi digiti is only inserted into the fifth digit. 

6. The trapezius has the second and third parts fused. 

7. The trachelo-mastoid is absent. 

8. The rectus abdominis does not decussate at its origin with its 
fellow of the opposite side. 

9. The gracilis is single. 

10. The soleus rises from the middle of the fibula instead of 
from the head of that bone. 

11. The tendon of the tibialis posticus lies in the same groove 
as the flexor fibularis instead of in one of its own. 

In the Geomyidce, of which Heteromys longicaudatus is the only 
representative dissected, the following points are of interest : — 

1. The digastric approaches the hystricomorphine type. 

2. The semitendinosus has only the caudal head present. 

1 P. Z. S. 1887, p. 58. 



184 MB. p. G. PAESONS ON THE [Jan, 14, 

3. The gracilis is a single muscle. 

4. The flexor tibialis joins the flexor fibularis in the sole. 

5. There are only three lumbricales in the foot. 

6. There is an adductor hallucis instead of an adductor indicis 
in the foot. 

Whether the rectus abdominis decussated with its fellow of the 
opposite side, could not be determined owing to the large incision 
which had been made for evisceration before the specimen came 
into my hands. 

The family of the Muridce is represented by accounts of the 
dissection of nine animals, and I am only able to discover one mus- 
cular pecuharity which is common to them all and at the same 
time distiuguishes them from other families, — this is the fact that 
the rectus abdominis always decussates -s^-ith the muscle of the 
opposite side. When one considers what a large and hetero- 
geneous family this is, and that many of the genera included in it 
are only placed there provisionally, one is not surprised to find 
that their musculature is not nearly so consistent as it was found 
to be in the difEerent families of the Hystricomorpha. 

To my mind the fact that the latter show definite muscular 
characteristics which are not found in the former, indicates that the 
hystricomorphine families consist of animals which are more nearly 
allied to one another than is the case in the Muridae : in other 
words, that the classification of the Hystricomorpha is more success- 
ful than that of the Myomorpha. 

While speaking of the Muridae, it is worth noticing that Cncetus 
and Cricetomys are the only two of the Myomorpha examined which 
possess the first part of the coraco-brachialis or rotator humeri 
muscle. In many particulars, however, they differ from one 
another. 

In the family of the Spalacida> there are records of three animals, 
BatJiyergus, Georyclius, and Bhizomys. The following points of 
resemblance were noticed in this group : — 

1. The temporals are large and meet in the middle line of the 
head. 

2. The stylo-hyoid and stylo-glossus are closely blended in 
Rhizomys, while in Georyclius the stylo-hyoid is absent or completely 
fused with the other muscle. 

3. The pronator quadratus is very feeble. 

4. The reflected head of the rectus is ill-marked. 

5. The gastrocnemius has no fabellae in its tendons of origin. 

6. There are three lumbricales in the foot. 

The following are points of difference between Rhizomys on the 
one hand and Georyclius and Batliyergus on the other : — 

1. In Bhizomys the digastric has a well-marked central tendon, 
in Batliyergus and Georyclius there is only an intersection. 

2. In B. the cleido-mastoid is overlapped by the first part of the 
trapezius ; in B. and O. it is not. 

3. In B. and G. the scalenus anticus is present. In B. it is 
absent, as it is in all other Myomorpha except Gerhillus. 



1896.J MYOLOGY OF RODENTS. 185 

4. In B. and G. the stemo-scapularis is present. In R. it is 
absent. 

5. In B. and G. the teres major is inserted in front of the latis- 
simus dorsi, in B. behind it. 

6. The coraco-brachialis is absent in G., small in my specimen 
of B., absent in Milne-Edwards's specimen. In R. the second and 
third parts are well marked. 

7. In B. and G. the extensor communis digitorum sends no slip 
to the fifth digit. In R. a slip to this digit is present. 

8. There is no sesamoid bone in the tendon of the supinator 
brevis in B. and G. There is one in R. 

9. The pair of interosseous muscles which should be inserted 
into the two sesamoid bones of the fifth digit of the hand are 
absent in B. and G. They are present in R. 

10. The rectus abdominis does not decussate with its fellow of 
the opposite side in B. or G., though it does so in R. 

11. The gracilis is a single muscle in B. It is distinctly double 
in B. and G. 

12. The flexor tibialis joins the flexor fibularis in the sole of R. 
The two tendons are separate in B. and G. 

13. The adductor indicis pedis is absent in O. and B., present 
in R. 

It will thus be seen that, though there are six more or less un- 
important points of resemblance between Rhizomys on the one 
hand and Bathyergus and (^eoryclms on the other, there are 13 
points of difference, some of which, such as nos. 3, 4, 10, 12, and 
13, I regard as of great importance. 

The study of these marked muscular differences in animals 
whose habits are so much alike, and whose external appearances 
are so similar, seems to point to one of two conclusions. Either 
the external appearances are acquired by the animals living under 
similar conditions while the muscles tell the irue tale of their 
different ancestry, or else the differences in the muscles are of no 
value for classificatory purposes. 

Against the latter conclusion the evidence of the myology of 
BatJiyergus and Georyclms tells strongly ; these animals are so 
alike in their habits, in their osteology, and in their \asceral anatomy, 
that no one doubts that they are closely related ; they are also 
alike in their myology with one or two trifling exceptions. This, 
however, is only one instance of the close resemblance of the mus- 
culature in animals which are for other reasons regarded as akin ; 
and I cannot help thinking that when several important differences 
occur in the muscles of two animals which otherwise seem closely 
related, the muscles are trustworthy guides, because, taken as a 
whole, they are- less hkely to adapt themselves quickly to changed 
conditions than are other structures. 

With regard to the position of Rhizomys, the junction of the two 
long flexors in the sole has been regarded by Dobson as character- 
istic of the Hystricomorpha, though I have found it in other 
animals. As this characteristic is present in Rhizomys, it is worth 



186 iiE. F. G. PAESOTv's OX THE [Jan. 14, 

while noticing that in no other respect does it approach the 
Hystricomorpha ; consequently I think that the study o£ the 
muscles bears out the suggestion of Wings ^ that Rhizomys is 
distinct from the Bathyerginae, and that it should be placed 
among the Muridae, which it resembles in the only common point 
which this family has — the decussation of the rectus. 

Winge ' also suggests that Batlujergus is closely allied to the 
HystricidsB. The following points in its myology show a diver- 
gence from the myomorpliine and an approach to the hystrico- 
morphine arrangement : — 

1. The scalenus anticus is present and rises from the basi- 
occipital. 

2. The scapulo-clavicularis is present, as in all Hystricomorpha, 
while in no myomorphine rodent was it found. 

These two points alone would not of course justify one in 
separating the Bathyerginoe from the Myomorpha, but they show 
an approach to the hystricomorphine type which is suggestive. 

The Position of the Dipoclidce. 

A review of the muscles of Rodents would be incomplete without 
considering whether they lend any assistance towards determining 
the vexed question of the position of the Jerboas. In my former 
contribution I described their muscles with those of the Hystri- 
comorpha. Now that the muscles of the Myomorpha have been 
worked out, a comparison can be made between them. 

In the following points the Dipodidae resemble the Hystrico- 
morpha : — 

1. The large size of the anterior deep part of the masseter 
passing through the infraorbital foramen. 

2. The presence of a scalenus anticus rising from the basi- 
oecipital. 

3. The presence of only one head of the biceps cubiti. 

4. The non-decussation of the rectus abdominis at its origin 
with the muscle of the opposite side. 

5. The union of the tendons of the flexor tibialis and fibularis 
in the sole. 

The first point is only one of degi'ee since the Myomorpha show 
a small piece of the masseter passing through the infraorbital 
foramen. 

The second has been found in Myoxus among the Myomorpha, 
as well as in Bathyergus and Georychus, whose position is not 
quite certain. 

The third point is certainly in favour of hystricomorphine 
tendencies, as I have not yet found any myomorphine rodent 
without two heads to the biceps cubiti. 

The fourth point, the decussation of the rectus, is not always 
iound in the Myomorpha, while it sometimes occm's, as in the 
Octodontidae, among the Hystricomorpha. 

' E Museo Lundii, 1888, p. 109. 



1896.] ilTOLOGT OF EODESTS. 187 

The union of the tendons in the sole has been already alluded 
to as not being entirely confined to the Hystricomorpha. 

In the following points the Dipodidse resemble the Myo- 
inorpha : — 

1. The sciuromorphine arrangement of the digastric. 

2. The presence of a transverse mandibular muscle. 

3. The absence of the scapulo-clavicularis. 

4. The presence of the omo-hyoid. 

5. The absence of the splenius colli. 

6. The origin of the levator claviculfe (acromio-trachelian) from 
the atlas. 

The first three of these are very important and constant 
points, the latter three are sometimes noted in the Hystrico- 
morpha. 

On the whole I think that the myological points in favour of 
myomorphine tendencies for the Dipodidae are far stronger than 
those in favour of hystricomorphine. 

Geneeal Summaet of Muscles of Eodents. 

In order to complete my paper I propose to give a series of 
lists of the different points in which the four suborders of Eodents 
differ from and resemble one another, though the following pages 
are only tentative, and liable to require rearrangement as further 
material is added. They may, however, prove useful in directing 
the attention of future observers to the muscles deserving of 
special notice from a classificatory point of \ iew, and they may 
also be of service in showing the muscles that are constant in 
Eodents nearly related, whatever their mode of life may be, and 
that may turn out to be equally constant in nearly related groups 
belonging to other orders. 

In a former contribution' the differences between the Hystrico- 
morpha and Sciuromorpha are summarized. 

Differences between the Myomorpha and Hijstncomorpha. 

1. The part of the masseter which passes through the infra- 
orbital foramen is usually small in the Myomorpha, large in the 
Hystricomorpha. 

2. The Myomorpha have the sciuromorphine arrangement of the 
digastric. 

3. The transverse mandibular muscle is present in the Myo- 
morpha, absent in the Hystricomorpha. 

4. The omo-hyoid muscle is always present in the Myomorpha, 
and may be present or absent in the Hystricomorpha. 

5. The acromio-trachelian (levator claviculae) always rises from 
the arch of the atlas in the Myomorpha. In the Hystricomorpha 
it sometimes rises from the basioccipital. 

6. The scalenus anticus is usually absent in the Myomorpha, 
usually present in the Hystricomorpha. 

' P.Z.S. 1894, p. 294. 



188 MR. 1'. G. PABSONS ON THE [Jan. 14, 

7. The claviculo-scapularis is absent in the Myomorpba, present 
in the Hystricomorpha. 

8. In the Myomorpha the three parts of the deltoid lie close 
together. In the Hystricomorpha they are separated by distinct 
intervals. 

9. The biceps cubiti has two heads in the Myomorpha. In the 
Hystricomorpha there may be one or two. 

10. The Myomorpha seldom have the first part of the coraco- 
bi'acbialis, in the Hystricomorpha it is often present. 

11. The splenius colli is never found in the Myomorpha, in the 
Hystricomorpha it is sometimes seen. 

12. The two parts of the biceps femoris are usually distinct 
in the Hystricomorpha. In the Myomorpha they are seldom 
separable. 

13. In the Myomorpha the flexor tibialis and flexor fibularis 
do not usually join in the sole. In the Hystricomorpha they are 
always united. 

14. In the Myomorpha the accessorius is absent or very ill- 
developed. In the Hystricomorpha it is present and well 
marked. 

Differences between the Myomorpha and the Sciuromorphn. 

1. The three parts of the temporal muscle are more closely 
fused in the Myomorpha than in the Sciuromorpha. 

2. A small part of the masseter passes through the infraorbital 
foramen in the Myomorpha. No part passes through in the 
Sciuromorpha. 

3. The three parts of the deltoid are more closely fused in the 
Myomorpha than in the Sciuromorpha. 

4. In the Myomorpha a rotator humeri is only found in the 
Cricetinse. In the Sciuromorpha it is always present. 

5. In the Myomorpha the flexor sublimis digitorum sends no 
slip to the fifth digit. In the Sciuromorpha this slip is present. 

6. The supinator longus is absent in the Myomorpha, but is 
present in the Sciuromorpha except Castor^. 

7. The extensor longus digitorum always sends a tendon to the 
fifth digit in the Sciuromorpha ; this tendon is often absent in the 
Myomorpha. 

8. The rectus abdominis often decussates at its origin with its 
fellow in the Myomorpha. There is no decussation in the Sciuro- 
morpha. 

9. The quadratus femoris is triangular in the Myomorpha, 
quadrilateral in the Sciuromorpha. 

10. The supracondylar slip of the semi-membranosus always 
rises from the tuber is^chii and is closely connected to the 
adductors in the Sciuromoi'pha. In the Myomorpha it may rise 
from the tuber or caudal vertebrae and is distinct from the 
adductor mass. 

* Macalister describes an exceedingly feeble supinator longus in the Be«ver 
(' Morphology of Vertebrate Animals,' p. 289). 



1896.] kYOLOGT OF RODENTS. 189 

11. The gracilis is usually double in the Myomorpha, single in 
the Sciuromorpha. 

12. The accessorius is usually absent in the Myomorpha, always 
present in the Sciuromorpha. 

With a view to comparing the myology of the Lngomorpha with 
the other suborders, I dissected the muscles of a Hare and a Rabbit, 
but have refrained from enlarging this paper with a detailed 
description of these muscles because they have aU'eady been 
described by other authors. 

Differences between the Myomorpha and the Lagomorpha. 

1. In the Myomorpha the different parts of the temporal are 
closely connected. In the Lagomorpha the orbital part is large 
and much separated from the rest. 

2. In the Myomorpha the anterior deep part of the masseter 
passes through the infraorbital foramen. In the Lagomorpha 
there is no anterior deep part. 

3. The posterior belly of the digastric is well marked in the 
Myomorpha, in the Lagomorpha it is only present as a narrow 
tendon. 

4. The transverse mandibular muscle is present in the Myo- 
morpha, absent in the Lagomorpha. 

5. The omo-hyoid is present in the Myomorpha, absent in the 
Lagomorpha. 

6. The acromio-tracbelian (levator claviculae) rises from the arch 
of the atlas in the Myomorpha. In the Lagomorpha it rises from 
the basioccipital and bifurcates below, one part going to the meta- 
cromion, the other to the clavicle and deltoid. 

7. The scalenus anticus is sometimes present in the Myo- 
morpha but absent in the Lagomorpha. 

8. The scapulo-clavicularis is absent in the Myomorpha, except 
the Bathyerginse. It is present in the Lagomorpha. 

9. The three parts of the deltoid are fused in the Myomorpha, 
separate in the Lagomorpha. 

10. The biceps cubiti has two heads in the Myomorpha, one iu 
the Lagomorpha. 

11. Among the Myomorpha the rotator humeri is only present 
in the Cricetinie. In the Lagomorpha it is present in both rabbit 
and hare. 

12. The pronator quadi'atus is present in the Myomorpha, 
absent in the Lagomorpha. 

13. The clavo-cucullaris part of the trapezius is generally 
present in the Myomorpha, absent in the Lagomorpha. 

14. The splenius colli is absent in the Myomorpha, present in 
the Lagomorpha. 

15. The rectus abdominis frequently decussates with its fellow 
of the opposite side in the Myomorpha. In the Lagomorpha 
there is no decussation and the linese transversse are much better 
marked. 



190 ME. F. G. PAESOITS ON THE [Jan. 14, 

16. The gracilis is usually a double muscle in the Myomorpha, 
single in the Lagomorpha. 



The distinctions above given are possibly more numerous than 
they would be if the opportunity of dissecting a Pika {Lagomys) 
had presented itself. 

To merely point out the differences between the various sub- 
orders does not give a just idea of their muscular characteristics. 
It is necessary also to lay stress on the chief points in which one 
resembles another and differs from the rest. 

In the first place the Myomorpha resemble the Hystricomorpha 
and differ from both the other suborders in the following points : — 

1. A slip of the masseter passes through the infraorbital 
foramen. 

2. The three parts of the temporal are more closely fused. 

3. The rectus abdominis often decussates at its origin. 

4. The gracilis is usually double. 

5. The suijracondylar shp of the semimembranosus often comes 
from the caudal vertebrae. 

The Myomorpha resemble the Sciuromorpha and differ from the 
other two suborders in the following points : — 

1. The sciuromorphine type of the digastric. 

2. The presence of the transverse mandibular muscle. 

3. The constant presence of the omo-hyoid. 

4. The acromio-trachelian (levator claviculae) always rising from 
the atlas. 

0. The absence of the scalenus auticus in the Sciuromorpha and 
in the Myomorpha except the Bathyergiuae and Gerhillus. 

6. The absence of the scapulo-clavicularis in both, with the 
exception of the Bathyergiuae. 

7. The presence of the two heads to the biceps cubiti. 

8. The presence of the clavo-cucullaris part of the trapezius. 

9. The absence of the splenius colli. 

10. The presence of ischial and caudal heads to the biceps 
femoris, the latter being often more or less blended with the 
gluteus maxim us. 

11. The fact that the flexor tibialis (flexor longus digitorum) 
does not join the flexor fibulai'is (flexor longus hallucis), except in 
lihizomys, heteromys, and partly in Pteromys. 

I have been unable to find any point of importance in which 
the Myomorpha resemble the Lagomorpha and differ from the 
other two suborders. 

The Hystricomorpha resemble the Lagomorpha and differ from 
the other two suborders in the following points : — 

1. The presence of the scapvdo-clavicularis. 

2. The omo-hyoid is often absent in the Hystricomorpha, always 
in the Lagomorpha. 



1896,] MYOLOGY OF KODENTS. 19l 

3. The absence of the transverse mandibular muscle. 

4. The frequent origin of the acromio-trachelian (levator 
claviculae) from the basioccipital. 

5. The usual presence of only one head of the biceps cubiti, 

6. The occasional presence of the splenius colU in the Hystrico- 
morpha and its constant presence in the Lagomorpba. 

7. The basioccipital origin oP the scalenus anticus when that 
muscle is present. 

The Sciuromorpha resemble the Lagomorpba and differ from 
the other two suborders in the following points : — 

1. The rotator humeri portion of the coraco-brachialis is always 
present. 

2. The supracondylar slip of the semimembranosus rises from 
the tuber ischii in both, but while it is closely connected to the 
adductor mass in the Sciuromorpha, it is separate from it and 
adherent to the rest of the semimembranosus in the Lagomorpba. 

On looking through these lists one cannot help being struck by 
the frequency with which certain muscles, such as the omo-Iiyoid, 
the scapulo-clavicularis, the acromio-trachelian, the scalenus 
anticus, the splenius colli, the trachelo-mastoid, and the rectus 
abdominis, occur again and again. It is chiefly by various com- 
binations of these muscles aided by a few others, such as the 
transverse-mandibular, masseter, digastric, biceps, coraco-brachialis, 
&c., that the affinities between animals belonging to the same 
group are marked ; and it seems to me that one would be justified 
in saying that, in Eodents at all events, the muscles of the trunk 
and neck are the most valuable for classificatory purposes. It may 
be urged that all these muscles are liable to individual variation ; 
and this of course is probably true, though I am inclined to think 
that individual variations ai-e far less frequent in Eodents than in 
Man ; still if five or six of these muscles are taken, the risk of more 
than one being abnormal must be very slight indeed. As an 
instance of this the case of the Jerboa might be cited. In all the 
Hystricomorpha examined a scapulo-clavicularis had been found, 
but in the Jerboa it was absent. At that time I looked upon the 
animal, with Dobson, as hystricomorphine, and I regarded the 
absence of the muscle as an individual variation ; as the dissection 
proceeded I found other points which were different to anything 
seen in the Hystricomorpha; later on I was lucky enough to get 
two more Jerboas of different species to the first one, and in both 
of these the scapulo-clavicularis was wanting also. "Without the 
confirmatory testimony of the other muscles, the absence of the 
scapulo-clavicularis would probably have been passed over as of 
little importance. If the long flexors of the foot are considered, it 
will be found that they are not so reUable as the muscle just 
quoted. Dobson says that these long flexors unite in the Hystri- 
comorpha but not in the other suborders ; I have found, however, 
three animals — Bhizomys, Heteromys, and Pteromys — which have no 



i92 iiE. OSOAE NETtMANN OiST A IfEW [Jan. 14, 

other affinities with the Hystricomorpha, but in which the union 
took place. 

Other facts which may perhaps be of interest to the systematist 
are borne out by the foregoing lists. It is quite evident that 
the myology of the Myomorpha resembles that of the Sciuro- 
morpha much more closely than that of the Hystricomorpha. The 
Lagomorpha, on the other band, in their myology are much more 
closely allied to the Hystricomorpha than to the Myomorpha or 
Seiuromorpha, and of the two latter are nearest the Sciuromorpha. 
These conclusions I believe are already recognized by systematists 
from a study of other parts than muscles ; and the fact that 
myology bears out these conclusions is to my mind an important 
plea for the value of the study of muscles as a help to settling the 
position of animals. 

The results of this and the preceding paper may be briefly 
summed up in the following propositions : — 

1. That the Myomorpha and Sciuromorpha approach one 
another in their myology. 

2. That the Hystricomorpha similarly approach the Lagomorpha. 

3. That the Bathyerginse in many respects resemble the Hystri- 
comorpha. 

4. That Ehizomys more closely resembles the Muridse than the 
Bathyerginse. 

5. That the Dipodidse are more nearly allied to the Myomorpha 
than to the Hystricomorpha. 

6. That in Eodents certain muscles are valuable for classificatory 
purposes and, if several are taken, are not likely to mislead. 

7. That the muscles of the trunk, neck, and shoulder-girdle are 
the most reliable. 



5. Description of a new Species of Antelope from East 
Africa. By Oscar Neumann \ 

[Eeceived January 1, 1896.] 

Among the animals collected during my expedition to East and 
Central Africa, in 1892-95, there are examples of an Antelope from 
Uganda, Ussoga, and Kavirondo, belonging to the genus Adenota, 
Crray. This Antelope seemed to me to be different from Adenota 
kob, with which it had hitherto been united. Not having enough 
material of the true West- African Adenota hob in Berlin, I took 
two horns and one skin of this species with me to compare them 
in Paris with Buffon's type and also with specimens in London. 
In both places I found my opinion confirmed ; I also found that 
both Mr. Thomas and M. de Poussarges had independently arrived 
at the same conclusion — thanks to additional material brought by 
Mr. Decle from Uganda, and by Captain Lugard from the Niger. 
I propose to name this species, in honour of Mr. Thomas, 

* Communicated by the Secretarj'. 



1896.] 



ANTELOPE IROM EAST AFRICA. 



193 



ADEJfOTA THOilASI, Sp. nOT. 

Colour nearly or quite the same as Adenota hob. Size larger. 
Skull and horns much larger than those of A. hob. The ridges of the 
horns much more rounded and less sharp than in A. kob. Colour 
of the horns basally light horn-yellow, gradually becoming darker 
at the points ; while the horns of A. lob are nearly uniformly 
blackish. 

Adenota vardoni, to which the horns of A. thomasi come nearest, 
although generally shorter, is distinguished by the total absence 
of black colour on the legs, while A. leche is distinguished by its 
far larger size and longer horns. Young specimens of A. kob, 
A. thomasi, A. vardoni, and A. leche may be difficult to distinguish. 

Shall Measurements. 





Adenota thomasi. 


Adenota hob. 


a. Type, 
ScottEUiot. 
(Uganda.) 


b. Lugard. 

(Unyoro.) 
94.5.4.3 (younger). 


a. Stevens. 

(W.Africa.) 

885 c. 


h, Lugnrd. 

(Niger-Benue 

Junction.) 


Greatest breadth. 
Basal length 


millim. 
131 

267 


millim. 
121 

248 


millim. 
112 

235 


milliiu. 
115 

242 



Horn Measurements. 



Adenota hob, Buffon. 




Length 


Ci I - 

ference. 


Tip to 
tip. 


straight. 


round 
curve. 


a W. Africa. B.M. (Stevens) 


millim. 

277 

305 


millim. 
372 

321 


millim. 
141 

131 


millim. 
144 

159 


b. Niger-Benue Junction {Lugard) . . 


Adenota thomasi, 0. Neum. 


a. Type B.M., Uganda {Scott 
Elliot) 


369 
378 
375 
410 


464 
470 
458 
512 


178 
166 
190 

178 


267 
213 
251 
153 


b Unvoro. B.M. iLuaard) 


c. Uganda, B.M. (SpeJce) 


d. Uganda, Berlin (0. Neumann) ... 



Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XIII. 



13 



194 MR. F. E. BEDDABD ON EARTHWOEMS [Jail. 14, 

Mr. Malschie, in his excellent book on the 'Mammals of 
German East A f rica,' calls the Central-African form Adenota kob 
(p. 126), but in the appendix he calls it Adenota Icoha, Erxl. 

(p. 147). 

I cannot believe that Buffon's " Koba ou la grande vache du 
Senegal " was an Adenota at all, and if it was one, it rather seems 
to me that BufFon had had two skulls of the same species, and 
that he figured the adult specimen as "koba" and the young one 
as ''kob." Eor he affirms that both came from the SeuegaL 

Adenota thomasi is known from the northern Central- African 
Lake region: — Kavirondo, Ussoga, Uganda {Spelce, Jackson, 
Gedge, Ltifjard, StiMmann, Neumann) ; Unyoro, Albert Lake 
(Liigard) ; Siiniu Hi ver— south-east corner of the A^ictoria Nyanza 
{Lanfjheld). Unyoro is the most northern known point. It does 
not occur east of the watershed to the A^ictoria Nyanza (INlau 
Fotik mountains). North of Unyoro is the region of Adenota 
marice. Gray, and A. leucotis, Licht. (Bahr el Gazal, Sobat, Kir). 
To tlie west the true A. lob occurs — Senegal and Gambia (B.M. 
Type Paris Miis.), Togo (Bavmann), Cameroons (Zenler), extend- 
ing eastward' to the Ubangi river, whence Dybowsky brought 
specimens to Paris. 

Southward occur A. leche and A. vardoni, which are both 
known from British Central Africa (Lakes Mwero, Bangweolo, 
Nyassa, south Tanganyika). It seems that the two species of 
Adenota met \\ith by Biihrn and Eeichard west of Tanganyika 
must have belonged to these last two species. 

A. thomasi lives in herds of 30-50, about five times as many 
females as males ; its habits are those of J^pyceros vulampus, but 
it prefers rather damp meadow s near the water. Kiganda name : 
Nssunn. 

1 shall on a future occasion give a more exact comparison of the 
six species forming the genus Adenota. 



6. On some Earthworms from the Sandwich Islands collected 
by Mr. E,. L. Perkins ; with an Appendix ou some new 
Species of PericJueta, &c. By Frank E. Beddard, 
F.R.S., &c. 

[Keceived December 16, 1895.] 

So little has been done in exploring the Earthworm-fauna of 
oceanic islands that 1 am particularly pleased at being able to offer 
to the Society an account of a rather extensive collection of 
Earthworms made in the Sandwich Islands by Mr. R. L. Perkins 
under the aus])ices of the British Association Committee for the 
exploration of those islands. Two collections mude at different 
times and kindly forwarded to me by Dr. D. Sharp, F.E.S., 
include examples of a number of species principally belonging 



1896.] FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 195 

to the genus Perichceta. I am much indebted to Dr. Sliarp, and 
also to Mr. Perkins for his careful preservation of the specimens. 

Our knowledge of the Earthworms of the Hawaiian Archipelago 
is at the present time exceedingly limited : four species form the 
entire list ; and of these P>^richa;ta cor fids of Kinberg ', though 
undoubtedly a Perichteta, or at least a Pericliaetid, is quite unrecog- 
nizable as a species, while Bi/pof/iwn haraicum of the same 
naturalist is believed by Eosa ^ to be merely AUolohophora putris, 
a widely spread species which has been " introduced " into many 
extra-European comitries. Two species, however, which have 
been sufficiently described for identification, appear to be peculiar 
to the Sandwich Islands. The first of these was made known by 
Dr. Eosa^ and fully described from material existing in the Vienna 
Museum, as Perichceta hawaycma. The second, which is not 
perhaps so certainly a distinct species, I have myself described 
under the name of Pontoscolea- Jiawaunslb- in my recently published 
• Monograph of the Order Oligochaeta' (p. 6(50). 

In the present communication I have three new Hawaiian species 
to add to this list ; and I have also to record the occurrence in 
those islands of a few Avidely distributed forms. The entire list of 
Earthworms now known from the Hawaiian Archipelago, excluding 
only the unintelligible Perichceta corticis, is as follows— the species 
peculiar to the islands being printed in Clarendon type: — 

Eam. LuMBEiciD,!;, 

(1) AUolohoplwra fa-tida. 

(2) uiUohhopJiora ^;m/W*'. 

(3) AUolohophora caliyinosa. 

Eam. PERICHiETID.i:. 

(4) Perichceta indica. 

(5) PerichsBta hawayana. 

(6) Perichaeta perkinsi. 

(7) Perichaeta molokaiensis. 

(8) Perichaeta sandvicensis. 

Eam. Geoscolicid^. 

(9 ) Pontoscolex hawaiensis. 

This will appear to many to be a meagre enough list, especially 
when contrasted with the rich and peculiar insect, moUuscau, and 
avian fauna of the same islands. But it is a long list when 
compared with those of the Earthworms of other oceanic islands, 
from very few of which have undoubtedly indigenous forms been 
secured. 

1 " Annulata nova," Ofv. K. Syensk. Vet.-Akad. 1866. 
^ " Eevisione dei Lumbrici," Mem. Ace. Torino, 1893. 
' Aub. d. k. k. Hofmus.-Wien, Bd. tI. 

13* 



196 ME. F. E. BEDDABD ON EARTHWORMS [Jan. 14, 

It is early, of course, to lay down any general statements ; and 
were it not that Mr. Perkins has collected so many species and in 
most cases so many individuals of each species, I should have 
contented myself with a plain description of fact and should not 
have ventured upon coiument. It may be permissible, however, 
to indicate the " Oriental " facies of the fauna and the absence of 
very peculiar types. The latter statement, in fact, appears to 
hold good generally for oceanic islands, so far as our imperfect 
data enable us to speak. It argues their really oceanic origin and 
their short existence. Even in Kerguelen and Marion Is., which 
are remote from traffic and can hardly have been stocked by human 
means, the one known species, Acanthodrilus kerguelarum, is only 
specifically different from the Earthworms most nearly allied upon 
the adjoining mainlands. And these islands are possibly among 
the most ancient of oceanic islands. 

Allolobophora foetida, Sav. 

Numerous examples of this widely distributed species from 
Halemanu, Kausi. 

Allolobopliora caliginosa, Sav. 
J£ab. Waialua, Oahu. 

AUolobophora 2)utris, Sav. 

There are a large number of examples of the variety " arhorea " 
(smaller, and with tuberculapubertalis only upon xxix.& xxx.),which 
Eosa believes to be identical with Kinberg's ^'■Hypo(jcBon havuicus." 
Its occurrence, therefore, is not a new fact. 

Eab. Molokai, and Kawailoa Eiver, Oahu. 

. Pontoscolex hawaiensis, n. sp. 

Of this apparently new species some 8 or 10 examples were 
collected. 

The length of a fair sized specimen is 142 mm ; the breadth at 
the clitellum 4 mm., elsewhere rather less. The number of 
segments is rather more than 210; after the 128th segment is 
an oval swelling upon the body 3 mm. long and commencing about 
90 mm. from the anterioi end ; this is the structure which has 
been described in other species, and regarded as a growing point. 
This modified region of the body appears to be constant in position; 
this is shown by the following measurements of two individuals: — 

A. B. 

Length of body in front of " growing region " . . . . 90 80 
Length of body behind " growing region". 47 40 

The intestine proper appears to begin at the end of the clitellum ; 
there is here a distinct circular valve, and the intestine has a 
distinct typhlosole projecting into its lumen. The calibre, however, 
is not greater. 

The setse of this species are, as iu Ehinodnlus, ornamented 



1896.] FHOji THE SANDWICH isla.:n^ds. 197 

throughout. On the verj first seta-bearing segment oE the body 
the setae have precisely the same ridged free extremities that the 
setae upon the clitellam show. At first the setae of each pair are 
fairly close together. Later they get farther apart and become 
irregular in arrangement, as in Pontoscolex cordhrurus. On the 
clitellum the ventral pairs are quite regular, although each indi- 
vidual seta of the pair is farther away from its fellow than 
anteriorly. This continues for a short distance behind the 
clitellum. On the other hand, the lateral pairs of setae ai-e irregular 
in the clitellar region. The ventral of the two setie, however, which 
is on a line with the nephridiopore, is fixed in position : it is the 
other which varies. 

The clitellum occupies segments xiv.-xxi. with a portion of xiii. 
and xxii. 

The dorsal vessel is in certain respects peculiar \ Where it 
emerges from the last thick mesentery it is moderately thin ; it 
gradually becomes thicker and at the same time monihform ; the 
increased thickness is due to the fact that the dorsal vessel 
becomes double ; its character is that of tl>e dorsal vessel in 
Acanthodrilus novce-zelandice, i. e. the tube is single where it 
traverses the septa, but separates into two halves between the 
septa. In segments xiv. and xv. the dorsal vessel attains to its 
greatest bulk; after tliis its calibre becomes suddenly diminished. 
It retains, however, its doable character. 

In segments xi., xii. are hearts which seem to have no con- 
nection with the dorsal vessel but only with the supra-intestinal. 

The gizzard is in segment v. ; it is followed by tour very thick 
septa. In the segments following the gizzard are 3 pairs of calci- 
ferous glands. Behind the first three strong septa are very small 
spermatothecae, simple elongate oval pouches without diverticula. 

Hab. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and Waiahia, Oahu. 

Perichceta inclica, Horst. 

Dr. Michaelsen has called attention ^ to the fact that this species, 
which is very widely distributed, is frequently without a " prostate" 
gland. In five specimens which he received from Greorgia and 
Florida there was no trace of the gland, only the muscular duct 
being present. In the 6th specimen the gland was present on 
one side. Dr. IVIichaelsen further makes the suggestion that the 
original home of the species may be Japan, where as a general 
rule ^ the Perichcetce show the same character. 

Among the worms collected by Mr. Perkins were 8 examples 
of this species from Molokai, all fully mature ; I dissected seven of 
them, in none of which was there the least trace of the gland in 
question ; the curved duct alone was present. 

^ In one specimen of three which I examined, the dorsal vessel seemed to be 
single. 

^ " Die Eegenwurm-Fauna von Florida u. Georgia," Zool. JB., Ed. viii. 
p. 177. 

^ F. E, Beddard " On some Perichsetidse from Japan," ibid. Bd. vi. p. 755. 



198 HH. F. E. BEDD:\JaD OJf EAETHWOBMS [Jan. 14, 

Dr. Michaelsen has also called attention to the variability of 
the genital papillae. 

Of my specimens four are normal (i. e. there are 3 pairs on vii., 
viii., ix.) ; in two the papillae are on vii., viii. on one side of the body, 
on viii. only on the other ; in the seventh specimen these conditions 
are exactly reversed ; in the eighth, one side of the body is normal, 
on the other the papillae lie on viii., ix., x. 

In six specimens from Maui^ the genital papillae and prostates 
were as follows : — 

1 . . . . On vii., viii. 0. 

2 . . . 0. Small. 

3 . . . . viii., ix. 0. 

4 On viii. (left side only). Small (on one side only, left). 

5.... 0. 0. 

6 . . . . vii,, viii. Small (on one side only, left). 

It is interesting to contrast this list with the last, on the hypo- 
thesis, of course, that the islands upon which the two series were 
collected are different. 

There were also two individuals from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, upon 
which I do not comment, as there were only two. 

Pericliaeta perkinsi, n. sp. 

The length of this species (of which I have examined two 
examples) "is 192 mm.; the diameter is 6 mm. The number of 
segments is 110. 

The colour is of a light brown, darker on the back. 

The 2^rostomiian is broad (2-5 mm.) but not long ; it is cut off 
from the first segment by a transverse groove. 

The buccal cavity is eversible, as in many Perichcetce. 

The first dorsal pore that I could detect lies between segments 

xii./xiii. 

The ditellum occupies the whole of segments xiv.-xvi., and is 

without setae. 

The oviducal pore, distinctly a single pore, is situated in the 
middle of a white area upon the brown clitellum on segment xiv. 

The male pores are rather wide apart, and upon segment xviii. 
I counted eleven setae between them. Each pore itself is upon a 
whitish papilla, and to the outside is another smaller papilla which 
is not perforated ; the two are surrounded by several concentric 
circular wrinkles of the integument. 

There are no genital papillte except the one just referred to 
and upon which open glands. 

The setce of P. perlcinsi are not so numerous as in many other 
species. The segments in the anterior part of the body have 
fewer setse than those which follow. There is a gradual increase up 
to the xviith segment, whence the number appears to remain fairly 

, ' Mr. Perkins has queried the locality. 



1896.] FEOil TILE SA>'^DAVICH ISL\NDS. 199 

constant up to the end of the body. The formula ^ will read 
thus : — • 

Segment .1. V. XII. XVI. 

No. of setae 23 31 43 46 

but on some segments quite close to the tail I counted as many as 
49 setae. The size of the seta) varies on different segments and on 
different parts of the same segment. The setae on either side of 
the nerve-cord, as is the case with other species (e. g. Perichcpta 
Tioulleti), are larger than those more laterally placed. This 
difference commences to be well marked in the third setigerous 
segment, anterior to which, it may be observed, is no ventral nerve- 
cord, but the circumcEsophageal commissures. From the third 
setigerous segment to the sixth (inclusive) there is this marked 
difference between a few ventral setas — particularly the ventral- 
most seta — on either side of the nerve-cord and the rest of the setfe 
of the segment. On tlie tenth segment all the setae are very 
much smaller than on the preceding segments ", and those on 
either side of the ventral nerve-cord are not larger. On the 
eleventh segment the setae again are larger, and there is a slight 
difference in size between the ventralmost two or three setae and 
the rest, but' not nearly so marked as on segments iv.-vii. 

The clitelliun is, as has been already mentioned, entirely witnout 
setis ; but no doubt in the immature worm they are present, in 
any case the special longitudinal muscles of the setae were quite 
obvious in the mature worm. At the hinder end of the body the 
setae are larger than those of some of the anterior segments— a 
difference which may have to do with the habit (so general 
among earthworms, at least of this country) of lying outside the 
burrow with the tail only concealed within. 

The first sej_itum lies between segments v./vi. The septum 
between viii./ix. is missing, as is nearly universally the case with 
Perichceta. The septum between ix./x. is largely defective, though 
not absent ; it consists chiefly of a strong muscular band on 
each side, which is attached to the insertion of the next following 
septum. Septa v./viii., x./xiii. are moderately thickened. 

In the hinder part of the body were paired masses of ccelomic 
cells, attached on either side of the dorsal blood-vessel, such as I 
have described in Perivhata. They were full of Gregarines. 

The i^hariinx is beset with nirmerous salivary glands, which 
extend back as far as the sixth segment. The gizzard is globular, 
not in any way elongated. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The Sjjerm-sacs are in segments xi., xii. ; there are, as usual, two 
pairs of sperm-duct funnels. 

^ This is a little different from the segments originally selected ("Oa some 
Species of the Genus Perickcefa" F.Z. S. 1892, p. 157); but as the number 
culminates at xvi. I h»Te thought it well to emphasize the fact by the formula. 

^ In relation to this fact, it is interesting to observe that in Pcrichata 
cadiiclchceta (Beuham, Ann. & Mag. Nut. Hist. ser. 6, xvi. p. 47, 1895) the setae 
upon this segment are absent. 



200 



MB. F. E. BEDDARD ON EAHTHWORMS 



[Jan. 14, 



The spermiduml glands extend througb three segments ; they 
are coarsely lobate, and the muscular duct is curved like a horse- 
shoe ; there is no terminal sac. 

The ovaries are in segment xiii., and in the same segment are 
a pair of rather large kidney-shaped egg-sacs. 

The spermathecce are four pairs in segments vi.-ix. The pouch, 
which is pear-shaped, is sharply marked off from the narrow duct. 
The diverticulum is rather longer than the latter, and ends in an 
oval dilatation. 

Locality. Halemanu, Kauai. 

RemarTcs. — This species does not possess any very marked dis- 
tinctive characters, excepting, perhaps, one vphich will be described 
immediately. On the other hand, I cannot identify it with 
certainty with any of the species already known that have four 
pairs of spermathecse. 

I may take this opportunity of recording a peculiarity in the 
sperm-ducts of PericlitBta perlcinsi, vvhicli is new to the genus, and 
does not therefore help in the identification of this species ; indeed, 
so few species of PericJiceta have been examined microscopically, 
that the absence of the peculiar relations of the sperm-duct to the 
spermiducal gland, which I am about to describe, in the species 



rig. 1. 




Perichceta perkinsi. 

Spermiducal gland (pr.), vasa deferentia (v.d.), and muscular duct (M.) of 
gland of Perichceta perkinsi (left-hand figure) and of a normal Perichceta 
(right-hand figure). 

already investigated, does not go for much. The two sperm-ducts 
retain their separateness, and perforate the duct of the spermiducal 
gland at some little distance from its external opening, but at a 
point where it is already wrapped up in a moderately thick 
coating of muscular fibres, not so thick, however, as they will 
ultimately become. The two sperm-ducts, however, do not at 



1896.] PEOM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 201 

once open into the lumen of the duct ; they become narrower 
and somewhat triangular in section, losing at the same time their 
ciliated Uning. In cross-sections the two tubes are seen to lie in 
close contact with each other and with the lumen of the spermi- 
ducal-gland duct. Ultimateh^ just where the glaud-duct perforates 
the body-wall on its way to the exterior, the sperm-ducts open 
into it. 

Perichaeta molokaiensis, n. sp. 

This is a moderately small species, 81 mm. in length, and con- 
sisting of 93 segments. 

The prostomium is small, and is continued by grooves on to first 
half of first segment. 

The dorsal pores commence on x./xi., and are visible upon the 
cUtellum. 

The ditdlum has a few setae on its last segment, and extends 
over segments xiv.-xvi. 

There are no genital jjapUlce.. 

The male pores are separated by 15 set«. 

The first septum separates segments iv./v. ; none are specially 
thickened. 

The intestine begins in xv. ; the caeca are in xxvi., and are not 
large. 

The sperm-sacs are large, and are in xi., xii. ; the sperm-reser- 
voirs (contaiuiug the funnels) in x., xi. 

The spermiducal glands extend from xvii.-xxi., and are much 
lobed. Their duct is long and curved, but has no terminal sac. 

The spermathecoi are four pairs in vi.-ix. The pouch is sharply 
marked off from the long duct. The diverticulum, ending in an 
oval dilatation, is about as long as the latter. 

Hah. Molokai. 

HemarJcs. — As I have only had a single specimen of this species 
at my disposal, I have been careful to injure it as little as 
possible. Hence my description is in places somewhat defective. 
I believe, however, that this description is sufficient to avoid 
a confusion with allied forms. It is certainly not far from Peri- 
chceta peregrina of Fletcher \ chiefly in the large size of its spermi- 
ducal glands. Mr. Tletcher does not say how many of the 
clitellar segments of P. pieregrina have setae, a matter which is 
apparently of some importance in the discrimination of species. 

Perichaeta hawayana, Eosa. 

The length of the largest example of this species in 150 mm. ; 
the number of segments of that individual was 97. 
The colour is brown, with a pure flesh-tinge in parts. 
The s«<a -formula is as follows :— 



I. 


V. 


XII. 


XVI. 


XXI 


16 


26 


43 


45 


50 



1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1886, p. 969. 



202 MR. F. E. BBDDARD ON EAUTHWORMS [Jim. 14, 

There are nine setae on the xvith segment of the bodj, 4 on one 
side and 5 ' on the other side of the median ventral line. On the 
third, fourth, and fifth setigerous segments the setae are very stout, 
particularly on either side of the median ventral line. Those of the 
first two segments are delicate, as are those which follow the fifth. 
Fourteen setae lie between the male pores. 

The ditellum (xiv.-xvi.), as has been already remarked, has setse 

upon its last segment. 

The dorsal pores commence x./xi. 

The male pores lie in the line of setae ; close to each, but below 
the line of setae, are two or three papillce in a straight line with 
their fellows on each side of the body, but obliquely as regards its 
transverse axis. 

The first septum divides segments v. and vi. ; this and the next 
two are thickened; so are the first four following the gizzard, the 
last of which divides segments xiii./xiv. 

The intestine begins in xv. ; the caeca, which lie in segment 
xxvi., are short. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The sperm-sacs lie in xi. and xii. ; in x. and xi. are the sperm- 
reservoirs, containing funnels of sperm-ducts. 

The spermiducal gland occupies segments xvii.-xxi. ; it is 
flattened and lobulated ; the duct is long and curved, narrowing 
towards the external orifice, which is not provided with a terminal 
sac. 

The ovaries occupy the usual position. There are a pair of 
elongated egg-sacs in both xiii. and xiv. 

The spermathecce are in vi., vii., viii. The oval pouch com- 
municates with the exterior by a long duct longer than itself. 
The diverticulum, ending in an oval dilatation, has a corkscrew-like 
duct. This diverticulum, when straightened, is not far sliort of 
the pouch in length. 

Hab. Waimea, Molokai, and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. 

Reniarlcs. — I have given a description of this species because the 
individuals examined by myself depart slightly and in a few 
particulars from the description given of PericJiceta haivayana 
by Dr. Eosa. The most noteworthy difference is apparently 
the existence of setae upon the last segment of the clitellum. 
Dr. Eosa does not assert their absence, but would, I am disposed to 
think, have mentioned their presence were they existent. On the 
other hand, his description of the intestinal caeca — " eine gefiederte, 
durch zwei Lappenreihen vermittelte Gestalt erkennen lassen " — 
agrees entirely with my observations. Differences also in the 
number of the setae in certain segments, and in the number of the 
thickened intersegmental septa, will appear on a comparison of 
Dr. Eosa's account with mine. 

I have marked this species as one of those indigenous to Hawaii. 

^ 14 or 15 altogether in another specimen, and more still apparently in 
others. 



1896,] FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 203 

But I possess specimens from Hong Kong which cannot be 
distinguished. One of these has four papillte near the male pore 
of one side of the body. It therefore approaches Perichceta 
hermudeiisis, which has a considerable number of such papillae. 
These two species are now hardly to be separated. 

Perichaeta sandvicensis, n. sp. 

The largest example of this species measures 100 mm. in length, 
and has lOo segments. 

Tlie dorsal pores commence xi./xii., and are visible on the 
clitellum. 

The seta-formula is the following : — 

I. V. XII. XVI. 

21 33 52 53 

The setae of the first two segments are small ; those of the next 
four are stronger, after which they again diminish. The setae on 
either side of the median ventral line are not longer than those 
elsewhere. 

The clitellum occupies segments xiv.-xvi., and has no setiB. 

The male pores are separated by 18 setae. They were iu most 
of the specimens very prominent. 

There are no (/enital papillce. 

The first septum divides segments v./vi. ; this and the one 
which follows are very stout, and bound to each other by 
numerous muscular threads. The septum vii./viii. is not so thick. 
The next two, as in other Perichcetce, are absent. After the 
gizzard are two strongest septae ; to the first of these the hinder 
part of the gizzard is attached by at least five muscular straps. 

The alimentarij canal presents no character of any particular 
interest. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The sperm-sacs are in segments xi. and xii. The sperm-reser- 
voirs of segment xi. are much larger than those of segment x. 

The spermiducal glands are much incised, and occupy about 
three segments. The duct is long and curved, and is without a 
terminal sac. 

The spermathecce are two pairs in vii. and viii. The pouch has 
not a very long duct. The diverticulum is not very long ; it is 
bent often in a zigzag fashion, and does not terminate in a suddenly 
dilated extremity. 

Mab. Lanai, 2000 ft. ; Mauna Loa, Hawai, Molokai. 

Bemarhs.— The only species with which it would be possible 
to confuse the present are PericJueia annulata and Perichceta 
japonica. In the latter, however, the male pores are described by 
Horst * as lying upon a J-shaped groove, which extends on to 
segment xvii. In the former, according to the same author, the 

' "New Species of the Genus Megascolex, &c," Notes Leyd. Mua vol. v. 
p. 182. 



204 MR. F, E. BEDDARD ON EARTHWORMS [Jan. 14, 

" prostate " glands, although trilobed, are limited to the xviiith 



segment 



The shape of this gland is frequently used as a specific character 
in Perichceta, and as a rule apparently with some reason. The 
present species, however, shows that it is necessary to be discreet 
in the use of the character. In nearly all the examples which I 
dissected, the gland in question occupies three or four segments 
and has an ear-Uke shape, the lower margin curving forwards and 
upwards hke the lobe of the ear. Tn one specimen, which I do 
not feel able to distinguish specifically, the gland has a quad- 
rangular form, occupies four segments, and is deeply incised in 
correspondence therewith. 

From Hong Kong I have received specimens of a Perichceta 
which I do not like to separate specifically from the above, 
although they show certain differences from it amongst themselves. 
In one specimen, a long and slender worm, the spermathecse have 
a long duct, and the spermiducal glands have the ear-like shape 
characteristic of the species. The male apertures are prominent. 
Other specimens, though smaller, are rather stouter worms than 
the one just referred to ; the duct of the spermatheca is not very 
long, and the spermiducal glands are much lobulated and not ear- 
shaped. Nor is there here a marked difPereuce between the 
septum immediately pi-eceding the gizzard and those just in front 
of it : there is this difference in the first mentioned specimen 
from Hong Kong. In both the caeca are long and slender, occu- 
pying two full segments. 

Appendix. 

I take the present opportunity of describing three new species 
of Perichceta, and two new Acanthodrilids, which I have recently 
received. 

PericHjETA insula, n. sp. 

Of this new species I have a single example — a slender worm 
measuring 103 mm. 

It consists of 95 segments. 

The clitellum occupies the three usual segments, but is deficient 
at both ends. The last segment of the clitellum has setae. 

The male pores are separated by a moderate distance. 

Genital papillce are present in two regions of the body. On 
the xviiith segment are 8 largish papillae, each surrounded by a 
series of circular ridges upon the skin. Two of these papillae form 
on each side with the male pore of their side a triangle; the 
remaining four form a line across the segment above the line of 
the setae. On segment xix., on the left side of the body, is a single 
similar papilla. In addition to these papUlae developed in the 
neighbourhood of the male pores, there are a pair near the anterior 
margin of the viith segment like those of Pericliceta indica. 

The first septum separates segments iv./v. This and the three 
following are not very much thickened, but they are tied to each 



1896.] 



TEOM THE SAKDWICH ISLANDS. 



205 



other and to the parietes by a considerable number of ligamentous 
threads. The three septa which come immediately after the 
gizzard are stouter than those which follow ; but here, again, the 
increase in thickness is not vei-y marked. 

Fig. 2. 





I& 


• - • - A 


•b- 


&* 




'*i|! •• • 


• 


p- 


-femii 






1 






%, 


J 




III!." 





Perichteia insula. 

5 , oviducal pore. ^J , male pore. 
p, papillK. 

The pliarynT, as is so usual in PericJueia, is beset with numerous 
racemose glands ; these extend back as far as the sixth segment. 
The gizzard is rather bell-shaped, diminishing in transverse 
diameter anteriorly, but truncated posteriorly, where it has a 
thickened rim. The intestine begins abruptly in the xvth segment 
at about the middle of that segment. The caeca extend through 
two segments. The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The sperm-sacs, compact in form, are in segments xi., xii. as usual. 
The spermiducal glands, also rather compact, commence in xvii. and 
extend as far back as xx. The duct is stout and S-shaped. 

The spermatheccB are in vi., vii. Each has a diverticulum about 
half its own length, of an elongated oval form. 

Hah. Hong Kong. 

Pebich^ta teittphla, n. sp. 

The length of this species (after preservation in Perenyi's fluid) 
is 63 mm. ; that individual consisted of about 75 segments. 
The seta-formula is as follows : — 



I. 
25 



VI. 

38 



XII. 

49 



XVII. 
49 



206 MR. F. E. BEDDABD ON EARTHWOKMS [Jan. 14, 

I give segment vi. instead of v. since I did not count the setae 
with accuracy upon the latter. The setae towards the ventral side 
are slightly more crowded than laterally, but there is no very 
marked difference in size ; neither is there any very great variation 
in size from segment to segment. 

The clitelhim occupies tlie whole of segments xiv.-xvi. ; it has 
no setae. 

The male jiores are separated by 12 setae. 

There are no genital papillce. 

Between the spermathecal orifices are 30 setfe. 

There are no si'jjta that can be sjjoken of as specially thickened. 

The gizzard seemed to me — contrary to what is the rule with 
the genus — to only occupy a single segment. At any rate, on the 
right-band side of the body a septum passes forwards from the 
hinder margin of the gizzard, to be attached close to the orifice of 
the second spermatheca of that side of the body. The intestine, 
commencing in the fifteenth segment, is very sharply marked ofE 
fi'om the preceding oesophagus by its black colour (due of coiu'se 
to contained earth j, the oesophagus being yellowish white. The 
intestinal caeca are peculiar and serve to ditf'erentiate the species. 
It is well known that Peridicvta liilyendo7-Ji., P. sieholdi, and 
P. musica possess as a rule, or occasionally, 6 of these ca?ca on 
each side of the body, arising, however, one above the other in the 
same segment. The present species is not so amply provided as 
are thoee to which I have just referred ; but it has three caeca on 
each side, of which the upper is the larger. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The sperm-sacs are large and occupy the available space of 
segments xi., xii. ; they also extend into i. The sperm-reservoirs 
(in X., xi.) are small. 

The spermidiwal glands extend through segments xvii.-xxi. 
They are much incised and quadrangular in form. The duct 
communicates with the exterior thi'ough a large hursa copulatrix. 

The globular sptermathecce are in vii. and viii. ; they open, 
however, between vii./viii. aud viii./ix. ; their duct is short ; there 
is a long coiled diverticulum rather longer than the pouch, ending 
in a dilated extremity. 

Hah. Barbados. 

Perichjjta teinitatis, n. sp. 

This is a stout Perichoita measuring 150 mm. in length and 
consisting of 100 segments. 

The setce upon segments vi.-ix. appeared to be larger than 
tho.se on the segments following. On the seventeenth segment 
(from the stripped-off cuticle) I counted 45 setae. There are 20 
between the male poi'es. 

The dorsal pores appeared to commence on xi./xii. 

The clitellum occupies segments xiv.-xvi. 

The male pores are very conspicuous and surrounded by circular 
wrinkles of the integument. 



1896.] TEOM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 207 

Tliere are no genital papilla. 

The first distinct siptum separates segment ir. from v. This 
and the three following — in fact all the septa winch lie in front of 
the gizzard- — are strengthened not only by an increased thickness, 
but by uiusciilar strands which bind septum to septum and to the 
body-wall, rollowing the gizzard are four thickened septa, of 
which the last bounds the thirteenth segment posteriorly ; here 
also are a few muscular threads passing between the septa and 
from them to the body-walls. These threads are found as far 
back as the septum lying between xx. and xvi. As is so often the 
case, these bands arise from one segment and traverse another to 
be attached to the septum behind it or to the body-wall between. 
The direction of the muscular strands is outwards. Two particu- 
larly strong muscular bauds — one on either side and latero-dorsal in 
position — attach the gizzard to the septum next following. 

The (jizzard is round in form — neither particularly elongated 
nor bell-shaped. 

The intestine begins suddenly in the xvth segment ; the caeca 
are simple and conical in form, extending through three segments. 

The last heart is in segment xiii. 

The large sperm- sacs are as usual in the xith and xiith segments. 

The spermidncal tflands are large and loosish in texture, owing 
to their extensive lobulation. They extend through segments xvii. 
to xxi. inclusive. The duct is moderately long and bent into a 
curved horseshoe. 

The spermathecce are four pairs lying in segments vi.-ix. ; the 
point itself is oval, with a tendency to be pointed at the tip ; the 
duct is short. The di\erticulum is longer than the pouch and 
moniliform distally. 

There are egg-sacs in segments xiii.-xiv. 

Hah. Trinidad. 

§ The Distribution of Perichaeta. 

Except for accidental transference to this country and to other 
temperate climates, the genus Perichada is purely tropical in its 
range, and is practically confined to the Oriental region and to the 
Neotropical ; from the former it reaches the Australian part of the 
Eastern Archipelago and the continent of Australia itself. Africa 
has no true Perichata, except P. capensis, which is also Oriental. 
In all parts of the Oriental region Perichata is a dominant form, and 
always constitutes a large propoi'tion of the gatherings of worms 
from such localities. It is also exceedingly abundant in some of 
of the AVest Indian Islands, such as Trinidad, Bahamas, Grrenada, 
Jamaica, Bermudas, and Barbados. It occurs more rarely upon 
the South American Continent. The following species are already 
known to occur in both the Old and the New Worlds : — P. indica, 
P. sumatrana, P. houlleti, P. dyeri, and P. jjosthuma. Peculiar to 
the New "World, so far as published records go, are P. sancti jacobi, 
P. rinr/eana, P. elonrjata, P. pallida, P. bermudensis, P. barbadensis, 



208 MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON EARTHWORMS [Jan. 14, 

and P. hesperidum.. I am able now to alter this list, by removing 
P. hermudensis, which I have received from Hong Kong \ and also 
adding to the first list P. violacea and P. sinetisis, which I have received 
from Trinidad and Grenada, and to the second the two new species 
described in this paper. The first list will then contain eight species, 
and the second eight. Seeing the large number of species which 
have been in all probability introduced into the West from the East, 
it is in my opinion by no means to be taken for granted that the 
genus Perichceta is indigenous in the West Indies and South America. 
I am disposed to look upon it as a distinctly Oriental genus. 

ACAIfTHODRILrS MACQUARIER'SIS, n. Sp. 

Of several specimens of this apparently new species only two 
were sexually mature. 

It is a small species, measuring about an inch in length, and 
consisting of some 100 segments. 

The prostomium is incomplete, not dividing the peristomial 
segment. 

The stt<je are distant from each other, but not equally so. The 
two ventral of each side are more closely related than the two 
dorsal. The actual distances are much as indicated in the 
following scheme : 

S, 1 S, 1 S3 1| s,, 

for the anterior segments of the body. Behind the clitellum the 
distance separating the two ventral setae is about half that which 
separates the two dorsal. Towards the xviiith segment and on 
both sides of it the two setae of each ventral couple get closer 
together, and on the xviiith segment these setae are closer together 
than anywhere else. A similar convergence of the setae towards 
the segment bearing the male pores has been noticed in various 
species of the genus Mlcroscolex. On the xviith and xixth segments 
the ventral setae are altogether absent, beiug replaced by the penial 
setae. 

The nepliridwpores open in front of seta 3. 

One of the two sexually mature individuals had no papillce ; upon 
the other there were a pair of these structures corresponding 
in position to the ventral setae. One of them was evidently 
abnormally situated, for they were upon different segments, the 
right-hand one upon the tenth, the left-hand upon the eleventh 
segment. The clitellum occupies segments xiii.-x\d., commencing 
at about the middle of the former segment. It is continuous 
across the ventral surface except perhaps for the last of the seg- 
ments over which it extends. 

The oviducal pores are paired, and upon segment xiv. each lies 
in front of seta 1. 

The male pores (on xviiith) are to the outside of seta 2. The 
spermiducal gland-pores correspond in position to the outer seta 

^ Typical specimens, not doubtful P. hawayana ; see pp. 202-203. 



1896.] FEOM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 209. 

of the ventral couple. The spermathecal pores have a position 
corresponding to that of the glands. As to internal anatomy, 
I could find no well-developed gizzard ; this, it: present, is certainly 
rudimentary. The intestine appears to begin in the xvith segment. 

The last heart is in segment xii. 

The sperm-sacs, very racemose in character, are in segments xi., 
xii. 

The spermatheae are in segments viii., ix. Each is an oval pouch 
with two diverticula of the same form, but smaller, one on each side. 

The spermiducal glands are not very long and but slightly coiled. 

There were two fully developed peaial seUe in the bundle 
which I extracted for examination, and four immature ones. The 
fully mature setae are ornamented upon the distal one-fourth b}' 
sparsely scattered triangular, often rather blunt and not very large 
tubercles. These were also apparent upon all the immature setse. 

Hah. Macquarie I., S. of New Zealand'. 

Bemarks. — It will be obvious from the above description that 
the present species cannot be possibly confounded with any New 
Zealand species, with which it would be natural to compare it in 
the first place. There are in New Zealand no members of the 
genus Acanthodrilas (s.s.) which present the following combination 
of characters :— Setae distant, gizzard rudimentary, cUtellum short 
(xiii.-xvi.), nephridia not alternating, spermathecse with two 
diverticula. AcantJwdrili with these characters ai'e restricted in 
range to Patagonia, S. G-eorgia, and the Falkland Islands. The 
Patagonian group thus characterized contains four species, viz., 
A. bovei, Rosa, A. georgianus, Mich., A. falclandiciis, F. E. B., and 
A. aquarum dulcium, F. E. B., which furthermore agree in being 
all of small size. The only difference which distinguishes 
A. macquariensis from these is the form of the penial setse and the 
position of the genital papillae. It is a most interesting fact, and 
one which has an obvious bearing upon the theory of a former 
northward extension of the Antarctic continent, that from 
Macquarie IsL, 600 or 700 miles south of New Zealand, and there- 
fore so much nearer the existing southern continent, a decidedly 
Patagonian and South Georgian form of Acanthodrilus should have 
been met with. 

Benhamia ufDiCA, n. sp. (Fig. 3, p. 210.) 

I have received from JVIr. Wroughton, through the kind 
suggestion of Mr. E. H. Aitken, a number of worms which may 
belong to a new genus. They are stoutish worms, the largest 
reaching a length of three or four inches. 

The prostomium is large, but does not encroach upon the buccal 
segment. 

The setoe of the ventral couple are fairly closely approximated to 
each other, those of the dorsal couple are distant. The space 

* I am indebted to Prof. T. J. Parker, F.E.S., for the specimens. 

Paoc. ZooL. Soc— 1896, No. XIV. 14 



210 



MH. F. E. BJiDDAllD ON BAUTHWOEMS 



[ jau. 14, 



separating the two setae of the dorsal couple is about two and a 
halt' times that separating the two setaB of the ventral couple. 
The setae are all grouped on the ventral surface of the body, not 
extending far laterally. On the xviith, xviiith, and xixth segments 
the ventral setae appear to drop out in the sexually mature worms. 
In an immature specimen the xviiith segment had a pair of ventral 
setae in the usual position, but small in size ; on the xviith and 
xixth segments were a pair of very small and quite immature 
sets, I did not detect any of these on the opposite side of the 
body. 

rig. 3. 




Benhamia indica. Nat. size. 



Dorsal pores were visible at the posterior end of the body, where 
the worm was less contracted. 

There are a series of genital pajnllce in the region of the 
spermathecse. A pair of large papillae lie upon segment ix. ; 
through it protrude the setae of the segment, which differ from 
those of other segments of tfie body in being modified in structure. 
They are hke those of many Geoscolecids in being rather longer 
than the ordinary setae, less curved in form, and in having the 
distal extremity ornamented with elegantly disposed semicircular 
ridges. Between this segment and the next, and again on the 



l896i] FJ&OM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS* 211 

boundary segments x./xi., is a single median papilla, upon the 
middle of each of which is a row, concave forwards, of large pores, 
which appear to correspond to glands Hke the capsulogenous glands 
of Perlchcehe. Such glands have already been met with in 
Acauthodrilids (in Acanthodrilus rosce), another fact among many 
which show the intimate relationship between the two famihes. 

The clitellum occupies segments xiii.-xvi. 

The nephridia are of the diffuse type. 

The first septum separates segments iv./v. The next three are 
moderatly thickened, and after the last of these come four, which, 
though not quite so thick, are to some extent strengthened. All 
these septa, beginning with the first mentioned, are attached to 
each other and to the parietes by numerous tendon-like muscular 
fasciculi. These latter extend for a segment or two farther back 
than that which is bounded by the last thickened septum. The 
last heart lies in the xiith segment. The dorsal blood-vessel is 
single. Two stout gizzards immediately following each other lie 
in segments v. and vi. In segments xi. and xii. are a pair of 
calciferous glands. The intestine seems to begin in segment xvi. 
and has a well-developed typhlosole, which, however, is not 
apparent for the first ten segments or so, though it may be possibly 
present earlier as a rudiment. 

The sperm-sacs are a single pair in xii. This, however, may be 
a question of immaturity. On the other hand, although I detected 
two pairs of funnels belonging to the sperm-ducts, I could only see 
the testes of segment xi., and the funnels of segment x. were 
distinctly smaller than the posterior pair. 

The spermiducal glands are very long and coiled. There appear 
to be no penial setae associated with them. 

The spermatliec(x are as usual in viii. and ix. The diverticula 
near to the external aperture are inconspicuous, but apparently 
tri- or quadrifid. 

Hah. Thana, Bombay (1500 ft. and 2500 ft. altitude). 

Remarlcs. — Though I do not propose, for the present at least, to 
create a new genus for this species, it differs in several points 
from any known member of the genus BenJiamia. It comes nearest 
perhaps to Benhamia inermis, with which it agrees in absence of 
penial setae and in the position of calciferous glands 



14* 



•2\2 ME. G. \. BO0LENGEII ON THB BBPTILBS AND [!Peb. 4, 

February 4, 1896. 
Dr. A. GrtJKTHEE, r.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the follomng report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of January : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of January were 54 in number. Of these 37 were acquired 
by presentation, 12 by purchase, and 5 were received on deposit. 
The total number of departures during the same period, by death 
and removals, was 85. 

The following acquisitions are of special interest : — 

(1) A young male Manatee from the Bio Purus, Amazons, 
purchased Jan. 4th. 

This animal was brought to Liverpool, from Para, by Capt. 
E. J. Collings of the S.S. ' Obidense,' of the Eed Cross Line. It 
appears, so far as I can teU from examination of the living animal, 
to belong to the Amazonian species distinguished by Natterer 
many years ago as Manatus inunguis, and upon which Dr. Clemens 
Hartlaub has published an excellent memoir '. 

The living Manatees previously received by the Society have 
been four in number, namely : — 

1. 2 5 purchased Aug. 6th, 1875, from Demerara. See P. Z. S. 

1875, p. 529. 

2. d , purchased March 2nd, 1889. See P. Z. S. 1889, p. 160. 

3. $ ad. 1 Presented by Sir Henry A. Blake, Oct. 19th, 1893. 

4. c? jr. J From Jamaica. See P. Z. S. 1893, p. 691. 

(2) Two young King Penguins {Aptenochites pennanti) in do\\Ti 
plumage, from the Macquarie Islands, south of New Zealand, 
brought home by Capt. C. S. Milward, of the S.S. 'Otarama,' 
and purchased Jan. 7th. 

Capt. Milward kindly informs us that he received these birds in 
New Zealand on Nov. 1st, 1895, and that they had been obtained 
in the Macquarie Islands about Oct. 15th, having been caught 
only a few days previously. It was stated generally in those 
islands that the King Penguins are hatched there at the latter 
end of December or beginning of January, so that these birds are 
probably about a year old and will shortly moult into their adult 
plumage. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Secoud Report on the Reptiles and Batrachiaus collected 
by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during his Expedition to 
Lake Rudolf. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

[Keceived January 7, 1896.] 

(Plates VII. & VIII.) 

The present list refers to the second and concluding portion of 

Dr. Donaldson Smith's collection. The first instalment, from 

^ " Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Manatus-Arten," Zool. Jahrb. i. p. 1 (1886). 



1896.] BATEACHIAIs'S COLLECTED BT DE. A. D. SlIITH. 213 

"Western Somaliland and the Galla Country, received in May last, 
was reported upon in 1895 (see P. Z. S. 1895, p. 530), but some 
specimens collected on the same route, and which I have only now 
received, are mentioned in this report. The names of species not 
included in the first list are marked with an asterisk. 

EEPTILES. 

Chelonians. 
1. Pelomedusa galeata, Schoepff. 
W. of Juba E., 23.3.95 ; 24.3.95. 

Lizards. 
*2. stenodacttlrs gtjttattjs, cuv. 

A single specimen from Lake Rudolf, 22.8.95. 

It belongs to the stouter form described as S. mauntanieiis, 
differing from Oran specimens merely in the somewhat smaller 
head. 

This species was only known from North Africa, from Algeria 
to Egypt, and North Arabia. 

3. Peisttjrus crucifee, Val. 

Berbera, 4.7.94 ; Boholgarshan, 13.7.94, 15.7.94. 

4. Hemidacttltjs isolepis, Blgr. 

A single male specimen. Lake Eudolf, 10.8.95. 
Differs from the one previously described in the presence of 
dark brown bars across the back. 

*5. Tarentola ephippiata, O'Sh. 

A single young specimen. Sheikh Husein, 14.10.94. 

6. Agama vaillanti, Blgr. 

A single young specimen. W. of Juba E., 7.3.95. 

*7. Agama smithii, sp. n. (Plate VII.) 

Head convex, slightly longer than broad. Nostril tubular, 
directed upwards and backwards, in the posterior part of the 
nasal, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales moderately 
large and smooth ; a slightly elongate scale on the snout ; occipital 
enlarged ; sides of head, near the ear, and neck with groups of 
spines, the longest of which measure two-thirds the diameter of 
the tympanum; latter entirely exposed, larger than the eye- 
opening. Throat much plicate ; no gular pouch. Body rather 
depressed ; dorsal scales large, imbricate, keeled, and strongly 
mucronate, the keels converging towards the vertebral line ; 
lateral scales smaller; 33 scales on the vertebral line between the 
origin of the fore linibs and the origin of the hind limbs ; a short 
nuchal crest ; no dorsal crest ; ventral scales small, smooth ; 58 
scales round the middle of the body. The adpressed hind limb 



214 ME. G. A. BOULENGER ON THE REPTILES AKD [Feb. 4, 

reaches the eye ; tibia longer than the skull ; third finger slightly 
longer than fourth ; fourth toe slightly longer than third. Tail 
rounded ; the scales as large as the dorsals and not verticillate. 
Pale olive-brown above, with traces of dark cross-bands ; white 
beneath, throat with dusky longitudinal streaks. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 110 Fore limb 60 

Head 25 Hind limb 90 

Width of head.... 23 Tibia 30 

A single female specimen, with part of the tail missing. 
Between ShebeH and Juba Elvers, 27.2.95. 

This species is intermediate between A. spinosa and A. rueppellii. 

8. Agama doei^, Blgr. 

W. of Juba E., 21.3.95 ; L. Stephanie, 16.6.95 ; L. Eudolf. 

*9. Agama lionottjs, sp. n. (Plate VIII.) 

Head rather strongly depressed, as long as broad. INostril 
tubular, directed upwards and backwards, in the posterior part of 
the nasal, on the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales moderately 
large, smooth ; two elongate scales on the middle of the snout ; 
occipital enlarged ; nine or ten upper labials ; sides of head, near 
the ear, and neck with groups of spines, the longest of which 
nearly equal the diameter of the tympanum ; latter entirely 
exposed, a little larger than the eye-opening. Throat much 
plicate ; no gular pouch. Body strongly depressed ; dorsal scales 
small, broader than long, rounded behind, very feebly and obtusely 
keeled, the keels converging towards the vertebral line ; 50 scales 
on the vertebral line between the origin of the fore limbs and the 
the origin of the hind limbs ; a small nuchal crest : no dorsal 
crest ; ventral scales small, smooth ; 65 scales round the middle of 
the body. The adpressed hind limb reaches the tympanum ; tibia 
slightly longer than the skull ; third finger a little longer than 
fourth; fourth toe a little longer thau third. Tail compressed 
and serrated above, with large, keeled, and mucronate scales 
forming annuli. Male with a row of anal pores. Dark olive 
above, lighter on the vertebral line ; some of the dorsal scales 
yellowish ; head yellow above, sides near the ear reddish, brick-red 
beneath ; belly and lower surface of limbs bluish grey. 

millim. millim. 

From snout to vent. 130 Fore limb 61 

Head 30 Hind limb 92 

Width of head .... 28 Tibia 32 

A single male specimen, with imperfect tail. S.E. of Lake 
Eudolf, ii.9.95. 

Most nearly allied to A. plcmiceps, but distinguished by the 
larger spines on the sides of the head and neck, and by the very 
feebly keeled dorsal scales. 



1896.] :BATEACHIANS COLLECTED BT nn. A. D. SMITH. 21.5 

10. Agama ATOfECTENS, Blanf. 
Webi Shebeli, 25.12.94. 

11. Agama ctanogastee, Etipp. 
Sheikh Husein, 11.10.94 ; 16.10.94. 

12. Vaeaxus ocellatus, Eiipp. 

Between L. Stephanie and L. Eudolf, 4.7.95. 

13. Latastia loxgicafbata, Reuss, 

Between Shebeli and Juba R., 28.2.95 ; W. of Juba E., 21. .3.95 ; 
Lake Stephanie, 11.6.95, 18.6.95. 

14. Eeemias sext,5:niata, Stejn. 

W. of Juba E., 19.3.25; Boran Country, 24.4.95. 

15. Eeemias MrcRONATA, Blanf. 
13.7.94. 

*16. Mabuia planifeons, Ptrs. 

A single specimen. W. of Juba R., 7.3.95. 

17. MABtTIA MEGALITEA, PtrS. 

A single specimen. L. Abeia, 22.5.95. 

*18. MaBXJIA QUINQUETiEKIATA, Licht. 

A single young specimen. Between L. Stephanie and L. Eudolf, 
4.7.95. 

19. Mabfia vaeia, Ptrs. 
Sheikh Husein, 16.9.94. 

20. Mabuia steiata, Ptrs. 
Milmil, 27.7.94. 

21. Ltgosoma stjndetallii, Smith. 

Sheikh Husein, 11.10.94; L. Stephanie, 18.6.95. 

*22. Ablepharus wahlbeegii. Smith. 
Smith Eiver, 12.9.94. 

23. Chalcides ocellattjs, Forsk. 
Sheikh Husein, 10.10.94. 

24. ChaMjELEon gracilis, Hallow. 

Sheikh Husein, 8.10.94, 10.10.94 ; Eurza, 12.9.94, 12.12.94. 

*25. Chameleon bit^niatus, Fisch, 
L. Abeia, 22.5.95, 



216 on the reptiles etc. collected by br. a. d. smith. [tel). 4, 

Snakes. 

*26. Ttphlops blanfordii, Blgr. 
A single specimen, without label. 

27. TypHLOps soMALiciTs, Blgr. 
Sheikh Husein, 8.10.94. 

*28. Eryx thebaictjs, Eeuss. 

Between Shebeli and Juba E., 16.2.95, 18.2.95; Lake Abeia, 
18.5.95; L. Stephanie, 2.6.95. 

*29. TROPrDONOTTJs oliyacetjs, Ptrs. 
L. Eudolf, 4.8.95. 

30. BooDON luteatus, D. & B. 

Sheikh Husein, 23.9.94; 4.10.94; 8.10.94; 19.10.94. 

*31. LxcoPHiDiUM CAPENSE, Smith. 

"W. of Juba E., 28.3.95. A single specimen, belonging to the 
category B of my catalogue. V. 190 ; C. 43. 

32. ZAMEias SMITHH, Blgr. 

W. of Juba E., 7.3.95. A single specimen, <^ , V. 171 ; tail 
injured. Pale buff, with brick-red spots ; the black bars of the 
temples extend across the parietal shields. 

*33. Philothamnus semivariegatus. Smith. 

Madu, 4.3.95. A single female specimen. V. 178 ; C. 131. 

34. Ehamphiophis oxyrhtkchtjs, Eeinh. 
Lake Eudolf, 6.8.95. 

35. Psammophis ptincttjlatus, D. & B. 

Lake Eudolf, 6.8.95. A large female specimen, 1660 millim. 
long, with 184 ventrals and 136 subcaudals. 

36. Psammophis biseriatus, Ptrs. 

San Kural, 6.1.95 ; W. of Juba R., 19.3.95. 

*37; DispHOLiDus ttpicus, Smith. 
Sheikh Husein, 8.10.94. 

*38. Aparallactus cokcolor, Pisch, 
Boran Coimtry, 24.4.95. A single specimen. 

*39. Naia nigricollis, Eeinh. 

Lake Stephanie, 1 1 .6.95 ; L. Eudolf, 24.7.95, 



p. z. s.isse.pi.vn. 




H GronvoIcL del etlitK. 



MirtterrT. Bros, iitip. 



AGAMA SMITHII. 



' .i^^S^r^' 



\^^, 



'^L Ht^-'^^' 



218 DR. A. GVNTHER OTf A COLLECTION OP [Feb. 4, 

whence I believe no specimens have been received previously. I 
distinguish the following eight species among them : — 

Polypterus bichir. 
Chromis nilotieus. 

tristrami. 

Synodontis schal. 
Citharinus geoffroii. 
Alestes rueppellii. 
Distichodus rudolphi, sp. nov. 
Barhus, sp. 

It is a noteworthy fact that five of these species belong to the 
fauna of the Nile, although tbey are by no means limited to that 
river, having been found in various other parts of Tropical Africa, 
Chromis tristrami (or Acerina zillii, Gerv.) has been described from 
fresh and saline waters of the oases of the Sahara ; and BisticJiodus 
rudolphi is closely allied to the Nilotic D. rostratus. The other 
species enumerated in the following list were obtained en route to 
Lake Eudolf or on the retui'n journey, in various localities which 
will be indicated under the head of the several species. 

1. PoLYPTEEtJS BiCHiB, GeofPr. 

Two young specimens from Lake Eudolf, both belonging to the 
variety with ten spines which also occurs in the Upper Nile and 
West Africa. 

2. Cheomis niloticus, Hasselq. 

Of this -widely distributed species, the Bolti of the Nile, three 
specimens were in the collection. 

a. One from Lake Abeia, 24 cm. long ; its scales are somewhat 
fewer iu number than in typical specimens, viz. 27 along the 
lateral line. D. ^. 

h. One from Lake Stephanie, 16 cm. long. The teeth of this 
specimen are equally small, as in the preceding specimen, but fewer 
in number, possibly owing to its younger age and less advanced 



growth of the jaws. D. 



15 
13* 



c. A young specimen from Lake Rudolf, 10 cm. long. D. 



15 

13' 



3. Chbomis tbistbami, Gthr. 

Specimens from Lake Eudolf cannot be distinguished from the 
types which were obtained in the oases of the Eastern Sahara. 
The teeth of this species are much broader and larger than those 
of the preceding species. 

a. A rather large specimen, but with the hinder part of the 
body decomposed, from Lake Eudolf (12.8.96). D. J-|. 

h. Another obtained in a dry watercourse, some 10 miles from 
Lake Eudolf (16.8.95), 15 cm. long. D. Ji. 



1896.] 



FISHES MADE BY DR. A. D. SMITH. 



219 



4. Chbomis spilueus, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 89. 

This species was discovered by Dr. Gregory in pools remaining 
in dried-up watercoui'ses of North Giriama. Dr. Donaldson Smith 
found this species (30.12.94) under similar conditions near the 
Shebeli Eiver, and (8.12.94) in water-holes near Sheikh Husein. 
All the specimens, those collected by Dr. Gregory as well as by 
Dr. D. Smith, are small, not exceeding 12 cm. in length. 

5. Clabias smithii, sp. n. 

Clarias lazera, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 89 (nee C. V.). 
D. 70-73. A. 58-62. V. 1/9. 

Vomerine teeth (Pig. 1) granular, forming a very broad band, 
nearly twice as broad as that of the intermaxillary teeth, with an 
obtuse, rounded projection behind in the middle of its concavity. 
Transversely the intermaxillary band is wider than the vomerine. 
The mandibulary dental band is as broad as the intermaxillary. 
Upper surface of the head with not very coarse granulations ; the 
length of the head is two sevenths of the total, without caudal. 
The maxillary barbel reaches beyond the root of the pectoral, the 
nasal barbel being not quite half its length. The pectoral fin 
extends to, or nearly to, the oi'igin of the dorsal, the spine being 
two thirds of the fin. Dorsal fin separated by a short interspace 
from the caudal. 

Pig. 1. 




Teeth of Clarias smithii. 

A single specimen, 45 centim. long, is in the collection, and was 
captured in the middle course of the Shebeli. The breadth of the 
intermaxillary band of teeth is 5 millim., that of t[)e vomerine 
8 millim. ; the transverse width of the former is 51, of the latter 
47 millim. A fish captured by Dr. Gregory at Ngatana, and 
enumerated by me under the name of Clarias lazera, is evidently 
of the same species. 

The African species of Clarias are extremely similar in general 
appearance and most difficult to define, chiefly on account of the 
uncertainty which attaches to almost all the taxonomic characters 
which have been used for distinguishing them. Some of the 
characters are certain to undergo considerable changes with age, 
for instance the vomerine teeth, which are not likely to be granular 
in very young specimens. The presence or absence of a posterior 
process of the vomerine band is a more reliable character, as is 



220 



DE. A. GtTNTHER ON A COLLECTION OF 



[Feb. 4, 



proved by the series of C. (/cmejnnus in the British Museum. 
Peters (Eeise n. Mossambique) was of a different opinion and has 
attempted to prove the variability of this character, but, in my 
view, he has confounded two or even more species under the name 
of C. mossamhicus. 

Two small specimens of Clarias collected on the Shebeli E.. 
(1 Febr., 1895) are not in sufficiently good condition to be deter- 
mined. The form of the vomerine band is very different from 
that of the fish described as C. smithii. A collection of a large 
series of specimens of all ages of any species of Clarias from the 
same locality is veiy much needed ; but until this is done, it seems 
to be safer to utilize all characters observable in apparently mature 
or nearly mature specimens. 

6. EuTROPius DEPRESsiEOSTRis, Ptrs. — Shebeli E. 

7. SVNODONTIS GELEDENSIS, sp. n. 

Allied to S. serratus ^. 

General form of the body somewhat elongate ; snout rather pro- 
duced, subconical ; diameter of the orbit two sevenths of the length 

Eig.2, 




Synodontis geledensis. 

of the snout. The gill-opening extends downward to before the 
root of the pectoral fin. Mandibulary teeth in moderate number, 

^ I must again draw attention to an unfortunate clerical error in Cat. Fish. 
T. p. 212, where the line " B. Mandibulary teeth not longer than the eye," 
ought to have been placed above " Synodontis seiraius." ■ ■ 



1896.] 



FISHES MADE BY DR. A. D. SMITH. 



221 



shorter than the eye, in a very narrow band. The maxillary barbels 
reach to the end of the humeral spine and are lined with a narrow 
membrane interiorly. Mandibulary barbels reaching to the root 
of the pectoral, provided with numerous long fringes. Nuchal 
carapace tectiform, obtusely rounded behind, its end reaching to 
below the first soft dorsal ray. Humeral spine not quite extending 
so far backward, much longer than high, with its upper margin 
deeply excised, terminating in a sharp point. 

Adipose fin rather long, the interspace between it and the 
dorsal being less than the base of the latter. Dorsal spine ser- 
rated anteriorly, shorter than the pectoral spine, which is strongly 
serrated along both edges and equal to the distance of the foremost 
part of the soft part of the trunk from the snout. Dorsal and 
pectoral spines and the caudal lobes produced into filaments. 
Coloration uniform. 

D. 1/7. A. 11. P. 1/9. 

A single specimen, 30 cm. long, was obtained on Jan. 19, 1895, 
at Geledi on the Shebeli. 

This fish is closely allied to S. serratus, but sufficiently distin- 
guished by the different form and outUneof the cephalic carapace. 

8. Stivodontis schal, B1. Schn. 

As the specimen in the collection differs in some respects from 
the typical form, I give a description of it. 

Eig. 3. 











Synodontis schal. 



D. 1/7. A. 12. P. 1/9. 

liather stout in general habit ; snout comparatively broad ; 
diameter of the orbit two fifths of the length of the snout, and of 



222 1)B. A. GtJNTliBE ON A COLLECTION OF [Feb. 4, 

the width of the interorbital space. The gill-opening extends 
downward to before the root of the pectoral fin. Mandibulary 
teeth in a very narrow and short row, less than 20 in number, 
shorter than the eye. The maxillary barbels do not reach the end 
of the humeral spine and are simple ; mandibulary barbels reaching 
to the root of the pectorals, sparsely provided with fringes. 
Xuchal carapace tectiform, compressed into a median ridge, rather 
pointed behind, its end reaching to below the first soft dorsal ray. 
Humeral spine reaching equally far backward, much longer than 
high, with its upper margin oblique and nearly straight, termi- 
nating in a sharp point. Skin of the side of the body villous. 

Adipose fin moderately long, the interspace between it and the 
dorsal b^^ing less than the base of the latter. Dorsal spine short, 
with a sharp anterior edge wiiich shows scarcely a trace of serra- 
ture about the middle of its length, and is probably quite smooth 
in older e.xamples ; this spine is shorter than the pectoral spine, 
which is serrated along both edges and shorter than the distance 
of the foremost part of the soft part of the trunk from the snout. 
Coloration uniform. 

A single specimen, 21 cm. long, was obtained in Lake Stephanie 
on June 11, 1895. 

9. Stkodontis smithii, sp. n. (Plate IX.) 
D. 1/7. A. 13. P. 1/9. 

Rather stout in general habit ; snout comparatively broad, not 
much attenuated in front ; diameter of the orbit one half of the 
length of the snout, and of the width of the interorbital space. 
The gill-opening extends downward to before the root of the pec- 
toral fin. Mandibulary teeth in a nai-row, short series, about 2.5 
in number, shorter than the eye. The maxillai-y barbels do not 
reach the end of the humeral spine and are simple ; mandibulary 
barbels reaching to the root of the pectorals, provided with long 
fringes. Nuchal carapace tectiforra, compressed into a median 
ridge, rather pointed behind, its end reaching to below the first 
soft dorsal ray. Humeral spine reaching equally far, or even a 
little farther backward, much longer than high, Avith its upper 
margin oblique, but straight, terminating in a sharp point. Skin 
of the side of the body villous, particularly along the lateral 
line. 

Adipose fin moderately long, the interspace between it and the 
dorsal being less than the base of the latter. Dorsal spine with a 
sharp, non-serrated autei'ior edge, equal in length to the pectoral 
spine, which is strongly serrated along both edges, the inner serra- 
ture being coarser than the outer. The length of these spines 
exceeds somewhat the distance of the foremost part of the soft 
part of the trunk from the snout. Coloration uniform. 

A single specimen, 24 cm. long, was obtained. 

This species is allied to S. schal, but distinguished by its 
enormously long spines. 




r 






^l*^. 






H 

o 

Q 
O 

z 

CD 



ID 

s 






:Z^ 




^1 



^fe:Hgr' 



1896.] tiSHES MADE BY DR. A. D. SMITH. 223 

10. Stnodoktis puifCTULATUs, Giiath. P. Z. 8. 1889, p. 71, 
pi. viii, fig. A. 

A specimen brought from the Webi Shebeli differs somewhat 
from the types which were collected on Kilima-njaro. Not only 
is the upper surface of the head granular, not covered by thin sl<in 
as in the types, but also the dorsal fins are more approximated. 

11. CiTHAKINtJS GEOPFBOII, CuV. 

This species extends from the Lower Nile to the Gambia and 
Niger. 

Two very young specimens from Lake Eudolf. 

12. Alestes EijppELLii, Gthr. 

Hitherto known from the Upper Nile. 

One very young specimen from Lake Eudolf. 

13. Alestes affinis, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 90. 

Discovered by Dr. Gregory in the Tana Eiver. 
Dr. Donaldson Smith brought home three specimens up to 
15"5 cm. in length. 

a, h. From the Dawa River (25 & 28.2.95). 
c. Prom the Shebeli Eiver (30.8.94). 

14. DiSTICHODUS BUDOLPHI, sp. n. 

D. 21-22. A. 14. L. lat. 100-108. L. trans v. 18/24. 

The height of the body is contained 3j times in the total length 
(without caudal), the length of the head thrice or 3^ times. Snout 
rather pointed. Twenty-four teeth in the lower jaw. Silvery, 
greenish on the back, with nine blackish cross-bars and a large 
black praecaudal spot. 

The two specimens being very young, only 54 millim. long, it 
would not be safe to inti'oduce more characters into the diagnosis 
of this species. They were obtained from Lake Eudolf. 

15. Labeo GEEGOEii, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 90. 

Discovered by Dr. Gregory in the Tana Eiver. 

Dr. Donaldson Smith brought from the Guaso Nyiro a dried 
specimen, 22 cm. long, which seems to belong to this species. 
Unfortunately, the form of the mouth is destroyed, owing to the 
mode of preservation. 

16. Baebus BTNTsri, Forsk. 

A large specimen of this common Nilotic species, from the 
Shebeli Eiver. 

Two very young specimens, 10 cm. long, from a stony brook 
i-unning into the Erer E. (17 & 18.8.94), are probably the same 
species. 



224 OS THE BEETLES OP TSE GETfUS CAliLlGBAPHA. [Feb. 4, 

17- Baebus, sp. 

A very young specimen, 5 cm. long, from Lake Eudolf, cannot 
be specifically determined. 

18. MoUilTEUS ZAMBAjS'ENJE, Ptrs. 

In a specimen from Geledi on the Webi Shebeli (19.1.95) the 
dorsal fin is a little more than half as long as the anal. D. 21. 
A. 41. 



3. Remarks on the System of Coloration and Punctuation in 
the Beetles of the Genus Calligrapha. By Martin 
Jacoby, F.E.S. 

[Received January 2, 1896.] 

The paper which I have the honour to lay before the Society 
gives a short account of a somewhat exceptional feature in the 
Coleoptera, which occurs amongst the Chrysomelidse in the genus 
Calligrapha, but in no other families of Coleoptera to my know- 
ledge. This genus has its metropolis in Central America, and is 
represented by numerous prettily marked species, all mpre or less 
closely allied. In these insects, the ground-colour of the elytra 
is always pale yellow, but often assumes a golden hue when the 
insect is alive : this yelloM* ground-colour is marked with metallic 
brown or blue, sometimes violet spots, and stripes, but in many 
species this colour (if it can be so called)is I'eplaced by reddish-fulvous 
or brown, not of a metallic hue. The elytra of most Coleoptera 
are impressed with more or less deep punctures, either arranged 
in longitudinal rows or irregularly distributed, and even when the 
elytra are pubescent the punctures will be seen when the hairs 
are removed. In no other insects of this order do the punctures 
seem to be dependent on the coloration or pattern of the elytra, 
or vice versa, but both go their own w-ay ; but in the case of the 
genus Calligrapha the interesting observation may be made that 
nearly all stripes or spots, no matter how few or many or what may 
be their shape, are bounded or surrounded at their margins by a row 
of deep punctures, deeper than those of the ground-colour, beyond 
which the colour does not extend. This is very remarkable, since 
I know of no instance in which punctures assume a circle in other 
species, much less that circular and longitudinal rows of punctures 
are found in the same individual according to the design as is the 
case in Calligrapha. The question which strikes one now is, how 
could this coloration influence a deep punctuation or the latter the 
colouring of the insect : a few instances are found in which some 
of the spots or bands are free from punctures at their lower portion, 
but their outlines are just as well defined as those which have the 
punctures complete. According to Burmeister, the punctures of 
the elytra are formed by the interruption of the chitinous matter, 
causing small pits or punctm-es to be formed, but the regularity 



1896.] OK THE OBLIQUE SEPTA IN" THE PASSERINES. 225 

with which this takes place seems wonderful and to me somewhat 
analogous to crystallization in inorganic matter. If the elytra are 
examined from their upper surface, the difference between the 
larger punctures surrounding the spots and those of the ground- 
colour is very marked, the latter being irregiilarly and the others 
regularly placed ; but if the elytra are removed and examined from 
the inner side, a thin layer of skin covers the entire surface, but 
the punctures shine through it and seem of nearly equal size and 
much more numerous. I may further mention, that all the spots 
or bands on the upper surface seem slightly convex and show 
rarely any punctures except round their margins. These are all 
the observations I am able to record ; and I must leave to anatomists 
to form any conclusions, if such are possible, as to the way in 
which nature has worked here, and whether we could obtain any 
clue by examining the insect in its native place, when immatiu'e 
and in process of formation, so as to get some idea how colour, so 
distinct from punctuation, can influence the latter or the reverse, 
when this is apparently the case in so exceptional an instance as 
the present. The subject itself is not new, having been noticed 
by Chapuis and myself some years ago, but I think it well to draw 
attention to it again, so that more observations may be made, if 
possible. 

4. On the Oblique Septa (" Diaphragm " of Owen) in the 
Passerines and in some other Birds. By Frank E. 
Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society, 
Examiner in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy to the 
University of London. 

[Eeceived December 16, 1895.] 

The facts which I bring before the Society have been accumu- 
lating in my notebook for the last few years, and even now there 
are numbers of types of Passerine birds which I have not had, and 
may never have, the opportunity of examining. Less emphasis, 
therefore, must be laid upon such classificatory conclusions as 
I venture to bring forward, than upon the actual facts which I 
record. There are a certain number of desirable Passerine genera 
represented in the rich spirit stores of the Prosector's department, 
but not referred to in the present paper ; I have thought it unwise 
to make any use of them, since fresh material is so essential for the 
proper study of delicate and transparent membranes. 

The greater part of the present communication deals with the 
divergent structure of what Prof. Huxley ' has termed the " oblique 
septum" in Passerine birds. I may therefore conveniently 
commence with a description of the normal arrangement of 
this structure, as it is seen for example in the Duck. And I 
avail myself of Prof. Huxley's own words ^ :— " The second so- 

^ " On the Eespiratory Organs of Apteryx" P. Z. S. 1882. 
^ Loc. cit. p. 561. 

Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XV. 15 



226 MB, F. -E. BBDDAUD ON IHE [Feb. 4, 

called * diaphragm ' (' diaphragme thoraco-abdominal,' Sappey ; 
' diaphragmite thoraco-abdominal,' Milne-Edwards) is a more 
or less aponeurotic fibrous membrane, continuous with the 
ventral edge of the median dorsal septum and suspended by it, 
like the roof of a tent, across the thoraco-abdominal cavity. In 
the middle line, this oblique septum slopes downward and forward 
to the dorsal and anterior face of the pericardium, with which its 
fibres become firmly connected on their way to their attachment 
to the sternum. Trom the median Hne, the two halves of the 
oblique septum slope laterally and ventrally until they attach 
themselves to the parietes of the abdomen behind, to those of the 
thorax more anteriorly, and to the margins of the sternum in 
front." 

In fact, if we make a transverse section through a Duck or most 
other birds at the level of about the middle of the sternum, the 
appearances will be such as are diagrammatically represented in 
the accompanying drawing (fig. 1, p. 227). Four membranes are 
there visible — the intestines being left out of consideration for the 
purposes of simplification, and as not germane to the structures 
at present under discussion. The first of these is the falciform 
ligament, which divides the lobes of the liver and is attached below 
to the middle Une of the sternum. Then there are the oblique 
septum {O.S.), attached below to the sternum laterally, and above 
to the parietes ; and finally the horizontal septum (A.S.), which 
floors the two cavities containing the liver-lobes. 

This arrangement, however, does not hold good for a number of 
Passerine bu'ds; and it is possible — though I am not yet in a 
position to make a definite statement about the matter — that the 
arrangement which I am about to describe as characteristic of 
many Passerines will be found to be distinctive of the group. 
I commence with a somewhat detaUed description of the oblique 
septa of a Crow ( Corvus capellanus) (see fig. 2, p. 227). As I have 
dissected three examples of this bird, the following description 
will probably be found to be free from any record of abnormal 
conditions. 

The right lobe of the liver is considerably larger than the left, 
and extends some way beyond the margin of the sternum, in fact 
about as far as to the end of the posterior intermediate air-sac. It 
is separated from the Hver-lobe of the left side as usual by a 
vertically directed septum, the umbilical or falciform ligament ; 
this falciform ligament is attached to the ventral parietes for a 
distance of about an inch — from the posterior end of the sternum 
to a point rather in front of that which corresponds to the 
posterior margin of the Uver. Anterior to the posterior edge of the 
sternum, the falciform ligament is 7iot attached to that bone ; it 
becomes fused with the two oblique septa, forming a roof over the liver^ 
lobes in this region, luhich is separated by a wide interval from the 
internal surface of the sternum. 

The oblique septa are closely attached for a considerable distance 
to the liver-lobes, the adhesion being certainly not pathological. 



1896.] 



OBLIQUE SEPTA IS THE PASSEKIKES. 



227 



Fig. 1. 




Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a Duck. 

L., L., lungs; L.L., B.L., left and right Uver-lobes ; O.S., oblique septum ; 
A.S., horizontal septum. 



Fig. 2. 




Diagrammatic transverse section through the thorax of a Crow 
(Corvus eapellanits). 

a, rudiments of sternal attachment of oblique septum. The other 
lettering as in fig. 1. 



15* 



«;g28 MB. r. E. BEDDARD ON THSi [Feb. 4, 

At the posterior margin of the sternum the two oblique septa bend 
inward, and join each other in the middle, becoming here, as 
already mentioned, fused also with the umbilical ligament; 
anteriorly this roof formed by the oblique septa becomes 
continuous with the pericardium. The horizontally disposed 
roofing membrane formed by the union across the middle line of 
the two umbilical ligaments is, however, attached to the sternum on 
both sides for a short space by a membrane, somewhat slight and 
fenestrated (fig. 2, a, p. 227), which arises from the oblique septum 
just where it is bent over to assume a horizontal direction. 

The floor of the hepatic cavity of the right side, whose roof and 
sides are formed of body-wall, obhque septum, and falciform 
ligament, is a transparent membrane, anteriorly closely attached 
to the liver ; posteriorly it covers over body-cavity, being attached 
to oblique septum and to ventral parietes ; on the left side of the 
body it is continuous with the floor of the left hepatic cavity, 
which has corresponding attachments to the obhque septum and 
parietes of its own side : it splits so as to surround the gizzard. It 
is the " horizontal septum," " pseud-epiploon," or " so-called 
omentum." It follows, therefore, that each liver-lobe in Corvus 
capellanus is contained in a separate cavity, the two being divided 
by the umbiHcal ligament ; each of these cavities is considerably 
larger than theliver-mass which it encloses, extending back nearly as 
far as to the cloaca. It is, however, to the relationship between the 
oblique septa and the falciform ligament that I desire particularly 
to call attention in the above description. I find that this peculiar 
arrangement of the oblique septa and the falciform ligament is not 
only characteristic of Corvus capellanus, but also of other Crows 
and of other Passerines. The Eaven and the Alpine Chough agree 
absolutely with Corvus capellanus ; so too Urocissa magnirostris, 
Paradisea minor, Pastor roseus, Starling, Gracula intermedia, 
Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, Vidua paradisea, Spanish Blue Magpie, 
Hyphantornis texta, Leucodioptroyi canorum, Sturnella ludoviciana, 
Sialia wilsoni, Turdus merula, Pitangus sulphuratus, Furnarius sp., 
Tanagra striata, Cardinalis virginianu^, Fringilla teydea, and a few 
others. In a specimen of the Rook (see fig. 3, p. 229) there is a 
slight difference, the oblique septa being split into two layers, 
one having the normal attachment, the other the Passerine. 

In Struthidea cinerea, again, I observed a slight difference in 
the arrangement of these various septa coupled with a general 
agreement. The point of difference was that, in the specimen of 
this bird which I dissected there was on each side a thin 
transparent partition arising from the falciform ligament and 
attached to the oblique septum of its side. This membranous 
partition did not, as it perhaps might have been expected to do, 
shut off the liver from .the posterior portion of the abdominal 
cavity ; it arched over the liver with a semicircular free edge, one 
half of the Uver being in front of it, the other behind. 

Leaving aside the characteristics of Struthidea for a moment, I 
desire to direct attention to the general feature of such Passerines 



1896.] 



OBLIQUE SEPTA IIT THE PASSEEINES. 



229 



as I have examined — both Acromyodian and Mesomyodian it should 
be observed — to the peculiarity which they show in the arrange- 
ment of the oblique septa. Another distinctive feature of Passerine 
anatomy is quite desirable. So far as we know at pi-esent, there 
is positively only one character which is absolutely distinctive of 
Passerine birds. That is, in the condition of the tendon of the 
patagialis hrevis muscle as it was described some years since by 
the late Prof. Garrod '. Though it is perhaps easy enough to 
define the Passeres by a combination of characters, none of these 
characters are everywhere present. It is therefore of more import- 
ance than in some easily definable groups to add to this single 
character only wanting in the Pseudoscines (Menura and Atrichia) 
another which future research may possibly show to be more 
universal, and which is at any rate found in several genera widely 
separated from each other. 



Kg. 3. 




~>^ 



Abdominal and thoracic viscera of Eook displayed by removal of 
abdominal muscles. 

St., stomach; L., liver; O.S., oblique septa. Tbe lobes of the liver are covered 
by a membrane continuous with the dorsal part of the oblique septa. 

This anatomical feature may therefore have a considerable 
systematic interest. Apart, however, from this, which requires 
still further proof, the conditions which obtain in the Passerine 
bird remind one in some degree of the Crocodile. The liver-lobes 

^ Coll. Papers, p. 356, 



230 ON THE OBLIQTTB SEPTA IN THE PASSERINES. [Feb. 4, 

of that reptile are invested by a closely adherent membrane, which 
has been thus described by Prof. Huxley ' : — " A fibrous expansion 
extends from the vertebral column over the anterior face of the 
stomach, the liver, and the dorsal and front aspect of the 
pericardium, to the sternum and the parietes of the thorax, 
separating the thoraco-abdominal space into a respiratory and a 
cardio-abdominal cavity, and representing the oblique septum of 
the bird." Both I ' and Mr. G. W. Butler ' have included in the 
comparison which Prof. Huxley thus made the omentum of the 
bird. But this does not interfere with the special likeness which 
the Passerine shows to the Crocodile, in that the representative of 
the oblique septum of other birds has not (as a rule) a ventral 
attachment on each side to the sternum, but that it forms a 
closely investing sheath to the liver-lobes ; but it is very doubtful 
whether this resemblance is more than a superficial one. It is 
agreed on all hands that the Passeres are a much, if not the most, 
specialized group of birds, standing on the very topmost branch of 
the avian tree. Among them, therefore, the retention of archaic 
characters, though possible, would not be so likely as among some 
other groups. Besides, the arrangement of the oblique septa in 
them seems to be a secondary affair on account of the fact that the 
original (?) position of the attachment of those septa is indicated 
by rudiments varying in degree of the portion of the septa which 
was fonnerly inserted laterally and ventrally on to the sternum, 
and the Book has these membranes complete. This may be in the 
form of a much-fenestrated membrane, or there may be but a single 
tag on each side near to the posterior margin of the sternum, or, as 
in an example of Prosthemadera novce-zealandice, the attachment 
may have been completely retained on one side. I should be dis- 
posed, therefore, in spite of certain undeniable likenesses which 
the Passerines show to the Crocodilia, to regard the relations of 
the oblique septa in them as a modification of the more prevalent 
disposition of those parts. 

In describing the septa of the somewhat aberrant Australian 
Struihidea, I called attention to the fact that the liver-lobes were 
partly shut off from the subomental space by membranous 
partitions. The exact w ay in which these partitions are related to 
the liver-lobes is, so fnr as my experience goes, unique among birds. 
But there are other birds in which an arrangement of the same kind 
exists ; but with certain differences. 

In several bu'ds, for instance in Chrysotis gtiildingi, the left liver- 
lobe is completely shut off from the subomental space by a vertical 
transverse partition ; there is no corresponding partition on the 
opposite side of the body. There are some birds in which, as in 
Struthidea, there are partitions on both sides ; but in them the 
partitions are quite complete and entirely shut off the liver-lobes 
from the subomental space, not merely partially as in Struthidea. 

* Loc. cit. p. 568. 

2 " On the Respiratory Organs in certain Diving Birds," P. Z. S. 1888, p. 256. 

» " On the SubdiviBion of the Body-cavity in Lizards &c.," P. Z. S. 1889, p. 453. 



1896.] MB. r. TS. BEDDABD OX BISSUTIA T5PISCOPCS. 231 

This state of affairs I have found in certain Hornbills and in many 
Owls. At present I have not surveyed the principal groups 
of birds from this point of view ; but some years since I described 
the same thing in a Penguin. Apart from this latter instance, 
which I hope to have the opportunity of re-examining, it is 
interesting to find a likeness between the Passeres and the Picarian 
birds, and between both and the Owls. 

As to the homologies of this structure outside the Class 
Aves, I am inclined to liken it to what Mr. Gr. W. Butler 
has termed the " post-hepatic septum " in the Teiidae. This 
structure, with which I am perfectly familiar from my own 
dissections, is a transverse septum which is attached to the ventral 
parietes, and nearly completely shuts off the liver-lobes from the 
rest of the abdominal cavity. In the Iguanidae (Iguana, Metojioceros, 
Phrynosoma) there is apparently a trace of this post-hepatic 
septum in the shape of a membrane of limited extent which arises 
from the end of the right lobe of the liver, and is attached to the 
lateral parietes, forming thus a pocket shutting off the lung 
of that side of the body. In the Crocodile the membrane 
covering the liver, which represents a portion of the oblique septa, 
is reflected below the liver and separates it from the adjacent 
stomach ; this is probably to be also looked upon as a repre- 
sentative of the structures mentioned. 

5. A Note upon Dissura episcopus, with Remarks upon the 
Classification of the Herodiones. By Frank E. 
Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society, 
Examiner in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy to 
the University of London. 

[Received January 13, 1896.] 

As is well known, one of the main points of difference between 
the Ciconiidse and the Ardeidee is that the former possess the 
ambiens muscle, while the latter do not. But the late Prof. Garrod 
pointed out to this Society ' some years since that this general rule 
is not without exceptions ; for in Xenorhynchus senegalensis and 
Abdimia sphenorJiyncha he discovered that the muscle so typical of 
the Storks was absent. Another point of difference between the 
Storks and the Herons is in the structure of the syrinx ; in the 
Storks this modified region of the windpipe curiously resembles 
the syrinx of the tracheophone Passeres, while the Herons have a 
perfectly typical tracheo-bronchial syrinx. I found myself some 
years ago^ that Xenorhynchus senegalensis, and more especially 
Abdimia sphenorhyncha, offered some points of likeness to the 
Herons in the structure of their syringes, which appeared to me 
to have some significance when correlated with the muscular 
peculiarity already referred to. In Abdimia (cf. fig. 2, p. 233), 

^ "Note on an Anatomical Peculiarity in certain Storks," P. Z. S. 1877, p. 711. 
8 "On the Syrinx in certain Storks,""P. Z. .«. 1886, p. 321. 



232 MR. F. E. BEDDAED OK DISSXJEA EPISCOPUS. [Teb. 4, 

contrary to what we find in typical Storks {cf. fig. 3, p. 234), the 
membrana tympaniformis is well developed and the bronchidesmus 
is incomplete. This Stork, however, agrees with other Storks in 
the absence of intrinsic syringeal muscles and in the modification 
of a large number of the last tracheal rings. In looking through 
the MS. notes left by the late Prof. Garrod, with a view to a 
forthcoming work upon the Anatomy of Birds, upon which I am at 
present engaged, I find that the two Storks above mentioned are 
not the only ones in which the ambiens muscle is absent. A third 
species, viz. Dissura ejnscojms, is precisely in the same condition. 
This bird is often spoken of as Ciconia episcopus; but it seems to 
me that the anatomical peculiarity referred to justifies its generic 




Syrinx of Bissura episcopus. 

separation — just as Prof. Garrod thought of the species of Xeno- 
rhynclms which showed the same absence of so characteristic a 
Ciconiine muscle. 

The discovery of this note reminded me that 1 had preserved at 
the time of its death the syrinx of a specimen of Dissura episcopus. 
On examining this syrinx, I found that it presented quite the same 
anomaly of structure (from the Ciconiine point of view) as does 
Ahdimia. It is very interesting to find here also — correlated with 
the deficient ambiens — a syrinx that approaches the Ardeine in its 
characters. In Dissura, however, the bronchidesmus is complete 
as in the typical Storks ; but the membrana tympaniformis, as 
may be seen from the drawing exhibited (see fig. 1), is well 
developed, quite as well as in Ahdimia (see fig. 2, p. 233). I need 
not trouble the Society with a detailed description of the syrinx of 
the bird, since the accurate drawing shows all its features of interest. 
It may be generally pointed out that the terminal rings of the 
trachea are Stork-like as in Ahdimia, and that there are no intrinsic 
muscles ; but that the membrana tympaniformis is Ardeine, with a 
well-developed pessulus. This is, in my opinion, an additional 
reason for placing this species of Stork in a genus distinct from 



1896.] MB. r. E. BEDDABD OS DISSUBA EPISCOPXJS. 233 

Ciconia ; and it may be possible to regard it as congeneric with 
Abdimia, remembering that both are Africaji in range. In any 
case we have here a distinct relation between structure and 
geographical distribution. 

The Storks and Herons are contrasted by other structures than 
those to which reference has already been made in the present 
communication. I desire now to call the attention of the Society 
to certain structures which have not hitherto been used in this 
connection, and which indeed have been but little made use of in 
the systematic arrangement of birds. These characters are drawn 

Fig. 2. 




Syrinx of Abdimia sphenorhyncha, 

from the number and position o£ the muscles of the lungs, those 
muscles which usually arise from the ribs and expand over the 
pulmonary aponeurosis. To the complete set of these muscles 
the term " diaphragm " has been applied. But at the present 
moment I am not concerned with their general morphology, but 
with their use in detailed classification. 

It has been stated by Prof. Weldon * that in the Storks " the 
pulmonary aponeurosis is not muscular." So far as my experience 
enables me to say, that statement is nearly but not absolutely 
true. 

In a specimen of Ciconia alba I found a single muscle on each 
side of the body arising from the most anterior of the ribs bordering 
upon the lung, and lying just in front of the anterior intermediate 
air-sae. The rest of the pulmonary aponeurosis was perfectly free 
from muscles. On the other hand, the Herons are well provided 

' " On some Points in the Anatomy of Phcenicopterus," P. Z. S. 1883, p, 64Q, 



234 M». F. B. BEDDAED ON DTSSFRA EPISCOPUS. [Feb. 4, 

with special lung-muscles, as can be seen in dissections of Nycti- 
corax and Cancroma. In the former bird there are four pairs 
of muscles arising from the rib, each individual muscle, of course, 
from a single rib. But in addition to these, two muscles arise on 
each side from the bronchus just where it enters the lung-substance 
and fan out over the aponeurosis; they both spring from the 
posterior surface of the bronchus and diverge slightly from each 
other to their insertion. 

rig. 3. 



Diagram of the syrinx of LeptoptUus (see p. 232). 

The origin of these muscles from the bronchus is interesting in 
view of a very similar relationship of lung-muscles to bronchi 
which I described some years ago in the Condor' ; but in the 
latter bird the muscles are attached at the distal end to the parietes 
and not to the lung-surface, though, as in Nycticorax, they arise 
from the bronchi. 

In Cancroma five pairs of ribs border the area occupied by the 
lungs. From the last four of these arise slender slips of muscle 
which passing forward end upon the pulmonary aponeurosis The 
bronchi in this Heron have not the broncho-pulmonary muscles of 
Nycticorax. It seems, therefore, that we have here a character 
which serves to distinguish the Ardeid® from the Ciconiidae. 

The Syrinx of the Ardeidte. — Though the syringes of such of the 
Ardeidae as I have been able to examine differ but little among 
themselves, it may be useful to give a short account of what I have 
ascertained, since but little, so far as I am aware, has been published 
on the matter. 

» " Notes on the Anatomy of the Condor," P. Z. S.. 1890, p. 146, woodcut 
%.3. ' 



1896.] 



ME. E. LYDEKKEE ON THE SEA-OTTEE. 



235 



Nycticorax griseus may serve as a typical Heron upon which to 
hang the description of such sUght divergences from the normal 
as exist. Reckoning as the last tracheal ring that from which the 
pessulus arises in front, the intrinsic muscles, which are narrow 
and do not fan out much, are attached to the third bronchial 
semiring ; on the posterior aspect of the syrinx the last tracheal 
ring is incomplete, the pessulns being attached to the one in front. 
The ^\•idest bronchial semirings (seen laterally) are the third and 
fourth ; they are also the last ossified ones. I can detect no differ- 
ence in Ardea cinerea, A. cocoi, A. agami, A. candidissima, Nycti- 
corax violciceus, and Tigrisoma hrasiliense. In Ardea ludoviciana 
each muscle is much fanned out and almost divided into two 
muscles, of which one is inserted near to hinder border of rings. 



6. -Additional Note on the Sea-Otter, 
By R, LydekkeRj F.R,S. 

[Received January 10, 1896.] 

In reference to my note on the Sea-Otter {Latax lutris), published 
in the Society's Proceedings for 1895 (p. 421), I have received 
another communication from my correspondent Mr. H. J. Snow, 
of Yokohama. He therein tells me that I have misunderstood the 



1 










* 


.did 






m.' ■ 




' ''/t 


4 


1 




■1 


^K ' 




■ 


1 




H 


^^Bh&'I'' -r. 


fll^ 


1 






1 


B 


k. 'M 


'jjj 


1 




mm^:. 


H 


pP''^"' 


d^t 




w 






^ ■ 



Sea-Otter in walking posture. 



meaning of his statement that "the hind flippers are doubled 
back." In interpreting this as meaning that they were bent 



236 DE. ST. GEOBGE MIVAET ON THE [Feb. 4, 

back like those of a Seal, I found great difficulty, from the confor- 
mation of the skeleton, in comprehending how this could be 
eifected. Mr. Snow writes me that "the hiud flippers, when 
the Otter is travelling on shore, are brought under the body, but 
doubled up backwards, somewhat after the manner of the rough 
sketch enclosed, which, I may mention, has been drawn by a friend 
— who never has seen a Sea-Otter — from my description. This 
sketch [which forms the basis of the figure, p. 235] fairly repre- 
sents the animal, but the hind quarters are not quite correct. 

" The human hand will serve as a good illustration of the hind 
flippers of the Otter, the under part of the flipper corresponding 
to the palm of the hand. Imagine a hand, the fingers united by a 
thin web, the whole surface on both sides, with the exception of 
five small, black, naked spots on the balls of the finger, covered 
with hair. The Otter apparently has little or no muscular power 
in the finger part of its flippers, and when attempting to walk, or 
rather jump, along on shore, this part is doubled under the portion 
corresponding to the knuckles of the hand." 



7. On the Hyoid Bones of Nestor meridionalis and Nanodes 
discolor. By St. George Mivart, M.D., F.R.S. 

[ReceiveclJanuary 15, 1896.] 

In a paper read ^ before the Zoological Society on March 5th 
last, I described the structure of the hyoids of certain Lories, and 
compared them v\ ith that of Psittacus eriihacus and that of Striiicjojjs 
habroptilus. 

Therein I called attention to the processes which I named 
parahyal processes, and which, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, seem peculiar to the Psittaci. I pointed out that the 
three genera of Lories described and figured, namely, Eos, Lorius, 
and Triclio(jlossus, diifered from other Parrots in having these 
parahyal processes much prolonged and distally united, each pair 
forming a singularly delicate osseous structure which 1 termed the 
■parahyal arch. 

Subsequently, when considering the form of the tongue, I 
thought it would be very interesting to ascertain whether the two 
genera, the prolonged lingual papilla? of which have a certain 
resemblance to those of the LoRiin^, did, or did not, also possess 
a parahyal arch. 

This question, through the kindness of Mr. F. E. Beddard, 
r.li.S., I have lately been able to determine by examining the 
hyoid structure of Nestor meridionalis and Nanodes discolor. 

In the hyoid of Nestor, the hasihyal (6, fig. 1, p. 237) is long and 
narrow, much as in the genera of Loeiid.e before described. The 
upper end of its auterior articular surface does not project so much 
preaxiad as does its ventral lip. The latter is narrow and pointed, 

' See P.Z. S. 1895, pp. Ifi2-174, figs. 1 to 6. 



1896.] 



HTOID BONES OF NESTOB AND NAKODES. 



237 



while the former is laterally expanded and bears dorsally a cup-like 
depression (c). The hinder half of the basihyal bears dorsally a 
rounded antero-posteriorly extending ridge. The pai-ahyal pro- 
cesses arise much as they do in the Lories previously described, but 
are exceedingly slender and meet together at a symphysis which 
is situated about midway between the anterior and posterior 
extremities of the basihyal. The symphysis is connected with the 
preaxial part of the basihyal by a rather vertically broad osseous 
band which passes obliquely backward to it from just behind 



¥ig. 1. 






Hyoid of Nestor meridionalis. A. Dorsal aspect ; B. Ventral aspect ; 
C. Lateral aspect. 



b. Basihyal. 

e. Entoglossum. 

c. Cup-like concavity. 

al. Anterior lateral process. 
pi. Posterior lateral process. 
dl. Dorsal lateral process. 



p. Parahyal arch. 

s. Its symphysis. 
hb. Hypobranchial. 
cb. Ceratobranchial. 

u. TJrohyal, its larger proximal part, 
ud. Urohyal, its smaller distal part. 



238 DB. ST. GEORGE MIVAET ON THE [Feb. 4, 

the cup-like depression above noticed. Each lateral half of the 
parahyal arch has, medianly, a gentle outward curve. 

The urohyal is decidedly longer than in the Lories, and consists 
of two parts — (1) a longer, proximal portion (m), which somewhat 
expands to its termination, where it is truncated ; and (2) a very 
much smaller distal portion (ud), about half the length of the 
proximal part. 

It may well be that a distinct distal part of the urohyal also 
existed in the species before described, but had become detached, 
since as to several of them it was remarked that the urohyal was 
truncated at the hinder end. 

The entoglossum (e) differs greatly from that of the Loeiid^e 
before described in that it is relatively, as well as absolutely, 
much longer and more slender. Each lateral half, each entoglosscd, 
has the part in front of the isthmus, which joins it to its fellow, 
more than twice the length of the part behind the isthmus. The 
anterior parts of the two entoglossals are slender, curve outward 
from each other towards their preaxial ends, and terminate almost 
in a point. Just in front of the median bony isthmus the ventral 
border of the entoglossal sends downward and outward a marked 
process (al), the anterior lateral process ; behind this is a sharp 
but very narrow concavity, bounded postaxiaUy by a process (pi) 
which extends slightly downward and much inward to join its 
fellow of the opposite side, and so forms the concavo-convex 
articular surface for junction with the concavo-convex articular 
surface of the front end of the basihyal. 

The part of each entoglossal behind the isthmus curves a little 
upward and inward, and then downward and outward, termi- 
nating in a slightly rounded extremity. At the summit of the 
curve there is a slight prominence (ell) on the dorsal margin, 
which may be called the dorsal lateral process. 

The hypobrancliials are about as elongated as in Lorius \ but 
nearly straight. 

The ceratohranchials are about half length of the hypobrancMals, 
and are slightly curved concave mesiad. 

Thus the genus Nestor shows a very interesting, but hardly 
surprising, affinity to the LoriidjE as regards the structure of 
the hyoid. It has a pa^-ahyal arch, but that arch is remarkable 
for its slenderness, as the entoglossals are distinguished by their 
length and slenderness, and differ decidedly in form from those 
of Eos, Lorius, and Trichoglossus. Thus considered, the Nestors 
may be thought to represent the Lories in the New Zealand 
region. 

The interest I felt, however, in examining the hyoid of Nestor 
was greatly exceeded when I turned to the examination of that of 
Nanodes, formerly known as Lathamus. 

The true position of this species and its relationship or non- 
relationship to the Lories have been matters of controversy, 

1 P. Z. S. 1885, p. 168, fig. 8. 



1896.] 



itTOID BONES OF NESTOB AND NANODES. 



239 



and were considered by our former Prosectors, Garrod' and 
Forbes ^ 

Their opinion was against its Lorine affinity, and in my work 
(now nearly complete) on the LoeiiDjE I have excluded it from 
that family. 

Fig. 2. 

B Rfl .o A 




Hyoid of Latharmis discolor. A. Dorsal aspect ; B. Ventral aspect ; 
0. Lateral aspect. 



b, Basihyal. 

e. Entoglossum. 

c. Cup-like concavity. 

al. Anterior lateral process. 
pi. Posterior lateral process. 



p. Parahyal process. 
hb. Hypobranchial. 
cb. Ceratobranchial. 

M. Urohyal. 



The hyoid of Nanodes justifies these judgments, for the parahyal 
processes, though elongated, do not meet to form an arch, and the 
entoglossum is peculiar and different in form from those of the 
LoBiiDiE previously examined. 

The basihyal (b) bears a singularly deep depression on its dorsal 
surface on either side just behind the origin of each parahyal 
process (p). The processes are long and slender, and curve 
slightly towards each other distally, but, as already said, do not 



1 See P. Z. S. 1873, pp. 466, 634, and 1874, p. 587. 

^ See P. Z. S. 1879, pp. 168, 171, 174, pi. xvi. figs. 1, 2, 8, 10, 12. 



240 MB. A. TSOMSOIf'S EEPOUT ON THE INSECT-HOTTSE. [Feb. IS, 

meet. On its ventral surface the hinder part of the basihyal is 
concave, the concavity being bounded on either side by a marked, 
oblique marginal ridge, these two ridges meeting to coalesce with 
the urohyal (u), which is short and straight. 

The entoglossum (e) has its anterior parts rather slender, and its 
posterior parts greatly expanded transversely. The anterior part 
of each entoglossal has its dorsal margin slightly concave. Its 
ventral margin develops a marked anterior lateral process (al), 
separated by a marked concavity from (pi) the posterior lateral 
process. The posterior half of each entoglossal is greatly expanded, 
and its surface, which looks outward and downward, is strongly 
concave. Its dorsal margin is convex and rounded, but shows no 
marked dorsal lateral process. 

The lujpohranchials are rather short and stout compared with 
those of JSestor, but they are mainly remarkable for being deeply 
grooved antero-posteriorly on their dorsal surface ; they are very 
slightly curved. 

The ceratohranchials are extremely short bones. 

My hope is to be able on some future occasion to describe certain 
other Psittacine hyoids. 



February 18, 1896. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.Z.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Arthur Thomson, the Society's Head Keeper, exhibited a 
series of specimens of various Insects reared in the Insect-house in 
the Society's G-ardens during the past year, and read the following 
Report on the subject : — 

Report on the Insect-house for 1895. 

Examples of the following species of Insects have been exhibited 
in the Insect-house during the past season : — 

Silh-proclucing Bomhyces and their Allies. 

Asiatic. 

Attacus atlas. *Calir/ula simla. 

cynthia. *Rhodia fugax. 

ricini. Actias selene. 

pernyi. Cricula trifenestrata. 

Anthercea mylitta. 

* Exhibited for the first time. 



1896.] 



MR. A. THOMSON S REPORT ON THE INSECT-HOUSB. 



241 



American. 



Attacus lebermi. 
Samia cecrojjia, 
Actias lima. 
Telea polypliemus. 



Attacus myihimna. 
*Anthercea wahlhergi. 
* belina. 



African. 



menippe. 



Bunea caffraria. 



Telea promeihea. 
Hyperchiria io. 

*■ janus. 



* Urota sinope. 
Cyrtogone herilla. 
Lasiocampa monteiri. 
Eudcemonia argus. 



Diurnal Lepidopiera. 



Papilio podalirius. 

machaoii. 

Thais cerisyi. 
Doritis apollinus. 

Papilio aja.v. 

cresphontes, 

asterias. 



European. 



American, 



Melitcea cinxia. 

Vanessa antiopa. 
polychlorus. 



Limenitis disippus. 



ur, 



sula. 



Smerinthus populi. 

exccecatus. 

Sphin-ic ligvstri, 

pinastri. 

celeits. 



Nocturnal Lepidoptera. 

Darapsa myron. 
*Ampelophaga versicolor. 
*Daremma undulosa. 
Ceratomia amyntor. 
Eacles imperialis, 
Deidamia inscriptus. Saturnia pyri. 
Deilephila evphorbice. carpini. 

* Exhibited for tbe first time. 

Of the lepidopterous insects which I have the honour to place 
before the Meeting this evening, the following are exhibited for 
the first time : — Limenitis ursula, Ampelophaga versicolor, and 
Darcmma undidosa, from North America; Hypercluria janus, from 
South America ; Caligula simla, from India ; Kliodia fugajc, from 
Japan ; Anthercm ivahlbergi, from "West Africa ; Anthercea belina 
and Urota sinope, from South Africa. 

The two specimens of Limenitis ursida were reared from hiber- 
nating larvae and were received along with the larvae of Limenitis 
disippus, of which species I generally get a supply every year. 
These larvae emerge from the egg in the autumn and immediately 
proceed to roll themselves up in the leaves of a species of willow, 
and in that condition pass the winter. In the spring, as soon as 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XVI. 16 



242 DK. A. G. BUTLER ON BUTTERFLIES [Feb. 18, 

the young leaves appear, they commence to feed. Last season the 
young larvae of L. disippus appeared on the 24th of April,_ and on 
the 30th passed into the second stage, on the 7th May into the 
third stage, and on the 13th into the fourth stage, turned to pupse 
on the 18th, and the first butterfly appeared on May 22nd. It 
was not until the perfect insects appeared that examples of another 
species were to be detected amongst them, so that the larvae of 
Limenitis Ursula and its mode of Ut'e must closely resemble those of 
L. disippus. 

I have again the pleasure of exhibiting a pair of Eudcemonia 
argus^ from Sierra Leone, and I may here mention that, besides the 
usual differences in the antennae, the male has only four spots 
on the hind wings, and the female has alv^ays five. 

The specimens of llhodia fugax emerged from cocoons deposited 
in the Insect-house by the Hon. Walter Eothschild, F.Z.S. The 
larvae were reared, I believe, in the neighbourhood of Eichmond, 
on willow, from ova imported from Japan. I had some ova of 
this species, but the young larvae would not feed and aU died. 
One peculiarity of this larva is, that it makes a squeaking noise 
when disturbed. 

The specimen of Attacus mi/tJiimna is the second example of this 
beautiful species exhibited before the Society. This species was 
originally described and figured, P.Z.S. 1849, p. 40, pi. vii. fig. 3, 
as were also Saturnia belina and Urota sinope. Of these last two 
species males only were figured. The specimens exhibited are all 
females. 

Of Orthoptera an example of a very curious locust, Petasia 
spumans, was brought home in December and presented to the 
Society by Mr. Eobert Ganthony, M'ho obtained it from Krugersdorp 
Falls/near Johannesburg, Transvaal. It fed upon watercress and 
chewed apple, but I am sorry to say did not live very long in England. 



The following papers were read : — 

1, On the Butterflies obtained in Arabia and Somaliland by 
Capt. Chas. G, Nurse and Col. J. W. Yerbury in 1894 
and 1895. By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D., Senior 
Assistant-Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Museum. 

[Eeceived January 29, 1896.] 
(Plate X.) 

Although the collections now recei^'ed add only a very few 
species to the lists of Butterflies published in my papers on the 
Lepidoptera of Aden and SomaUland (P. Z. S. 1884 & 1885), 
they are of considerable interest, inasmuch as they contain inter- 
mediate forms between species hitherto regarded as distinct. 



1896.] TROM ARABIA AND SOMALILAISTD. 243 

The general character of the Butterflies is distinctly East African, 
the Asiatic element being chiefly represented by species widely 
distributed over both Continents, or by African types allied to those 
found from the Persian Gulf, through Beluchistan to Karachi. 

All the specimens collected by Col. Terbury are presented to 
the Museum ; but of those obtained by Capt. Nurse only such as 
are of special interest have been forwarded for examination, the 
types to be retained by us : he, however, adds notes on other 
species not recorded in the present consignment ; I have therefore 
decided to quote these at the commencement of this paper, my 
personal observations being given subsequently under the species 
to which they refer. 

The following are Capt. Nurse's notes on his collections : — 

" LiMNAS CHRTSIPPUS. 

I have not sent any specimens of this species, but I caught and 
bred all four forms. Like Col. Terbury, I could not detect the 
slightest difference in the larvjB, which were all found feeding on 
Caloiropis (jujantea. 

" Melanitis ismene. 

Terbury records this from Lahej and Aden (Journal of Bomb. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 1892), but I never came across a specimen. 

" Tpthima asterope. 

Occurs both in Arabia and Somaliland, but I have never seen 
one on the Aden peninsula. 

" JUNONIA HERE. 

I only found tliis species at Haithallim (spelt by Col. Terbury 
Haithalbim) near Lahej \ 

" Jtjnonia clelia. 

Terbury took one in 1883, but I never saw one. 

" Jttnonia cebrene. 

Common both near Aden and Zaila. 

" Pyramets cardui. 

Common both near Aden and Zaila : I took one on Perim 
Island, the only Butterfly I saw there except Catojmh'a. 

" HtPAN IS CASTAWEA '. 

I never saw this species near Aden, but I saw three or four in 
Somaliland near Zaila : Terbury found it at Haithallim in 1883. 

" Htpolimnas misippus. 

Not uncommon, but I got only one male and five females. 

' Capt. Nurse says the meaning of the Arabic word is " Where the lime-trees 
are." 

^ Capt. Nurse quotes this as H. ilithyia. 

16* 



244 DB.. A. G. BUTLEE ON BtJTTERrLIES [Feb. 18, 

. " ACR^A SEIS. 

Given me by Lieut. Sparrow, 7th Dragoon Guards. Obtained 
when on a shooting expedition. 

" Catochrtsops contracta. 

The males do not appear to differ from specimens of the same 
sex which I have from Kutch, India; but the females from Kutch 
are much darker and have not nearly so much blue on the wings. 

Mr. De Niceville in his remarks on the genus Oatochrysojps, in 
the ' Butterflies of India,' says he is unable to recognize more than 
three distinct species. C. contracta, of course, may be a local race of 
C. cnejus,hut the following notes may be of interest in this respect : — 
At Shaik Othman, near Aden, C. contractu is very numerous, but 
I never saw a C. cnejus there. At Lahej, 15 miles away, C. cnejus 
swarms, but I never saw C. contracta there. The vegetation at 
Shaik Othman is very scanty, while there is plenty of rank vege- 
tation round Lahej. In Kutch I never found typical C. cnejus, 
but C. contracta swarms. 

" Catochrtsops asopus. 
Common at Lahej. 

" PoLTOMMATirS B^TICTJS. 

Common at Zaila and Aden. 

" AZATfTJS SIGILLATUS ( = GAMEA?). 

Not very common at Aden, and not seen on the Somali coast. 

" AZAH-TJS ZENA. 

Common at and near Aden. 

" Ltcjjnesthes amaeah. 
Common at and near Aden. 

*' Tarttcus pulchee sive plinius. 
Common at Aden and Lahej. 

" Tartjcus theophrastus. 
Common. 

" Chilades teochiltjs. 
Not very common. 

" ZlZERA KNTSNA and Z. GAIKA. 

See Col. Terbury's remarks in Bomb. Nat. Hist. Society's 
Journal, 1892. 

" Zesitts mvia. 

Fairly common. I bred this species from seed-pods of Acacia 



1896.] FEOM ARABIA AKD SOMALILAND. 245 

edgworthii. The larva is a fat reddish oae, but I did not make 
any careful notes regarding it. 

" lOlAUS NTJRSEI. 

This Butterfly was not common, and I never saw it except at 
Shaik Othman, where the few specimens I got were taken. 

" loLAUS GLAUCUS. 

These were the only specimens I took. 

" TeEIAS CHALCOMl^TA. 

Common at Lahej. 

" Tebacolus CALAIS, var. dynamene. 

I suppose all these are T. dynamene. I found the larvae on 
Salvadora persica, and I also bred some from the egg. The 
following is a description of the larva : — 

Pea-green, very slightly rough ; lower part lighter green ; a 
slightly darker mark along back. Some of the larvae have two 
black spots dotted with white behind the head, and on some the 
first half of the streak down the back is whitish, others have it 
whitish the whole length. Some of the larvae have black heads, 
others green heads. 

The pupa also is very variable. Some are very pale green, 
others yellowish brown dotted with black. 

The eggs are laid in batches of 20 or 30 on the leaves of the 
food-plant, and the larvfe remain gregarious for at least half the 
larval stage. They remind one of Sawfly larvae. I bred larvae of 
all the colours mentioned above from the same batch of eggs. 

" Tebacolus phisadia. (Plate X. fig. 13.) 
Common at Aden and in the interior. I found the larvae 
feeding on Salvadora persica. The following is a description of 

it:— 

Pea-o-reen ; when young, two black spots on back of head ; a 
white mark, almost the shape of an ace of diamonds, but rather 
longer, on second segment ; when older the black spots on head 
disappear, and the white mark gets clearer and is outlined with 
black. There are two similar marks just beyond the centre of the 
back, the front being the smaller, and another similar mark on 
eleventh segment. 

" Tebacolus ti. 

I did not get many specimens of this species aud I could not 
succeed in finding the larva, though I searched carefully many 
times. 

" Tebacolus pleione (and T. miriam). (Plate X. fig. 18.) 
Very common at Aden, but, like Col. Terbury, I never saw it 
elsewhere. I found plenty of the larvae ' feeding on Cadaha 



246 DB. A. 6. BUTLER OJf BUTTERFLIES [Feb. 18, 

glandulosa, but I failed to breed it from the egg, thougli I tried 
three or four times. The young larvae never lived more than three 
or four days, as I could not keep the plant moist enough for them. 
The following is a description of the larva : — 

When young, brownish with black head ; when older nearly pea- 
green, somewhat rough, but no hairs except tiny spines : a pale 
green line along centre of back ; this line almost disappears as the 
larva becomes full-grown ; two rows of small black spots- along the 
sides, much fainter in some specimens. When full-grown about 
an inch long ; somewhat variable in colour. The pupa is some- 
what variable, being cream-coloured with dark green markings. 

The larvae are much infested with two different kinds of 
ichneumons. 

" TeRACOLUS LEO. 

This species was not uncommon near Zaila, but I only took this 
specimen, as I thought they were all of the same species as I had 
got at Aden. 

" Teracolus halimede. (Plate X. fig, 17.) 

These I call T. acaste, and I take them all to be of one species. 
I bred No. 1 84, and also a male, from larvae found on C'adaba glan- 
dulosa. The larva is pea-green, with two small black spots on 
segment next behind head. It has a cream-coloured line on each 
side, commencing just before the centre of its length, and running 
along the rest of the body ; just above this line is a tiny black 
spot on each segment. When full-grown it is rather more than 
an inch long. 

" Teracolus eupompe. 

This was the commonest Butterfly near Zaila in May and June 
1895, but there were very few Butterflies of any kind about. I 
take them to be all of one species. 

" Teracolus phillipsi. 
Given me by Lieut. Sparrow. 

" Teracolus evagore \ 

These all appear to me to be T. nouna. I cannot think that 
T. saxeus is anything but the same species. 

" Teracolus comptus. 
Given me by Lieut. Sparrow. 

" Teracolus terburii. (Plate X. fig. 14.) 
There is probably more than one species in this series, but I find 
it difficult to separate them ; I have therefore sent a good number 

' One of the extreme types of the female ( T. /awesti) is confounded with 
T. yerburii in Capt. Nurse's notes, being numbered 229. 



1896.] from: arabia axd somaliland, 247 

of specimens. Most of them, I think, are T. yerhurii. I bred this 
species from larvae found on plant No. 4 (this plant could not be 
identified at B. M.) at Shaik Othman. The following is a 
description of the larva : — 

Head orange, lateral stripes of the same colour. Ground-colour 
of back plumbeous, a darker stripe along centre, the whole faintly 
dotted with white. Below the lateral orange stripe there is a 
slight protuberance on each segment, black in colour with white 
dots. The whole larva is covered with short bristly hair. 

Pupa : — ground-colour pale lilac, with a purplish stripe along 
centre and yellow lateral stripes. 

From all the pupse emerged typical T. yerhurii, except from one 
which produced T. nouna, much to my surprise. I did not notice 
that one of the larvte was different from the others, so the larva of 
T. nouna must closely resemble that described above ^ 

" Teracolus daiea, 2 (foi* d" > ^^e footnote). 

I have never come across this form on the Arabian side. 

" Teracolxjs antevippe. 
Given me by Lieut. Sparrow. 

" Catopsilia plorblla. 

These I cannot properly separate. I bred some Cidopsilic^ from 
larva) found feeding on plant No. 5 (Cassia sp. ? could not be 
satisfactorily identified at B. M.). The following is a description of 
the larva : — 

Ground-colour pea-green ; a black, interrupted, but very distinct 
lateral stripe, and below it a broader stripe of an orange-yellow 
colour. The larva is rough, but not hairy ; the whole of the back 
and bead are covered with minute black dots. Length, when full- 
grown, about 1| inches. 

The pupa is green. 

One caine out typical Jtorella $ ; two others more like pijrene. 

" Belexois mesehtina, var. lordaca. 

Swarms at Shaik Othman and in the desert generally. This, 
both in the larval and imago stages, seems to be the same as 
B. mesentina. The larvas feed on several plants, are gregarious, 
hundreds being found on a single bush. They are greenish, slightly 
hairy ; head black, dotted with white ; a broad chocolate-coloured 
stripe on each side, faintly dotted with white. Some of them 
remained only five days in the pupal stage. 

" BeLENOIS LEtJCOGYNE. 

I did not find this species at all common, and only got two or 
three specimens. 

^ Starved examples of this species were separated and numbered from 252- 
257 with the note : — " This appears to be something different from T. yerburii." 
The males of T. daira were confounded with T. yerbiirli. — A. Or. B. 



248 DR. A. G. BUTLEE OJf BUTTERFLIES [Feb. 18, 

" SXNCHLOE GLAtrCONOME. 

Common both at Aden and Zaila. The larva feeds on Cleome 
2'>aradoxa in i\.den, and inland on other plants. It is greenish 
yellow, dotted all over with black. Three bluish streaks along the 
whole length of body. No hairs. About 1| inches long when full- 
grown. 

Pupa much the same colours and markings as the larva, but both 
are fainter. 

" Hebp^nia iterata. 
Given me by Lieut. Sparrow. 

" NEPHEBOJfIA ARABICA. 

I only got three or four specimens. 

" Papilio demoleus. 

Given me by Lieut. Sparrow. Col. Yerbury got several 
specimens of a Papilio (P. demoleus, I believe) at Lahej. 

" Ismene anchises. 

Two specimens at Aden and one near Zailu. 

" Chapba mathias. 

Common both at Aden and Zaila. 

" Gegenes karsasta. 
Fairly common. 

" Pyrgus adenensis. 

Fairly common. 

I think the differences in the larvae of such species of Teracolus 
as I have described above are worthy of attention. The larva of 
T. yerburii is not in the least like any of the other larvae I found ; 
but this was the only red-tipped Teracolus larva I got, except one 
of T. nouna, which so closely resembled 2\ yerburii that I did not 
observe any difference till the imago emerged. The larvae of 
T.pleione and T. dynamene vary to some extent among themselves, 
but in the case of T. dynamene I bred several varieties from one batch 
of eggs : I got only two or three each of T. jMsadia and T. acaste. 
All these forms bear a kind of family likeness one to another ; and, 
to some extent, this may be said of T. p>rotomedia. 1 do not know 
what Teracolus larvae have been described by others ; but, judging 
from the larvae, T. yerburii and presumably the other red-tipped 
Teracoli should not belong to the same genus as the others." 

C. G. Nurse. 

I am afraid that genera based upon larval coloration would be 
very unnatural ; moreover, the fact that Captain Nurse could not 
distinguish between the larva of the scarlet-tipped T. yerburii and 
that of the orange-tipped T. evayore { = nouna), seems to me to 



1896.] mOM ARABIA AND SOMALILAND. 249 

quash the suggestion of generic sepai-ation at once, even had it 
not been shown that the same species, when taken in widely- 
distant countries, differs so eompletel}'^ in larval colouring as to be 
unrecognizable in this stage of its existence. For example, larvae 
of Agrotis c-nigriim in Ce^'lon are altogether dissimilar from 
European larvae of the same species ; the moths, however, are 
absolutely indistinguishable. 

List of the Species of Rhopalocera. 

1. LiMNAS CHETSIPPUS. 

2 . Var. dorippus, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 48. figs. 1-4 (1832). 
S . Var. hlufjii, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 758. 
2 , Lahej, 28th March, 1895 ; c? , Aden, 6th February, 1895 
(Col. Yerbury). 

2. Tpthima asteeope. 

Hipparchia asterope, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 29. figs. 11-14 (1832). 

Shaik Othman, 10th February, and Lahej, 5th to 10th March, 
1895 (C'oZ. Yerbun/); 14th February, 8th and 24th May, 1894; 
Zaila, Somalilaud, 28th May and 4th June, lS9o (Oapt. Nurse). 

3. JUNONIA HERE. 

Junonia here, Lang, Entomologist, p. 206 (1884). 
c? , Lahej, 26th May, 1894 (C«/j<. Nurse) ; 2 , 14th March, 1895 
{Col. Yerbury). 

4. Hypolimnas misippus. 

Papilio misippus, Linnaeus, Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 264 (1764). 
Typical female (resembling Limnas chrysippus). 
Aden, 12th October {Capt. Nurse). 

Var. alcippoides (resembling L. alcippoides). 

Aden, 27th February, 1895 {Col. Yerbury and Capt. Nurse). 

Var. with white on secondaries (resembling L. dorippus). 
Aden, 28th February (Col. Yerbury). 

Var. between typical H. misippus, $ , and var. inaria. 
Shaik Othman, 7th April ; Zaila, Somahland, 23rd May, 1895 
(Capt. Nurse). 

Var. inaj-ia (resembling L. klugii). 

Aden, 24th September, 1894 (Capt. Nurse). 

The whole of the known variations of the female of this species 
are therefore represented in these two small collections, all the 
forms having been taken either at or near to Aden. 

5. Btblia acheloia, var. castanea. 
Hypanis castanea, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 759. 
Somaliland (Capt. Nurse). 



250 BB. A. a, BUTLER OK BUTTERFLIES [Feb. 18, 

6. ACR^A SEIS. 

Acrcea seis, Teisthamel, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1850, p. 247. 

Somaliland (Capt. Nursis). 

In Mr. Kifby's Catalogue this species was erroneously recorded 
as a variety of A. mahela ; consequently it has since been described 
by Mr. Gfrose Smith as A. matuapa, by Messrs. Godman and 
Salvin as A. calyce, and by Vieillot as A. mhondana ; it is distri- 
buted over Africa from West to East, and we have one example 
labelled South ; the ground-colour varies from almost wholly tawny 
(probably rose-red in life) to an insect having the primaries almost 
entirely smoky brown. A. seis is the African representative of 
the Asiatic A. vioke, which it nearly resembles both in form and 
pattern. 

7. Catochrysops coktracta. 

Lampides contracta, Butler, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 406, pi. xxxix. 
fig. 3. 

S 2 , Shaik Othman, 3rd March {Col. Yerbanj), 21st April, 
1895 {Oapt. Narse). 

These Arabian examples do not differ at all from those obtained 
at Candahar, Beloochistan, and Karachi. 

8. AZANUS GAMRA. 

Lyccena gamm, Lederer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1855, 
p. 189, pi. i. fig. 3. 

c5' 2 , Shaik Othman, 24th February, 3rd March ; Aden, 7th and 
18th March, 1895 {Col. Yerh^irij). 

I think it probable that this may be the species referred to in 
my former paper on Lepidoptera from Aden as " A. sigillata" the 
specimens being in Col. Swinhoe's collection : the two species are 
nearly allied, but A. sifjiUata is a small (probably dry-season) form 
of A. nataleiisis, and shows black spots aud no parallel brown 
bars on the under surface of the disc of secondaries ; whereas in 
A. (jamra the brown bars replace the extra black spots. 

9. LYC.EXESTHES AMARAH. 

Polijommatus amarah, Lefebvre, Voy. Abyss, vi. p. 384, pi. ii. 
figs. 5, 6 (1847). 

c^, Shaik Othman, 24th February, 1895 (Col. Yerhury). 

The stronger form of wing and the two pencils of elongated 
scales from the fringe of secondaries show this to be a Lyaenesthes 
and not an Azanus ; the pattern of the under surface is deceptively- 
similar in the two genera. 

10. ZlZERA GAIKA. 

Lyccena gaiJca, Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, vol. i. p. 403 
(1862). 

cJ, Aden, 19th February, 1895 {Col Yerhury). 



1896.] FROM AEABIA AND SOMALILAND. 251 

11. Hteeus LINGEUS. 

Pajiilio lingeus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv. pi. ceclxxix. F, Gr (1782). 
$ , Shaik Othman, 1st April, 1895 {Col. Yerhunj). 

12. Zesius litia. 

Lycceiia livia, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 40. figs. 3-6 (1834). 
c? 2 > Shaik Othman, 24th February ; cJ , Aden, bred from seed- 
pods of Acacia- edgivorthii, 4th March ; c? $ , Lahej, 12th March ; 
$ , Shaik Othman, 5th April, 1895 {Col Ytrhury). 

13. ChLOEOSELAS ESMEEALDA. 

Chloroselas esmeralda, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 765, pi, xlvii 
fig. 4. 

cJi Zaila, Somaliland, 23rd May, 1895 {Capt. Nurse). 

Mr. Trimen, ' South-African Butterflies,' vol. iii. p. 414, 
observes: — "On careful comparison of two males taken by- 
Mr. Selous — which quite agree with Mr. Butler's description of 
C. esmeralda — and of three very fine males taken near Durban by- 
Mr. Millar, with the type of A. pseudozeritis, I have come to the 
conclusion that esmeralda is identical with pseudozeritis.'^ He 
then proceeds to point out that his type and specimens from 
Durban are darker below than the others, have a fuscous cloud 
on the middle disc of the hind wings , the silvery spots very 
brilliant, and " There are two linear tails on the hind wing, 
respectively on the first median nervule and the submedian 
nervure." This, to my mind, settles the question : the SomaU 
examples only have one tail ; they are uniformly of a huffish stone- 
colour below without any clouding. I examined an example, pre- 
sumably of O. pseudozeritis, about a year ago, and decided that it 
was undoubtedly distinct. 

14. loLAUs NUESEi, sp. n. (Plate X, fig. 16.) 

Closely allied to /. umbrosa (P. Z. S. 1885, p. 766, pi. xlvii. fig. 6), 
but the wings above bright cobalt-blue, with two whitish super- 
posed spots on the disc of the primaries, close to the slaty-black 
outer border ; the fringe much whiter, pui-e white towards external 
angle : secondaries above with two or three ill-defined white discal 
spots parallel to outer margin ; the outer border pure white, 
bounded internally by a dusky stripe, including the ordinary black 
spots, and externally by a sharply-defiued black line ; fringe pure 
white with a greyish line : wings below pearly white, the pattern 
nearly identical with that of /. umbrosa, but the bands black-brown 
instead of red : other differences which exist may be variable and 
therefore not worth noting. Expanse of wings 35-40 millim. 

cJ S , Shaik Othman, 3rd March and 3rd April, 1895 {Col. 
Terbury) ; 6 , 26th February, d ? , 31st March {Cap>t. Nurse). 

This is doubtless the Arabian representative of the Somali 
/. umbrosa ; but it is a far prettier insect. 



252 BB. A. G. BTJTLEB ON BUTTEEFLIES [Feb. 18, 

15. lOLAUS GLAUCTJS, 

lolaus glauais, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 766. 
c? 2 , Zaila, Somaliland, 23rd and 28th May, 1895 (Capt. Nurse). 

16. Teracolus CALAIS, var. dynamene. 

Pontia dynamene, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. vi. figs. 15, 16 (1829). 
2 , Aden, 8tb March, 1895 ; c? $ , 8th and 12th May, 3rd and 
7th June, 1894 (Capt. Nurse). 

17. Tekacolus phisadia, var. aene. (Plate X. fig. 13.) 
Pontia arm, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 7. figs. 1-4 (1829). 

5 $, 12th February; Lahej, 6th March; Haithalhim, 23rd 
March, 1895 (Col. Yer'hury). 

In my paper on Lepidoptera from Somaliland (P. Z. S. 1885), 
when describing T. ocellaius, a species the existence of which I had 
previously suspected, I observed, " I have also no doubt that a 
species intermediate between T. phisadia and T. vestalis will ere 
long be discovered." In Staudinger's ' Exotische Schmetterlinge' 
an African species was subsequently described and figured under 
the name of Idmais castalis, which scarcely differs from the Indian 
/. vestalis, and which, as I have since discovered, exhibit's similar 
slight variations. 

In my paper on Lepidoptera from Aden (P. Z. S. 1884, p. 478) I 
pointed out that several species of Butterflies presented simple 
variations, which had become fixed as local races in various parts 
of Africa and Asia ; and it struck me that in the case of T. phi- 
sadia, the female of which is extremely variable, we might still 
expect to find evidence of its derivation from a black and white 
type similar to those of India ; I therefore asked Col. Yerbury to 
look out for females of T. phisadia having this character. In this 
he was perfectly successful, the two females obtained at Lahej and 
Haithalhim being indistinguishable from females of Teracohis 
ochreipennis (a species only doubtfully distinct from T. vestalis). 
In this species, therefore, we still have evidence of descent from 
the black and white forms of India. 

18. Teracolus ti. 

Teracolus vi, Swiuhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 435, pi. xxxix. figs. 6, 7. 
cJ, Aden, 20th February, 1895 {Col Yerhury). 

19. Teracolus CHRVsoijfOME. 

Pontia chrysonome, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 7. figs. 9-11 (1829). 
2 , Zaila, Somahland, 28th May, 1895 (Capt. Nurse). 

20. Teracoltjs heliocaustus. 

Teracolus heliocaustus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 768, pi. xlvii. 
figs. 8, 9. 

2 , Zaila, Somaliland, 6th June, 1895 (Capt. Nurse). 
A much faded example. 



1896.] FBOM AEABIA AKD SOMAtltAlTD. 253 

21. TeRACOLTIS lEO. 

Anthocharis leo, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xvi. 
p. 397 (1865). 

cT , Zaila, Somaliland, 4th June (Capt. Nurse). 

This is the form found at Kilimanjaro, where it is fairly common ; 
it is very constant in all the characters which distinguish it from 
T. acaste. 

22. Teeacolfs halimede. (Plate X. fig. 17.) 

<S 5 . Pontia halimede, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 7. figs. 12-15 
(1829). 

Var. 2 ■ Pontia acaste, Klug, 1. c. figs. 16, 17 (1829). 

Var. cf 2 • Teracolus ccelestls, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 435, 
pi. xxxix. figs. 1, 2. 

d, Lahej, 9th March (Col. Yerbunj), 22nd May; $, 23rd 
May, 1895 (Capt. Nurse). 

This heavily-marked form of the species seems to be very rare 
near Aden, the common types there being vars. acaste and coelestis 
with intergrades. 

Var. dcaste. 

2 , Aden, 21st March, 17th April ; S , 23rd April ; $ , 9th May ; 
<S 2 5 oth June, 1895 {Capt. Nurse). 

Var. coelestis. 

2 , Aden, 20th Januarv, Ist and 6th February, 5th April ; S , 
26th April ; cT d , 8th May ; $ , 5th June, 1895 ; $ $ , 13th July 
and 25th October, 1894. 

23. TeBACOLUS ETTPOilPE. 

Pontia eupompe, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 6. figs. 11-14 (1829). 
S 6, 2 ? , Zaila, Somaliland, 2ist, 23rd, and 28th May, 1895 
(Capt. Nurse), 

Var. ? T. dedecora, Felder, Eeise der Nov., Lep. ii. p. 184 (1865). 
c? , Zaila, Somaliland, 18th June, 1895 (Capt. Nurse). 

24. Teeacolus phtllipsi. 

Teracolus phillipsi, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 772, pi. xlvii. 
fig. 11, ?. 

cJ , Somaliland (Capt. Nurse). 

25. Teeacoltjs evagoke. 

2 (as c? )• Pontia evagore, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 8. figs. 5, 6 
(1829). 

S . Anthocharis nouna, Lucas, Expl. Alg., Zool. iii. p. 350, pi. 1. 
fig. 2 (1849). 

cf . Anthopsyche heuglini, Felder, Wien. ent. Monatschr. iii. p. 272 
(1859); Eeise der Nov., Lep. ii. p. 185, pi. xxv. fig. 4 (1865). 



254 DR. A. G. BtJTLEE ON BTJTTEnrLIES [Feb. 18, 

c? 2 ' Teracolus saxeus, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 441, pi. xl. 
figs. 1, 2. 

d" $ . Lahej, 21st and 23rd May and 13tli December, 1894, 
17th February, 6th and 8th May, 1895 ; Shaik Othman, 21st April ; 
bred specimen, Aden, 31st March, 1895; Zaila, Somaliland, 
21st May, 1895 {Capt. Nurse). 

Capt. Nurse's specimens seem completely to link the following 
to T. evagore, which appears to be an extreme female development 
of the species. 

Var. Teracolus jantesi, Butler, P. Z. S. 1885, p. 771. 

2 2 , Zaila, Somaliland, 4th, 11th, and 21st May, 1895 (Ca^Jt. 

Nurse). 

26. Teracolus comptus. 

Teramlus comptus, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 94. 

S , Zaila, Somaliland, April 1895 {Capt. Nurse). 
Described from specimens obtained at Kilimanjaro. 

27. Teracolus terburii. (Plate X. fig. 14.) 

Teracolus yerhurii, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 44], pi. xxxix. 
fig. 12. 

Yar. Teracolus swinhoei, Butler, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 491. 

Shaik Othman, 24th and 26th February and 3rd March, 1895 
{Col. Yerbury); 15th April, 1894; 21st and 28th April, 1895; 
6th and 13th May, 3rd and 10th June, 1894; Lahej, 23rd and 
24th May, 1894; Aden, bred 30th April, 1895 {CajH. Nurse); 
2oth February and 8th March, 1895 {Col. Yerbury). 

Capt. Nurse also has a specimen bred at Aden on the 19th 
March, 1895, from larva found at Shaik Othman, and Col. Yerbury 
seven examples, all of which emerged either on the 11th or 12th 
April. 

28. Teracolus daira. 

Pmitia daira, Klug, Symb. Phys. pi. 8. figs. 1-4 (1829). 

d 6 , 2 2> Zaila, Somaliland, 21st and 28th May, 4th June, 1895 
(Capt. Nurse). 

29. Teracolus antevippe. 

Anthocharis antevip)pe, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. i. p. 572, pi. 18. 
fig. 3(1836). 

S , Somaliland {Capt. Nurse). 

30. Catopsilia florella. 

2- Papilio florella, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 479 (1775); S 2- 
Butler, Lep. Exot. p. 56, pi. xxii.figs. 1,2,2 a (1871). 
Var. Colias jyyrene, Swainson, Zool. 111. 1st ser. pi. 51 (1820-1). 
Var. Calliclryas hyblcea, Boisduval, Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 612(1836). 



1896.] FROM ABABIA AND SOMALILAND. 255 

Var. Catopsilta aleurona, Butler, Ann. & IMag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. xviii. p. 489 (1876). 

a. C. jlorella, typical, Shaik Othman, $ , 21st October, 1894 ; 
$ , Aden, loth, 25th, and 26th March, 1895 ; S , 25th October, 
1894. 

b. O. aleurona, c? 2 > Shaik Othman, 3rd February, 1895 ; Zaila, 
Somaliland, 22nd and 23rd May, 1895. 

c. C. hyblcea, $ , Aden, 21st'March, 1895. 

d. C.pyrene, $, Aden, 19th March, 1895 ; c? , 18th May, 1894 ; 
c? 2 , Lahej, 13th and 23rd March, 8th May, 1895 ; c^ , Zaila, 
Somaliland, April, 1S95. 

All these specimens were collected by Capt. Nurse. 

31. Belets'ois mesentina, var. lordaca. 
Pieris lordaca, Walker, Entom. v. p. 48. 

5 , Zaila, SomalOand, April 1895 {Capt. Nurse). 

32. Hehp^nia itekata. 

cj . Herpcenia iterata, Butler, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 96. 
5 , Somaliland {Capt. Nurse). 

33. Papilio demoleus. 

Papilio demoleus, Linneus, Mus. Lud. TJlr. p. 214 (1764). 

Lahej, 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 29th March, 1895 (Col. Yerhuru) ; 
Somaliland {Capt. Nurse). 

The Arabian examples are slightly aberrant, the band on pri- 
maries more broken up than usual, and the under surface of the 
secondaries greyer ; these differences are, however, variable. 

34. Gegenes kaesana. 

Hespc-ia lursana, Moore, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 576, pi. 67. fig. 6. 
Shaik Othman, 2nd April, 1895 {Col. Yerbury). 

35. PrEGUS ADENEXSIS. 

Pyrgus evanidus, var. adenensis, Butler, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 493. 
Haithalhim, 25th March, 1895 {Col. Yerbury). 

36. GOMALIA ELMA. 

Pyrgus ehna, Trimen, Trans, Ent. See. London, 3rd ser. i. p. 288 
(1862) ; Ehop. Afr. Austr. ii. p. 291, pi. 5. fig. 8 (1866). 

Gomalia albofasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 144; Lep. Cevl. 
i. p. 183, pi. 7i. fig. 7 (1881). 

6 S,2, Lahej, Arabia, 22nd, 24th, and 25th May, 1894 (Cap*. 
Nurse). 

The two males are very dissimilar, one being very dark and 
small, the other larger and almost as pale as the female ; this 
variability renders it impossible to keep G. albofasciata separate. 



256 ON BUTTEKI-LIES FROM ARABIA AND SOMALILAND. [Feb. 18, 



Col. Terbnry has compiled 
hitherto found at or near Aden : — 



the following 



list of Butterflies 



1. 



5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 
1.3. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
2\i. 

•?7 



Limnas chrysippus. 

Var. alcippus. 
Tar. dorippus. 
Var. kliigii. 
Ypthima asterope. 
Melanitis ismene *. 
Hypolimnas misippus. 

Var. alcippoides. 
Var. inaria. 
Junonia here. 
,, clelia. 
„ cebrene. 
Pyrameis cardui. 
Hamanumida drodalust. 
Byblia ilithyia. 
„ acheloia. 

Var, castanea. 
Polyotnmatus baeticus. 
Catoehrysops asopus. 
cnejus. 
„ contracta. 

Azanus gatnra. 

„ zena. 
Lycsenestlies amarah. 
Tarucus plinius ( = pulcher). 

,, theophrastus. 
Chilades trochiius. 
Zizera knysna. 

„ gaika. 
Hyreus lingeus J. 
ZcsiuB livia §. 
lolaus nursei. 
Terias clialcomiseta. 



28. Catopsilia florella. 

Var. aleurona. 
Var. hyblaa. 
Var. pyrene. 

29. Teracolus vi. 

30. „ phisadia. 

31. „ Calais. 

Var. dynaraene. 
Var. carnifer. 

32. „ pleione. 

Var. miriam. 

33. „ halimede. 

Var. acaste. 
Var. coelestis. 

34. ,, protomedia. 

35. „ eupompe. 

36. „ epigone. 

37. „ evagore. 

Var. saxeus. 

38. „ yerburii. 

Var. swinhoei. 

39. Belenois mesentiaa. 

Var. lordaca. 

40. „ leucogyne. 

41. Synohloe glauconome. 

42. Nepheronia arabica. 

43. Papilio demoleuB. 

44. Ismene anchises II . 

45. Cbapra mathias. 

46. Gegenes karsana. 

47. Pyrgus adenensis ^. 

48. Eretis djselaelse. 

49. Gomalia elnia. 



\ 



* Not. uncommon at Lahej ; though no specimens have been obtained. 

t Taken by Mr. Chevallier at Haithalhim, and identified at the British 
Museum. 

j A single specimen taken at Shaik Othman. 

§ Col. Yerbury believes that two species are confused under this name. — 
A. G. B. 

II Col. Yerbury enumerates another species — " The Phantom Skipper "—often 
seen but never taken. — A. G. B. 

^ The Adenese representative of the Indian P. evanidus. 

Some further Notes on Larvce, from Aden. 

Teracolus pleione and T. acaste both feed on Cadaha glandulosa ; 
T. protomedia, T. yerhurii, and T. evagore on a plant that I have 
been unable to determine. 

T. dynamene and j^hisadia, food-plant Salvadora persica. 

The pupse of T. pleione, acaste, and j^rotomedia (PL X. fig. 15) have 
considerable resemblance in shape ; and it is possible that further 
study of the pupal stage may lead to a grouping of males with 
black nervures to their wings. The pupse of T. dynamene, phisadia, 
yerburii, and evagore are of an altogether different form. 

Synchloe glauconome, food-plants ]}ipterygium glaucum and 
Oleome paradoxa. 



1896.] OW MOTHS FEOM ADEl>r AKD S0MALI1A.HD, 257 

Belenois lordaca feeds at Huswah on Gaparis galeata, that is, 
if this plant be conspeciiic with the Aden plant bearing the same 
name (to the uninitiated the plants look allied, but decidedly 
distinct from each other). I suspect that T. vi also feeds on this 
plant, though I have never yet found a larva in spite of careful 
search. 

Catopsilia larvae feed on Cassia, sp., but I have been unable to 
correctly obtain the specific name of this plant ; it is, however, 
allied to adenensis, and may be that species. 

Zesius livia. — Specimens bred from the pods of Acacia edgeiuorfMi 
collected in Gold Mohur Valley. At Haithalhim a number of 
pupse were found under a large stone ; from these, too, a species 
of Zesius emerged. 

Limnas. — The larvae feed on Calotropis gigantea. 

Seasonal dimorphism does not seem to occur to any extent in 
the neighbourhood ; though it may possibly do so in the case of 
Teracolus calais and dynamene. 

The year 1883 was very wet, heavy rain having fallen in May, 
consequently in July a large number of Butterflies appeared — 
among others, a very brightly-coloured form of T. calais (all, I be- 
lieve, females however) : this may point to T. calais being the rainy- 
season form and T. dynamene the dry. I never met with this 
unusually brightly-coloured form in after years. — J. W. Teebtjey. 



2. On Moths collected at Aden and in Soraaliland. By 
Lord Walsingham, M.A., LL.D., P.R.S., and G. F. 
Hampson, B.A., &c. 

[Received January 29, 1896.] 
(Plate X.) 

The following paper contains a record of the collections made 
at Aden and its neighbourhood in the year 1895 by Col. J. W. 
Yerbury and Capt. C. Gr. Nurse, and of a small Somaliland 
collection made at Zaila by Capt. Nurse. It also includes the 
Heterocera recorded from Aden in a paper by Mr. A. G-. Butler 
in the Society's ' Proceedings ' for 1884 (collected by Cols. Yerbury 
and Swinhoe), and the few Moths recorded from Somaliland by 
Mr. Butler in his paper on the Lepidoptera of Somaliland in the 
Society's 'Proceedings' for 1885, nearly all these species, how- 
ever, being again represented in the collections now worked out. 

The Aden forms show, as might be expected, a mingling of 
the European, N. African, and Western Indian species, the latter 
decidedly predominating. The number of species is very large for 
such a barren locality, especially among the Pyralidce, the number ., 
of Phydtince being a marked feature of the fauna, whilst the / 
most interesting new form is the archaic genus of the Nolai^ 
group. The portion of the paper on the Pterophoridce, TortricidceM 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XVII. 17 ^ / 



258 LOED WALSINGHAM AND MK. G. P. HAM.PSOIT ON [Feb. 18, 

and Tineidce is by Lord Walsiiighatn, the remainder by myself, in 
which part only such synonymy is given as is necessary to 
elucidate Mr. Butler's previous paper. The types of the new 
species have been presented to the collections of the British 
Museum and Lord "VValsingham by Col. Terbury and Oapt. Nurse. 

—e. F. H. 

Aectiid^. 

LlTHOSIIN^. 

Sbcusio steigata, Wlk. ii. 559. 
Zaila, SomalUand. 

Deiopia pulchella, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, 884. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

NlCTEOLIN^. 

Eaeias insulana, Boisd. Taun. Madag. p. 121, pL 16. f. 9. 
Aden ; Lahej ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Aectiin^. 
Spilosoma aeabiottm, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 25.) 

Dull greyish white ; legs crimson, grey, and black ; palpi black 
above ; antennae black, the basal joint crimson ; a crimson line 
behind the head and streak on shoulders ; patagia with paired 
black spots ; abdomen crimson, with dorsal black spots ; anal tuft 
in female grey. Fore wing with more or less black on base of 
costa ; an antemedial series of five black spots bent inwards below 
median nervure ; a black discocellular patch divided into a cluster 
of spots by the veins ; a curved postmedial series of spots, com- 
mencing with an elongate spot below costa, and with black specks 
and spots beyond it below costa and near veins 5 and 2. Hind 
wing with discocellular spot, and sometimes with two or three 
submarginal spots. 

Hab. Aden (Terbury). Ex-p. d 32, ? 38 mm. 

NOLIN^. 

Genus Aechinola, nov. 

Palpi porrect, extending about the length of head and thickly 
scaled, the 3rd joint concealed ; maxillary palpi large and tri- 
angularly dilated with scales ; proboscis small : antennae of male 
minutely ciliated, the basal joints dilated with scales ; legs and 
tibial spurs moderate. Fore wing with a few scattered raised 
scales ; vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6 from 
upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked ; 10, 11 free. Hind wing with vein 3 
from before angle of cell ; 4, 5 from angle ; 6, 7 on a long stalk ; 
8 anastomosing with the cell to near end. 

\ • 



1896.] MOTHS FEOM ABEN AND SOMALILAND. 259 

The large maxillary palpi are a most remarkable feature in this 
genus, which is otherwise near Pisara, Wlk., and tends to prove 
the derivation of the Nolince group of the Arctiidce from the 
Tineidce, in close relationship with the ancestor of the Scopariince, 
Schoenobiince, and lower Pyralidce, 

Aechikola pyralidia, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 23.) 

c? . Brownish grey. Fore wing slightly irrorated with fuscous ; 
an antemedial erect fuscous line ; a postmedial line curved from 
costa to vein 3, then incurved to below end of cell. Hind wing 
pale fuscous. 

Hab. Aden (Nurse). Exp. 14 mm. 

Agaeistid^. 
Eusemia thruppi, Butl. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 775. 
S. of Berbera, Somaliland. 

noctuidjb. 
Teifin^. 
Glotttjla oeientalis, Hmpsn. Moths Ind. ii. p. 168. 
Aden. 

Larva. Head reddish; somites French grey, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 
terminal two light red ; each somite with a black ring, the medial 
ones broadest. Food-plant Pancratium tortuosum. 

Heliothis nubigera, H.-S. Eur. Schmett. ii. p. 366. 

Heliothis peUigera, Butl. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 776 (nee SchifEerm.). 
Aden ; Somaliland. 

Heliothis aemigera, Hiibn. Samml. eur. Schmett., Noct. ii. 
pi. 79. 

Aden. 

Heliothis pictipascia, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 8.) 

$ . G-rey ; thorax variegated with ochreous, the patagia with 
black and white streak ; tarsi ringed with black ; abdomen pale 
grey. Fore wing with ochreous spot at base ; some ochreous 
specks on costa ; an ochreous fascia below median nervure from 
base to outer margin irrorated with black, and with three blackish 
marks on it; a similar fascia from middle of cell to outer margin, 
with the elongate ochreous orbicular and rounded reniform stigmata 
on it ; a submarginal series of black and ochreous lunules ; a marginal 
series of black spots ; cilia ochi-eous at base, pale at tips, with 
series of fuscous spots. Hind wing pure white. 
Hah. Zaila, Somaliland {Nu7'se). Exp. 38 mm. 

EupLEXiA opposiTA, Wlk. xxxii. 667. 
Aden. 

17* 



260 LOBD WALSINGH-VM AKD MR. 6. F. HAMPSOTT ON [Feb. 18, 

EUPLEXIA CONDUCTA, Wlk. X. 296. 

Perigea inexacta, Wlk. xxxii. 682. 
Aden. 

Pbodenia littoralis, Boisd. Faun. Eat. Madag., L^p. p. 91, 
pi. 13. f. 8. 

Aden. 

Prodenia minima, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1889, p. 410. 
Aden. 

Spodopteba mauritia, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag., Lep. p. 92. 
Agrotis exempta, Wlk. x. 355 (var.). 

Zaila, Somaliland ; the var. exempta from Shaik Othman, Arabia, 
and Zaila. 

Amtna selenampha, Gruen. Noct. i. p. 406. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Amtna octo, Guen. Noct. i. p. 233. 

Amyna stigmatula, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xv. p. 55. 

Aden ; Lahej, Arabia. 

Callopistria latreillei, Dup. Lep. Fr., Noct. i?. pt. i. p. 327, 
pi. 120. f . 2. 

Zaila, Somaliland. 

Callopistria -terbubii, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 496. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Caradrina exigua, Hiibn. Samml. eur. Schmett., Noct. f. 362. 
Aden. The larva feeds on Zygophyllum simplex. 

TATHORHTNCHrS TINCTALE, Wlk. XXxiv. 1476. 

Aden. 

Leucania sicuLA, Treit. x. 2, 90. 
Lahej, Arabia. 

LBtrcANiA FKiPirNCTA, Haw. Lep. Brit. p. 174. 
Aden. 

NONAGRIA CONPrSA, Wlk. ix. 105. 
Lahej, Arabia ; Aden. 

AcONTIINiE. 

Megalodes, n. sp. 

Aden. A specimen too worn to describe. 



^ 



1896.] MOTHS FEOM ADEN AXD SOMALILAND. 261 

Taeache notabilis, Wlk. xi. 669. 

Lahej, Arabia. A pale, slightly-marked specimen ; fore wing 
vdth. the costal marks reduced to specks ; hind wing with slight 
trace of fuscous at apex only. 

Tabache taeia, Wlk. xxxiii. 772. 
Aden. 

Taeache flayonigba, Swinh, P. Z. S. 1884, p. 522, pi. 47. f. 15. 
Aden. 

AcoNTiA GR^LLSii, Feisth. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vi. p, 300, pi. 12. 
f. 3. 

Zanihodes innocens, Wlk. xv. 1752. 
Aden ; Lahej, Arabia. 

AcoNTiA nfsiGNis, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 500. 

Aden. 

Larva \vith three pairs of prolegs ; dull orange with interrupted 
brownish bands between the somites, the four medial bands darker 
and more prominent ; each somite with paired lateral spots ; warty 
and clothed with short bristles. Food-plant Anarrhinum pedi- 
cellatum. 

Xanthopteea mesozona, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 9.) 

2 . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous, the last suffused with 
fuscous. Fore wing ochreous, a black spot at base of eosta and 
two specks beyond it ; a broad medial black band ; a black disco- 
cellular speck ; a faint postmedial line arising from a black spot 
on costa and excurved below costa ; a slightly sinuous silvery 
submarginal line with black spot inside it on costa; a marginal 
black line widening at apex. Hind wing fuscous. 
Hub. Aden {Yerhury). Exp. 20 mm. 

Maeimatha subflayalis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1205. 
Aden. 

Metacheostis qfinaeia, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 371. 
Sbaik Othman, Arabia. 

Metacheostis ateibasalis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 11.) 

cJ . Head and thorax black ; abdomen fuscous, ochreous towards 
base. Fore w-ing bright ochreous ; the basal area black with erect 
outer edge ; a medial triangular black patch on costa extending 
almost to lower angle of cell; outer area black with a grey 
tinge, its inner edge indented at veins 6 and 3. Hind wing pale 
fuscous. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 12 mm. 

This species in facias resembles Acontiainsiynig and Xantho^ 
ptera mesozona, having the same black and yellow coloration. 



262 LOBD WALSINGHAM AND ME. G. F. SAMPSON ON [Feb. 18, 

EuBLEMMA BULLA, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 518, pi. 47. f. 9. 

Aden. 

The fore wing more ochreous than in Indian specimens. 

Etjblemma paeta, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett., Noct. fig. 356. 
Aden. 

EuBLBMMA BiFASCiATA, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 371. 
Aden. 

EuBLEMMA DivisA, Moore, P..Z. S. 1881, p. 371. 
Aden. 

Etjblemma seminivba, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 19.) 

(S . Head and thorax pure white ; base of palpi and abdomen 
yellowish. Pore wing with the basal half pure white, the costa 
with two specks and its edge dark ; the outer half red-brown, with 
fine erect black line on its inner edge, which is slightly indented 
at veins 5 and 2 ; a triangular white patch on costa before apex ; 
some submarginal black specks ; a marginal white line ; the 
cilia grey. Hind wing white ; the outer area slightly suffused 
with ochreous. 

Hab. Aden {Terbury). Exp. 15 mm. 

Eublemma ecth^mata, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 6.) 

_ c? • Pure white ; palpi, antennae, and abdomen slightly tinged 
with fuscous ; two dark specks on basal half of costa and one on 
inner margin ; an oblique line from middle of costa to inner 
margin near outer angle, with a triangular patch of pink suffusion 
beyond it from costa to its apex on vein 2 ; an indistinct double 
postmedial line forming a whorl-shaped mark at end of cell ; a 
submarginal series of dark specks ; cilia tinged with pink. Hind 
wing with the outer area suffused with pink ; the ciHa pink. 
Hab. Shaik Othman, Arabia (Nurse). Eccp. 18 mm. 

Eublemma abeupta, Wlk. xxxiii. 830. 
Aden ; Lahej and Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Saerotheipin^. 

Plotheia celtis, Moore, Lep. E. I. C. p. 353, pi. 16. f. 8. 
Aden. 

Hybl^a pueea. Cram. Pap. Exot. pi. 103. ff. D, E. 
Aden. 

Cletthaeea minoeella, Wlk. xxxv. 1730. 
Aden, 



1896.] MOTHS FEOM ADElf AND SOMALILAlfD. 263 

EriELiiK.?;. 
EuTBLiA DISCISTBI6A, "Wlk. xxxiii. 823. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

GOKOPTEEIN^. 

CosMOPHiLA MESOGONA, Wlk. xiii. 1002. 
Aden; Zaila, Somaliland. 

CosMOPHiLA SABTJLiPEEA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 404. 
Gonitis projiinqua, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 497. 
Aden; Zaila, Somaliland. 

COSMOPHILA EEOSA, Hiibn. Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. ii, 19, 
ff. 287, 288. 

Aden : Zaila, SomaKland. 

Chiteia akcuata, Wlk. zii. 779. 
Zaila, Somaliland. 

QuADEIFISTjE. 

Ntctipao latona. Cram. Pap. Exot. i. p. 20, pi. 13. f. B. 
Aden. 

PoLTDESMA QTJENAVADi, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 438. 
Aden. 

POLYDESMA TETIJSTA, Wlk. XXxiii. 875. 

Aden. 

Melipotis ateosignata, Wlk. xv. 1770. 
Aden. 

Melipotis teebueti, Butl. A. M. N. H. (6) x. p. 327. 
Aden. 

Melipotis melanodokta, n. sp. 

Head and thorax grey, irrorated with brown and black ; abdomen 
brownish ochreous. Fore wing whitish, suffused with pale reddish 
brown and irrorated with black ; an indistinct highly waved ante- 
medial black line ; an ill-defined lunulate discocellular mark ; traces 
of two waved medial lines and of a minutely dentate postmedial 
line excurved beyond cell, then bent inwards to the medial lines ; 
a dentate submarginal line sending some dentate black marks 
inwards ; the marginal area rufous ; a marginal series of black 
striae ; cilia whitish, with three dark patches. Hind wing ochreous, 
the outer area browner ; indistinct sinuous postmedial and curved 
submarginal lines ; cilia white. 

Hob. Aden {Terhury). Exp. 24 mm. 



264 LOBD WAI/Sllf GHAM AND MB. G. T. HAMPSON ON [Feb. 18, 

GrNAMPTONTx TiLis, Wlk. xxxiii. 889. 
Aden. 

PSETJDOPHIA BENENOTATA, WaiT. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 313. 

Lahej and Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

PsETTDOPHiA DEViA, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 520, p. 48. f. 3. 
Aden ; Labej, Arabia. 

PSETJDOPHIA INDECISA, Wlk. xii. 829. 
Aden. 

PsEUDOPHiA ocHBiBASALis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 31.) 

Head and thorax ochreous ; abdomen dirty white. Pore wing 
with the basal third ochreous, the outer two-thirds fuscous ; a 
short waved subbasal line from costa with grey inside it ; a post- 
medial line excurved and sinuous between veins 6 and 8, with 
ochreous on its outer edge and ochreous discocellular spot inside 
it; traces of a dentate gi-ey submarginal line arising from an 
ochreous mark on costa ; a marginal series of white specks ; cilia 
grey at tips. Hind wing semih valine white, with fuscous marginal 
band narrowing from costa to vein 2. 

Hah. Aden {Yerhury, Nurse). Exp. S 22, $ 26 mm. 

Sphingomobpha chlobea, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii. pi. 104. f. C. 
SpMngomorpTia monteironis, Butl. A. M. N. H. (4) xvi. p. 406. 
Aden. 

Ophiusa melicebte, Drury, Exot. Ins. i. p. 46, pi. 23. f. i. 

Achcea catella, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 247. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Larva a semilooper with broad blue-black dorsal line and paired 
lateral creamy-white hues ; food-plant Eiiphorhia systyla. 

Ophitjsa algiba, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 836. 
Aden. 

Htp^tea leucopteea, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 1.) 

White, very shghtly suffused with brown and irrorated with 
fuscous. Fore vAng with slightly sinuous curved antemedial 
black line, with fuscous suffusion on its inner edge ; a postmedial 
black line slightly sinuous from costa to vein 4, then bent inwards 
to below end of cell, and outwardly oblique to inner margin, its 
outer edge with fuscous suffusion, broad in the sinus below middle ; 
a subapical black spot and marginal series of specks. Hind wing 
with slight postmedial and marginal fuscous suffusion. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 28 mm. 

Plecopteba beflexa, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 430. 
Zaila, Somaliland. One female. 



1896.] ilOTHS TBOM ADEN AND SOMAULASD. 265 

Eemigia eepanda, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, 49, 133. 

Remigia conveniens, Wlk. xiv. 1507. 

Aden. 

Eemigia feugalis, Fabr. Syst. Ent. vi. p. 601. 
Aden; Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

ThigOjN'odes htppasia, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. pi. 250, E. 

OpMusa anfractuosa, Boisd. Eaun. Ent. Madag., Lep. p. 104, 
pi. 15. f. 6. 

Trigonodes aeutata, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 283. 
Aden. 

Geammodes stolida, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 599. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Entomogramma nigeiceps, Wlk. xv. 1595. 
Lahej, Arabia. 

Theemesia EUBEiCAifs, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madag., Lep. p. 106, 
pi. 16. f. 1. 

Lahej, Arabia; Zaila, Somaliland. 

HoM^A CLATHEFii, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 207. 
Aden. 

Ophideees mateejta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 840. 
Aden. 

PSETTDOCALPB VAGABUITDA, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 519, pi. 47. f . 5. 
Aden. 

Plitsia eeiosoma, Doubl. Dieffenbaeh's Neu- Zealand, ii. p. 285. 
Zaila, Somaliland. 

Pltjsia limbieena, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 350. 
Aden. 

Pltjsia si, Hubn. Noct. pi. 58. f. 284. 

Aden. 

FociiLrN^. 

Eapaeita digeamma, "Wlk. xxxiv. 1170. 

Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 
The common form of the species at Aden is the variety lactea, 
but the typical form also occurs. 

Rapaeita impaeata, "Wlk. xv. 1777. 
Magulaba mcestalis, "Wlk. xxxiv. 1127. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 



266 IjOEd walshstgham aitd mb. g. f. hampsoi? on [Feb. 18, 

Deltoidik^. 

PSETJDAGLOSSA FTTMOSA, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 26.) 

(S . Palpi obliquely curved ; antennse with long branches dimin- 
ishing to apex. Pale brown, thickly irrorated with fuscous. 
Pore wing with some fuscous at base of costa ; traces of waved 
antemedial and two medial dark lines ; a discocellular black lunule ; 
a rather more defined postmedial waved line arising from a dark 
spot on the costa and with traces of another line beyond it ; a 
marginal series of dark specks. Hind wing fuscous, with two dark 
marks at anal angle. 

Hah. Aden (Nurse). Exp. 18 mm. 

HxPENA MASUBiALis, Gueu. Delt. & Pyr. p. 38. 
Hypena obacerralis, Wlk. xvi. 53. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Hypena LiviDALis, HUbn. Samml. eur. Schmett., Pyr. ff. 11, 186. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Htpena ABTssmiALis, Guen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 39. 

Hypena jussalis, "Wlk. xvi. 52. 

Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Htpena obsitams, Hiibn. Samml. eur. Schmett., Pyr. ff. 164-5. 
Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

LTMANTEIIDiE. 

Thiaoidas tilis, Wlk. xxxii. 348. 
Zaila, Somaliland. 

EUPEOCTIS EASCIATA, Wlk. iv. 809. 

Aden. 

Larva highly urticating ; feeds on a creeper. 

SATtTENIID^. 

Satuenia oubie, Guerin, Voy. en Abyssinie, p. 387, pi. 12, 
ff. 1, 2. 
Somaliland. 

Geombteid^. 

BoaemiinjE. 
Tepheina disputaeia, Guen. Phal. ii. p. 489. 
Tephrina sublimbata, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 502. 
Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Tepheina catalatjnaeia, Guen. Phal. ii. p. 108. 
Aden ; Lahej and Shaik Othman, Arabia. 



1896.] MOTHS TEOM ADEIT AND SOMALILAND. 267 

Oesonoba clelia, Cram. Pap. Exot. iii. p. 172, pi. 288. ff. B, C. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

liAEBNTirKrJE. 

Grenus Acidaliastis, nov. 

Palpi minute and hardly reaching beyond the frons ; proboscis 
absent ; antennae of male bipectinated ; hind tibiae with the medial 
spurs absent. Fore wing with vein 2 from towards end of cell ; 
4, 5 from angle ; 6 from above middle of discocellulars ; 7, 8, 9, 10 
stalked, 7 being giA'eu off beyond 10, and 9 near the apex ; 11 
becoming coincident Mith 12. Hind wing with vein 2 from near 
angle of cell ; 3, 4 from angle ; 5 from middle of discocellulars ; 6, 
7 on a long stalk ; 8 anastomosing with the cell to near end of it. 

Acidaliastis micra, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 20.) 

Chalky white. Fore wing with oblique brown Hne from upper 
angle of cell to inner margin ; a prominent black discocellular 
spot ; an oblique slightly curved brown postmedial line. Hind 
wing with postmedial black speck on inner margin ; both wings 
with some marginal black specks. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exjy. 10 mm. 

AciDALIINiE. 

Ceaspedia acttjaeia, "Wlk. xxii. 752. 
Aden ; Lahej and Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Ceaspedia jacta, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 526, pi. 48. f. 12. 
Aden. 

AoiDALiA TESTACEA, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 863, pi. 57. f. 15. 
Aden. 

Ephtea etjfisteigata, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 3.) 

Pale brownish ochreous ; antennae with the shaft whitish ; wings 
thickly marked with minute brown striae and irrorated with a few 
dark scales ; a dark cell-speck and traces of postmedial and sub- 
marginal lines. Underside thickly marked with pink striae and 
with incomplete pink submarginal line. 

Hah. Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia (Nurse). Exp. 22 mm. 

Emmiltis nigeescens, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 2.) 

cJ . Dark brown, irrorated with grey, white, and ochreous. Pore 
wing with sinuous black antemedial line ; a black discocellular spot 
on an obscure line which is bent inwards below cell ; a postmedial 
Kne slightly bent outwards between veins 6 and 3, the area between 
it and the medial line suffused with brown ; a sinuous white sub- 
marginal line with a more prominent and whiter sinus at middle 
and dark suffusion on its inner edge. Hind wing browner, with 



268 LORD WALBIKGHAM AND ME. G. F. HAMPSON ON [Feb. 18, 

black cell-specks and pale waved postmedial and submarginal lines ; 
both -wings with fine black marginal line. 

Hah. Aden {Yerhury, Nurse). Exp. 18 mm. 

Allied to E. (Fidonia) megiaria, Oberth., and its Egyptian race 
obscuraria, Beth.-Baker. 

GeOMETBINjE. 

Nemokia solidaeia, Gnen. Phal. i. p. 348. 
Shaik Othman and Lahej, Arabia. 

Nemoeia puLVEBEisPAESA, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 27.) 
$ . Whitish, thickly irrorated and mottled with fuscous brown ; 
both wings with indistinct discocellular spot and waved ante- and 
postmedial lines. Underside whiter. 

Hab. Aden. Exp. 22 mm. 

Nemoeia dieec'ta, Wlk. xxii. 535. 

Aden. 

EucEOSTis dispaeata, Wlk. xxii. 567. 

Aden. 

Sphingid^. 

AcHEEONTiA STYX, Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. p. 88, pi. 42. f. 3. 

Aden ; rare. 

Peotopaece coNVOLVtTLi, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 798. 

Protoparce orientalis, Butl. Trans. Z. S. ix. p. 609. 

Aden. 

Basiothia MEDEA, Fabr. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 143. 

Sphinx idricKS, Drury, 111. Exot. Ins. iii. pi. 2. £. 2. 

Aden. 

Daphnis neeii, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 798. 

Aden. Larva green or orange. Eood-plant Adenum obesum. 

DiLEPHiLA LivoENiCA, Esp. Schmett. ii. pp. 87, 196, pi. 8. f. 4. 
Aden. Larva on Boerhavia elegans. 

Ch^eocampa alecto, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 802. 
Aden ; May, at flowers of Poinciana elata. 

Ch^eocampa celeeio, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 800. 

Aden. 

Larva black or green. Pood -plant Boerhavia elegans. 

Maceoglossa teochiltjs, Hiibn. Samml. exot. Schmett. ii. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 



1896.] MOTHS FBOM ADEN AND SOMALILAND. 269 

LOPHTEA NANA, Wlk, viii. 107. 

Aden. 

Larva various shades of green oi' pinkish ; a prominent white 
lateral stripe \vith a yellowish stripe above it, and some of the 
ground-colour between the two ; some specimens with chocolate- 
coloured dorsal snake-like markings. Food-plant Oldenlandia 
schimpfen. 

Cephonodes hylas, Linn. Mant. p. 539. 
Zaila, Somaliland. 

Ptralid^. 
Galeeiin^. 
AcHRCEA GKiSELLA, Fabr. Ent. Syst. p. 289. 
Aden. 

Crambin.e. 

Eeomene ocellea, Haw. Lep. Brit. p. 486. 
Aden, 

Eeomene patonialis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 28.) 

Head grey ; thorax white, finely mottled with black scales ; 
abdomen pale, suffused with fuscous. Fore wing white, finely and 
thickly mottled with black scales ; traces of an erect antemedial 
yellow line ; a yellow band from lower angle of cell to inner margin, 
with four black marks on it ; a yellow spot with some black scales 
on it beyond the cell ; a postmedial whitish line excurved between 
veins 6 and 4. Hind wing white, suffused with fuscous towards 
outer margin ; a fuscous marginal line and a dark line through 
the cilia. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 22 mm. 

Platttes icteeicalis, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 876, pi. 57. f. 16. 
Lahej, Arabia. 

Ceambus letjcozonellus, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 5.) 

2 . Head white ; thorax white and grey ; abdomen white. 
Fore wing grey ; the costa white, broadening to the subapical line ; 
a white fascia from base along median nervure dividing into three 
branches towards outer margin, the lowest branch not reaching 
the margin, a black marginal speck below each branch ; the inner 
margin with diffused white on it; a rufous postmedial line angled 
outwards on vein 6 and. inwards on vein 2, then bent inwards 
to inner margin ; two ferruginous lines across apex, the inner 
becoming a sinuous submarginal line. Hind wing white. 

Another specimen has the costa of fore wing grey ; the medial 
fascia much more diffused and its branches ill -defined. 

Hah. Aden. Exp. 22 mm. 



270 LOED WALSINGHAM AND MB. G. F. HAMPSON ON [Feb. 18, 

Anctlolomia chrysogbaphella, Koll. Hiig. Kasch. iv. p. 494. 
Aden. 

AlfEEASTIIlS'jE. 

AifEBASTiA ABLtriELLA, Zell. Isis, 1839, p. 177. 

Aden. 

PoLYOCHA DEPBESSELLA, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 876, pi. 57. f . 5. 

Aden ; Lahej, Arabia. 

PoLYOCHA STBIGICOSTELLA, n. Sp. 

Palpi of male with the 2nd joint hollowed out to receive the 
brush-like maxillary palpi ; antennae uniseriate, with a tnffc of 
black hair in the basal sinus ; fore wing with veins 4, 5 from cell ; 
hind wing with vein 3 stalked with 4, 5. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey, with an ochreous tinge. Fore 
wing grey, all the veins defined by fine black streaks ; a diffused 
reddish-ochreous fascia below median nervure, and a short diffused 
ochreous fascia on base of inner margin. Hind wing pure white. 

Eah. Lahej, Arabia (Nurse). Exp. 26 mm. 

PHXCITIIfiE. 

Ephestia catjtella, "Wlk. xxvii. p. 73. 

Aden. 

Ephestia elutella, Hiibn. 

Aden. 

HoMiEosoMA XANTHOTEiCHA, Staud. Stett. e. Zeit. 1859, p. 226. 

Lahej, Arabia. 

Heteeogbaphis yebbiteii, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 502. 

Aden. 

Heteeogbaphis twiPUWCTELLA, n. sp. 

Palpi of male with the 2nd joint hollowed out to contain the 
brush-like maxillary palpi ; frons with a rounded prominence ; 
antennae ciliated. 

Head and thorax grey and fuscous ; abdomen, with a rufous 
tinge. Fore wing grey, tliickly irrorated with fuscous ; an indistinct 
dark antemedial line angled inwards in cell, then becoming white, 
with a fulvous patch on its inner side becoming fuscous at inner 
margin ; a black speck at lower angle of. cell ; a sinuous dark sub- 
marginal line outwardly defined by white, beyond which is a fuscous 
patch at apex and a fulvous patch from vein 6 to inner margin. 
Hind wing semihyaline white ; the veins, marginal area, and a 
line through the cilia brown. 

Hah. Aden {Yerhury, Nurse) ; Punjab (Harford). Exjp. 18 mm. 



1896,] MOTHS FBOM ADEN AKD SOMALILAITD. 271 

Hbteeogbaphis cabnibasalis, n. sp. 

(S . Maxillary palpi thickly scaled ; frons with a rounded pro- 
minence ; antennae laminate. 

Head and thorax rufous and grey ; abdomen whitish. Fore 
wing with the basal area rufous, deepening to the antemedial line, 
which is straight, oblique, white, irrorated with black and inwardly 
edged with black ; the medial, costal, and outer areas irrorated with 
pink-brown scales, the rest of the medial area diffused with olive- 
brown ; an oblique white postmedial line irrorated with black 
scales. Hind wing whitish, suffused towards margin with pale 
brown. 

ITab. Aden (Nurse). Exp. 12 mm. 

HeTEBOGEAPHIS PBOIflPHEA, n. sp. 

cf . Maxillary palpi minute ; frons rounded ; antennae ciliated. 

Head grey ; thoi'ax and abdomen pale rufous. Fore wing pale 
rufous, suffused with vinous purple ; the costal area white, irro- 
rated with purple, and tapering to base and apex ; a white spot on 
vein 1 before middle ; an indistinct straight whitish submarginal 
line. Hind wing pale brown ; the cilia white. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 16 mm. 

AnCTLOSIS NIGBITABSEA, n. Sp. 

cJ . Antennae with slight sinus and roughened scales on base of 
shaft. 

Grey ; palpi white, the extremity of 2nd and the 3rd joint 
black ; legs white, the tarsi and extremity of hind tibiae black ; 
abdomen with pale rings. Fore wing suffused and irrorated with 
fuscous ; the costal area white, irrorated with red scales, and 
tapering to base and apex. Hind wing white, with pale brown 
marginal line. 

Hab. Shaik Othman, Ai'abia (Nurse). Exp. 18 mm. 

ANCTLOSia rUSCOSPAESELLA, Zell. 

Aden. Most of the specimens have vein 4 of the hind wing 
given off just before the margin. 

NEPHOPTEBrx DiviSELLA, Dup. Lep. Fr., Suppl. iv. p. 126, 
pi. 60. f. ix. 
Aden. 

Nephoptebtx (Thtlocoptila) PAtJEOSEJXA, Meyr. Ent. Mo. 
Mag. 1885, p. 106. 

Lahej and Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Nephopteetx (Salebeia) metamelana, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 7.) 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey, the last with the terminal 
segments blackish in male. Fore wing grey, diffused and irrorated 
with black ; the costal area whiter to the postmedial line ; a black 
basal speck ; an obliquely sinuous black antemedial line, with 



272 LORD WALSINGH.\.M AND ME. G. F. HAMPSOX OIT [Feb. 18, 

oehreous band on its inner edge, inside which is sometimes a 
black spot below median nervure ; the two discocellular black 
specks sometimes conjoined into a luuule and with an oehreous 
and black mark on costa above them ; a submarginal sinuous 
black line, with oehreous band on its outer edge and diffused black 
patch beyond it on costa. Hind ^^"ing white ; both wings with 
fine black and oehreous marginal line, most prominent on fore 
wing, which has two fine dark lines through the cilia. Underside 
of male with a jet-black spot at base of costa of hind wing. 
Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 20 mm. 

NEPHOPTEnrx (Salebria) nigristbiata, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 22.) 

c? . Head and thorax white, irrorated with black ; abdomen 
brownish. Fore wing white irrorated with black, the inner area 
tinged with oehreous; a short black streak below- the base of 
costa ; a long streak below median nervure and a short streak on 
median nervure ; an antemedial black line running out to an acute 
angle to lower angle of cell, then interrupted ; postmedial black 
streaks on subcostals and veins 6, 5, and 1 ; a double submarginal 
black line slightly excurved at middle. Hind wing oehreous white, 
Underside with a jet-black spot on base of costa of fore wing. 

Hab. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 1-i mm. 

Phycita phcenicoceaspis, n. sp. 

S . Palpi with the second joint hollowed out to receive the 
maxillai'y palpi, which are triangular and flattened against the 
frons ; antenna; with a sinus at base of shaft containing a ridge of 
large scales. 

Head and thorax grey, irrorated with a few pink scales ; abdo- 
men white. Fore wing fuscous, thickly irrorated with white and 
pink scales ; a w^hite costal fascia thickly irrorated with pink from 
before middle to near apex ; an ill-defined brown antemedial band ; 
an indistinct medial line excurved at middle ; a brown patch at 
lower angle of cell; a submarginal sinuous line with a brown 
patch on its inner side. Hind wing iridescent hyaline white, with 
fuscous marginal line and line through the cilia. 

Hah. Aden {Yerhurij). Exp. 20 mm. 

Larva gregarious ; yellow with black bands ; much infested by 
Ichneumons ; feeds on a prickly shi'ub. 

Phtcita poteeiella, Zell. Isis, 1846, p. 7-13. 
Aden. 

Epiceocis (Candiope) JOAimisELLA, Eag. Nouv. Gen. Phyc. 
p. 14 ; Mon. Phyc. pi. 10. f. 12. 

Aden. 

Epiceocis (Candiope) eettbescens, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 30.) . 

cJ . Differs fi'om E.joannisella in being suffused with pink. Fore 
wing with the first line more medial and with a dark patch before 



1896.] ilOTHS FEOM .UDEy AlfD SOiLAXILAITD. 273 

it above inner margin, and a triangular diffused pale patch beyond 
it embracing the discocellular spot and Avithout streaks on the 
veins ; marginal band pink, with a series of dark marginal specks. 

5 . Abdomen marked with brown and black ; fore wing without 
the postmedial pale costal patch. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. S 16, ? 18 mm. 

Etiella zikckenella, Treit. Schmett. Eur. iz. p. 201. 
Aden. 

'PyRAJjISM. 

Ptealis obsoletalis, Mann. Wien. ent. Mon. 1864, p. 179. 
Aden. 

CoNSTA>"TIA TULGAEIS, Butl. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 621. 

Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

CoNSTANTiA (Zojs'oea) eufimaeglsalis, n. sp. 

(J . Head and thorax pale red-brown and grey ; abdomen pale. 
Fore wing pale red-brown irrorated with black, which is thickest 
on disc and before the postmedial minutely dentate white line, 
which is angled outwards on vein 6, then curved to vein 2 ; the 
outer area somewhat more rufous, with a diffused dark subapical 
spot and dark marginal line. Hind wing pale brown, suffused with 
fuscous. 

Hah. Lahej, Arabia {Nurse). Exp. 20 mm. 

SCHCEIfOBIIN^. 

THiEiDOpnoEA FUEiA, Swinh. p. Z. S. 1884, p. 519, pi. 47. f. 13. 
Aden. 

Htdeocasipinje. 

AuLACODEs PEEiBOCALis, Wlk. xvii. p. 446. 
Aden. 

DupoNCHEiiiA FOTEALis, Zell. Isis, 1847, p. 588. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Pteatjstin^. 

ZiNCKEMA FASCiALis, Cram. Pap. Exot. iv. pi. 398. f . O. 
Aden ; Shaik Othman, Arabia ; Zaila, SomalQand. 

Nacoleia ttjlgalis, G-uen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 202, pi. 6. f. 8. 
Lahej, Arabia. 

BoccHoEis ostchinaxis, Guen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 205, pi. 6. f. 9. 
Aden. 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XVin. 18 



274 LOED WALSINGHAM AKB ME. G. F. HAMPSOIf Olf [Eeb. 18, 

BoccHOEis iNSPEESAXis, Zell. Lep. CafEr. p. 33. 
Desmia afflictalis, Gruen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 191, pi. 5. f. 4. 
Aden ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Maeasmia teapezalis, Guen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 200. 
Lahej, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Pagtda teadtjcalis, Zell. Lep. Caffr. p. 54. 
Aden. 

Gi-TPHODES UNioNALis, HUbn. Eur. Schmett., Pyr. £. 132. 
Margarodes transvisalis, Guen. Delt. & Pyr. p. 304. 
Aden. 

Gltphodes indica, Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1851, p. 163. 
Aden. 

Helluia UNDAiis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. 2, p. 226. 
Aden ; Shaik Othman, Ai-abia. 

Ceocidolomia binotalis, Zell. Lep. Caffr. p. 65. 
Shaik Othman and Lahej, Arabia. 

Tegostoma compaealis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 347. 

Aden. 

Tegostoma bipaetalis, n. sp. 

Head and thorax yellowish white, with brown stripe on vertex ; 
abdomen pale fuscous. Pore wing very pale yellow, with diffused 
pale olive-brown stripes on basal half ; the outer area leaden grey 
with a reddish suffusion, its inner edge obUque. Hind wing 
fuscous, with traces of broad darker marginal band. 

Hab. Aden {Terhury, Nurse). Exp. 14 mm. 

Apoeodes floealis, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett., Pyr. f. 142. 
Aden. 

Apoeodes albilinealis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 4.) 
Grey-brown ; abdomen whitish. Fore wing with straight erect 
medial white hne ; a discocellular white line with black speck on 
it at lower angle of cell and two white specks above it on costa ; a 
sub marginal white line angled outwards on vein 6, then incurved ; 
a speck on costa near apex and marginal line. Hind wing whitish, 
with brown suffusion on apical area ; a fine marginal dark line and 
line at base of cilia. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 18 mm. 

Mecyna poltgonalis, Hiibn. Schmett. Eur., Pyr. p. 409, pi. 4. 
f. 2. 
Mecyna deprivalis, Wlk. xix. 806. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 



1896.] MOTHS FEOil ADEir AJSTD SOiLlLILANB. 275 

NooEDA FESSALis, Swinli. P. Z. S. 1886, p. 459, pi. 41. £. 13. 
Aden. 

NoOEDA BLITEALIS, Wlk. xix. 979. 

Aden. 

Antigastea catalaunalis, Dup. Le'p. Fr. viii. p. 330, pi. 232. 
f. 8. 

Aden ; Lahej, Arabia. 

XoiioPHiLA NocruELLA, Schiff. Wien. Verz. p. 136. 
Aden. 

Pachtzancla iiUTUALis, Zell. Lep. Caffr. p. 40. 
Zaila, Somaliland. 

Pteausta aeabica, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 500. 
Aden. 

PxEAUSTA PHCEXiCBALis, Hiibn. Verz. p. 348. 
Lahej, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Pyeausta iifOOLOE.Aj:-is, Gueu. Delt. & P^^r. p. 333. 

Spilodes nitetisalis, Wlk. xviii. 773. 

Aden ; Shaik Othtaan, Arabia ; Zaila, Somaliland. 

Pteausta pcEDiusALis, Wlk. xviii. 788. 
Aden. 

Pteausta isgloeialis, Zell., ? MS. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

Gen. Aplecteoptjs, nov. 

Palpi porrect, triangularly scaled, the 3rd joint hidden by hair ; 
maxillary palpi filiform ; frons rounded ; antennae of male ciliated ; 
mid and hind tibias with the terminal spurs minute, the medial 
spurs absent. Fore wing short and broad, the apex rounded; 
veins 3, 4, 5 from angle of cell ; 7 straight and M-ell separated 
from 8, 9. Hind wing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell ; 5 from 
above angle ; 6, 7 from upper angle, 7 anastomosing with 8 almost 
to apex. 

Ajlecteopus letjcopis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 10.) 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black-brown, irrorated with grey ; 
tarsi pure white. Fore wing reddish brown, irrorated and suffused 
with fuscous ; a curved dark antemedial Une ; a prominent round 
white discocellular spot ; a black line from costa near apex with 
white beyond it below apex, running out to the margin between 

18* 



276 tOED WALSINGltAlt ASD itE, G. P. HAMPSON OS [Feb. l8, 

veins 5 and 2, then recurved almost to lower angle of cell, and vnth 
grey in the sinus. Hind wing fuscous, with rufous marginal band 
defined by a black line and narrowing to anal angle. 
Hab. Aden (Yerhury, Nurse). Exp. 12-18 mm. 

EuRXCEEOH KUDAMS, Hiibn. Samml. eur. Schmett., Pyr. f. 90. 
Aden ; Shaik Othman and Huswah, Arabia. 

EUEYCREON ALBIFASCIALIS, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 29.) 

$ . Head and thorax dark brown and grey with a cupreous 
tinge ; abdomen white suffused with fuscous. Pore wing cupreous 
brown, irrorated with grey ; a white fascia from base below median 
nervure and vein 2 to end of cell ; a quadrate white spot in end of 
cell, with a series of three streaks beyond it, running obliquely to 
costa near apex ; the outer margin pale. Hind wing white, suffused 
with pale fuscous and brown ; a dark marginal Line. 
Hab. Aden {Nurse). Exp. 22 mm. 

DosAEA PALMALis, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 525, pi. 48. f. 11. 
Aden. 

Metasia PEOFAifALis, Wlk. xxxiv. 1403. 
Aden. 

LiMACODIDiE. 

Paeasa PULYi-coEprs, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 12.) 

S . Head pale yellow ; collar, patagia, and metathorax fringed 
with deep fulvous ; thorax blue-green ; abdomen pale yellow, dorsum 
deep fulvous. Fore wing blue-green, the costa pale j'ellow. Hind 
wing pale yellow. 

Hah. Aden {Nurse). Exji. 22 mm. 

Lasiocampid^. 

Taeagama acacia, Klug, Ehren. Symb. Phys. pi. ix. 
Shaik Othman, Arabia. 

C o s s 1 D ^. 

Eeemocossub PEOLEtrcA, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 24.) 

Head, thorax, and abdomen white with slight fuscous tinge. 
Pore wing brown, with broad white costal fascia hardly reaching 
apex ; a white fascia from base of inner margin to middle of vein 1 ; 
an oblique white band from outer margin below apex, expanding 
into a large patch on disc, reaching middle of median nervure. 
Hind wing white. 

Hab, Aden {Terhury, Nurse). Exp. 22-32 mm. 

The larva feeds on Acacia. 



1896.] MOTHS PEOM ADEN AKD SOMALILAITD. 277 

S B S 1 1 D ^. 

Genus Ceinipus, nov. 

Palpi upturned and reaching vertex of head, the 2nd joint 
moderately fringed in front, the 3rd short ; proboscis present ; 
antennae of male with minute fascicles of cilia ; mid and liind 
tibiae with medial and terminal tufts of hair ; hind tarsi with the 
1st joint tufted. Fore wing with veins 2 and 3 closely approxi- 
mated from angle of cell ; 4, 5, 6 at intervals ; 7, 8 stalked. Hind 
wing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell or shortly stalked ; 5 absent; 
6 from below upper angle. 

Allied to AschistophJeps and Olwjophlehia, Hmpsn. 

Ceinipits LExrcozoiriPus, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 21.) 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black ; palpi in front, frons, and a 
line behind the eyes white; tibiae, tarsi, and 4th segment of abdo- 
men banded ■wdth white ; some grey scales on 1st and last abdominal 
segments. Wings hyaline, the veins black; fore wing with black 
margins and discocellular band ; both wings with the cilia brown. 

Hah. Aden (Yerbury, Ntirse). Exp, 14 mm. 

PlEEOPHOEIDiE. 

Teichoptiltis, Wlsm. 
Teichoptilus oxtdacttlxis, AVkr. 

Pterophorus occydactylus, Wkr. Cat. Lep. Ins. B. M. xxx. 944 

(1864)'. 

Aciptilia oxydactyla, Wlsm. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 885 (1886) \ 
Pterophorus oxydactylus, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii.p. 528-9, pi. 209. 

16 (1887) '; Swinh. & Cotes, Cat. Moths Ind. p. 669. no. 4549 

(1889)*. 

[2=:Trichoptilus centetes, Meyr. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1886, p. 16- 

17 '; 1887, p. 266 '; Wlsm. P. Z. S. 1891, p. 494-5 (1892) ^] 
Imago. 15 II.— 9 III. (Terbury, Nurse), IX.,' [?XI.'J, XH.^' 
Hah. Ceylon^"'; India — Poona^ Bombay* ; S.W. Arabia — Aden 

(Terbury, Nurse); l^ahej (Terbury, Nurse) ; [? New Guinea — Port 

Moresby '; ? Queensland *: ? West Indies — St. Vincent '']. 

toeteicid^. 

Oletheetitin^. 

Pammene, Hb. 

Pammene phaeaonana, Kllr. 

6rap7iolitha pharaonana, Kllr. Wien. ent. Monats. ii. p. 154-8, 
pi. V. 1-5 (1858) \ 

GrapJiolitha, sp., Frfld. Ver. z.-b. Ges. Wien, ix. Abh. p. 321-3, 
pLvi. 1, pi. vii. 2(1859)^ 



278 LOED WALSINGHAM AKD MB. G, I". HAMPSON ON [Feb. 18, 

Grap7iolif7iap7iaraonana,Jjdi.'Wien. ent. Mon. iii. p. 339 (1859)'; 
iv. p. 157-8(1 860) \ 

Grapholita pharaonana, Wkr. Cat. Lep. Ins. B. M. xxvii. p. 266 

(1863) '. 

Larva in galls on Tamarix articulaia, XII.' 

Imago. II.', 20 II. (.Yerhury). 

Hah. Egypt — Cairo ', Alexandria^ ; S.W. Arabia— Sbaik Othman 
(Terbury). 

The specimen collected by Col. Terbury has the hind wings 
slightly darker than in Egyptian specimens. 

Geiechiadje. 
SiTOTEOGA, Hein. 

SiTOTEOGA CBEEALELLA, Oliv. 

Sitotroga cerealella, OUv. ; Stgr. & Wk. Cat. 296, no. 2009 (1871). 
Hah. Europe, N. America, Australia, Canaries. S.W. Arabia — 
Aden, 18 III. 1895 (iVwrn). 

Gelechia, Hb. 

G-ELECHIA MOIilTOE, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennas meal-white, faintly annulated. 

Palpi somewhat flattened, closely clothed, recurved laterally to 
above the head ; apical joint shorter than thes econd, gradually 
tapering but not slender ; meal-white. 

Head and thorax meal-white. 

Fore wings elongate, lanceolate towards the apex; meal-white 
with some indication of a darker shade above the base of the fold, 
a slight greyish shade spot at the end of the cell and some very 
faint greyish shade spots around the termen at the base of the costal 
and terminal cilia, which are also meal-white. Exp. al. 14 mm. 

Hind wings somewhat iridescent, greyish white ; cilia mealy 
white. 

Abdomen mealy whitish. 

Legs mealy white. 

Type, cJ. 

Hah. Aden, 12 IV. 1895 (one specimen. Nurse). 

Anaesia, Z. 
Anaesia acacijE, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennce greyish. 

Palpi brownish fuscous externally, but with the anterior margin 
hoary white. 

Head hoary whitish. 

Ihorax greyish. 

Fore wings hoary greyish, with numerous short longitudinal 
streaks of greyish fuscous intermixed with lighter and darker 
shades of the ground-colour : of these the more conspicuous are 



1896.] MOTHS FROM ADEN" AND SOMATJI/AND. 279 

one at the base of the fold and one along the upper edge of the 
outer half of the fold, another at the lower edge of the discal cell 
beyond the middle, almost joining a more slender one beyond it, 
which nearly attains the termen ; on the middle of the costa is a 
short oblique greyish-fuscous shade ; cilia greyish, tending to 
ochreous along their base at the tornus, with slender darker lines 
running through them. Underside shining pale greyish ; c? ^ith 
a conspicuous tuft of jet-black hairs arising near the base of the 
dorsum. Exx^. al. 13 mm. 

Hind wings shining, somewhat iridescent, bluish grey : cilia 
greyish ochreous. Underside shining pale greyish. 

Abdomen greyish, inclining to ochreous at the base. 

Legs pale greyish ochreous, with faintly spotted hind tarsi. 

Type, cJ $ . 

Hah. S.W. Arabia — Aden (8 specimens, Yerhury, Nurse) ; Africa 
— Algeria (one specimen, Coll. Eagonot). 

Larva in seed-pods of Acacia edgivorthii — excl. 7-23. III. 
(Yerbury) ; Acacia famesiana (Eagonot "No. 1137, Wlsm. 1894"). 

I first received an example of this species for examination from 
my late friend Monsieur E. Eagonot, who called my attention to 
the peculiar tuft of black hair-scales on the underside of the fore 
wing of the d . He had received it from Algeria bred from Acacia 
famesiana, but I am not aware that he had published any descrip- 
tion of it before his death, although I told him that I quite agreed 
with him in regarding it as a new species. 

ElACHISTIDjE. 

Laveena, Crt^ 
Laveena gambiella, Wlsm. 

Laverna gambiella, Wlsm. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1891, p. 117, 
pi. V. 54 (1891) \ 

Hab. W. Africa— Gambia ^ S.W. Arabia— Aden, 12 IV. 1895 
{Nurse). 

SCTTHEIS, Hb. 
= § BuTALis, Tr. 

SCTTHRIS OCHEEA, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennce pale ochreous. 
Palpi pale brownish ochreous. 
Head and thorax pale brownish ochreous. 

Fore wings and cilia unicolorous pale brownish ochreous, the 
latter becoming slightly paler at the tornus. 

Hind wings cinereous ; cUia brownish ochreous. Exp. al. 13 mm. 

Abdomen greyish. 

Legs pale greyish ochreous. 

Type, 2. 

Hab. Aden, 21 III. 1895 (two specimens, Nurse). 

Allied to Butalis subeburnea, Wlsm. 



280 loed walsingham aitd mb. 6. t. hampson on [feb. 18, 

Eeetmoceba, Z. 

Ebetmocera fasciata, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antemic^ greyish fuscous. 

Paljn dusky greyish. 

Head and thorax bronzy greyish fuscous. 

Fore ivings bronzy greyish fuscous ; A\-ith a straight, transverse, 
pale whitish oehreous fascia before the middle, followed by a dorsal 
spot before the tornus and a rather larger costal spot of the same 
colour before the commencement of the cilia ; some faint whitish 
oehreous speckling on the wing-surface ; cilia brownish grey, with 
a few aeneous scales along their base. Exp. al. 9 mm. 

Hind ivings dark grey ; cilia with a slightly brownish tinge. 

Abdomen at the extreme base with a whitish oehreous band and 
a dark purphsh patch below it, the remainder rich reddish orange ; 
the anal segments dark purplish fuscous. 

Legs dark purple, with pale whitish oehreous bands at the joints ; 
spurs pale whitish oehreous. 

Type, S- 

Hab. Somaliland— Zaila, 2 YI. 1895 (Nurse) ; Arabia— Shaik 
Othman, 21 IV. 1895 (Nurse) : two specimens. 

Plittellid^. 
PLriELLA, Schrk. 

Pltjtella cbucifebarijm, Z., Stgr. & "Wk. Cat. pp. 281 & 425 
no. 1626 (1871). 

Hab. (cosmopolitan). S.W. Arabia— Aden, 12 IV. 1894 (Nirse). 

Tineid^. 
TiNEHf-s;. 
Teichophaga, Eag. 
Tbichophaga swnraoEi, Butl. 

Tinea siuinUei, Butl. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 502-3 \ 
N. syn.= Trichophaga coprobiella, Eag. Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. Ixiii 
p. 120-4, figg. (1894) \ 

Larva in hair-tubes in camels' dung, feeding on hair ^ : dogs' 
dung, 7 II.— 23 II. (Yerbury). 

Imago, b. l.\ 24 II.— 8 IV. (Yerbury). 

Hab. N.E. Africa— Obok (Gulf of tajurah) ^ ; S.W. Arabia- 
Aden ^ (Yerbury), Little Aden (Yerbury), Shaik Othman (Yerbury). 

Monsieur Eagonot created the genus TricJiophaga to include 
the three species tapetzeUa, L., ahrupteUa, AVlstn. (=bipartitella, 
Eag.), and coprobiella, making the latter the type. Some specimens 
received from Col. Yerbury, bred from larvae feeding in the dung 
of dogs (and I am informed also in that of the hyaena) at Aden, 
caused me to compare cop>robieUa (of which I have a co-type) with 



1896.J MOTHS FROM ABEIf AND S02IALILAND. 281 

swinhoei, Btl. Their better condition proves them to be the same, 
and unites Eagonot's and Butler's names as synonyms. The 
habit of feeding on hair, which caused Eagonot to give it the name 
TiicJiophaga, is supported by additional evidence in the case of 
Col. Terbury's larvae, for the excrement is naturally charged 
with the hair of various animals forming the food of the dog or of 
the hyseua, and the tubes or cases formed by the larvse, which 
project from the dry substance, are A'ery similar to those which 
Eagonot received with his specimens. It would be curious to 
ascertain whether our common T. tapetzella has ever been found 
feeding in the dry casts of o^^is or in the excrement of cats or other 
animals, or forming tubes among these substances, where the 
conditions would be somewhat similar to those which conduce 
to this habit in the case of Butler's species. T. tapetzella has been 
observed in great abundance on palings in the neighbourhood of 
Brandon, where " furrier's waste "(the trimmings of rabbits' skins) 
is much used for manuring the fields, and where I have also taken 
Monopis imella, Hb., very commonly. 

It is very remarkable that the peculiar neuration of T. tapetzella, 
a species described so long ago as 1758, should have remained 
unnoticed until the attention of my late friend was called to it in 
examining the structure of this African and Asiatic species. It 
seems to form a good generic distinction, at present including only 
three described species. 

TeICHOPHAGA ABEtrPTELLA, Wlstu. 

Tinea abru2}tella,'W\stn. Ann. & Mag. N. H. (3 s.) i. 120 (1858)'; 
"Wkr. Cat. Lp. Ins. B. M. xxx. 1003 (1864)-. 

Tiyiea bipartitella, Eag. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1892, p. Ixxxii^ 
Tinea tapetzella, Ebl. Ann. k.-k. Hofmus. vii. 268-9, 283 

(1893) ^ ix. 17(1894)'. 

TrichopJiaga bipartitella, Eag. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ixiii. 122-4 

(1894) ^ 

Trichophaga abruptella, Wlsm. P. Z. S. 1894, 541 ^ 

Hah. Madeiras*'^ — Porto Santo ''^'^ ; Canaries — Gran Canaria*"'; 

Tunis— Gabes '■ ' ; Egypt '' ; Somaliland— Zaila, 21 Y. 1895 {Nurse) ; 

S.W. Arabia— Aden, 30 IV. 1895 {Nurse). 

TufEOLA, H.-S. 

TrtfEOLA T-ENi^icoRNis, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antenna stout, flattened horizontally ; pale ochreous. 
Palpi pale ochreous. 

Head brownish above ; face rusty ochreous. 
Thorax shining pale ochreous. 

Fore ivings shining pale ochreous ; sHghtly darkened at the base 
of the costa ; cilia the colour of the wings. Exp. al. 16 mm. 
Hind wings greyish ochreous ; cilia the same. 
Typ>e, S- 
Hob. Aden, 14 III. (one specimen, Yerbury). 



282 OIT MOTHS FROM ADEN AND SOMALILAND. [Feb. 18, 

This species differs from all hitherto described species of Tineola 
in the form of the antennae, which are much stouter and more 
distinctly flattened than in biselUella, Jlumm., which it also exceeds 
in size. This form of antenna attains its greatest development in 
Ceylon. 

Phthoeopcea, Wlsm., g. n. 

(00opon-oids= causing injury.) 

Tj'pe. PhtJioropcea carpella, Wlsm. 

AntenncE less than the length of the fore wings, simple. 

Labial joalpi porrect, somewhat thickly clothed, apical joint 
concealed. 

Maxillary palpi minute. 

Haustellum apparently obsolete. 

Ocelli 1 

Head and/rtf€ roughly clothed with projecting hair-scales. 

Thorax smooth. 

Fore wings elongate, somewhat lanceolate, costa straight, apex 
depressed. Neuration 11 veins (7 and 8 coincident), the rest 
separate ; 9 and 1 almost anastomosed before the costa ; the fork 
at the base of vein 1 apparently obsolete. 

Hind wings almost 1, somewhat triangular, tapering to a narrow 
point, abdominal angle developed. Neuration 8 veins, all separate. 

Legs : hind tibiae somewhat hairy. 

Phthoeopcea carpella, "Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennce greyish ochreous. 

Palpi brownish fuscous. 

Head and face ferruginous. 

ihorax bronzy fuscous, with two pale longitudinal streaks. 

Fore wings bronzy brownish fuscous, with a paler streak along 
the dorsum and with three or four tufts of shghtly raised scales 
showing a little darker than the ground-colour ; the first on the 
middle of the fold with a smaller one above it on the disc, a second 
towards the end of the fold and another at the end of the cell ; 
a dark fuscous line runs along the termen and another along the 
ends of the cilia, which have a tendency to give an uncate appear- 
ance to the apex. Exp. al. J 12 mm., 5 16 mm. 

Hind uings shining pale bronzy grey ; the cilia, which are very 
long about the abdominal angle, are slightly paler. Underside 
shining bronzy grey, slightly paler than the fore \Aings. 

Abdomen pale greyish ochreous, with two dark lateral spots at 
the base beneath. 

Legs greyish ochreous, hind tarsi faintly speckled ; anterior legs 
fuscous externally. 

Type, S . 

Hah. Aden (three specimens, Terbury, Nurse). 

Larva in fruit of Solanum, sp. (Terbury) ; in seed-pods of Acacia 
edgworthii (Nurse). 



'^^' 






3^'^^ 



^^ 






PZ.S -1896, Plate X. 




E-CKui-glit iel clliai, 

Lepidoptera from Aratia. 5c Somahrlaxid 



West Ke^vrtifii-M cliyoxno 



1896.] 



ON THE METALLIC COLOTJBS OF BIRDS. 



283 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 



Pi g. 1. Hypatra leiicoptera, p. 264. 

2. Emmiltis nigrescens, p. 267. 

3. Ephyra mfistrigata, p. 267. 

4. Aporodes alhilinealis, p. 274. 

5. Cramhus leiicozonellus, p. 269. 

6. Eubkmma ecthmmata, p. 262. 

7. Kephopferyx metavielana, 

p. 271. 

8. Heliothis pictifascia, p. 259. 

9. Xanihoptera mesoeona, p. 261. 

10. Aplectropus leitcopis, p. 275. 

11. Metachrosiis atribasalis, 

p. 261. 

12. Parasa fidvi-corpus, p. 276. 

13. Pupa of Teracolus pjiisadia, 

pp. 245, 252. 

14. Pupa of Teracolus yerburii, 

pp. 246, 254. 

15. Pupa of Teracolus protomedia, 

p. 256. 



Fig. 16. 
17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 
24. 

25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



lolatis nursei, (^ , p. 251. 
Pupa of Teracolus halimede, 

pp. 246, 253. 
Pupa of Teracolus pleione, 

p. 245. 
Euhlevima semmivea, p. 262. 
Acidaliastis micra, p. 267. 
Crinipus leucosonipus, p. 277. 
Nephopteryx nigristriata, 

p. 272. 
Arckinola pyralidia, p. 259. 
Eremocossus proleuca, p. 276. 
Spilosoma arahicum, p. 258. 
Pseudaglossa fumosa, p. 266. 
Nemoria pulvereisparsa, p. 268. 
Eroviene pavonialis, p. 269. 
Eurycreon albifascialis, p. 276. 
Epicrocis eriibescens, p. 272. 
Pseudophia ochribasatis, p. 264. 



3. Observations on the Metallic Colours of the Trochilidee 
and the NectariniidfB. By Miss Marion I. Newbigin, 
B.Sc.i 

[Received January 13, 1896.] 
(Plates XI. & Xn.) 

The metallic colours of birds form a subject of great interest, 
and one, moreover, which bas not yet been fully investigated. 
The great interest of the subject lies in the fact that metallic 
colour in birds is often almost entirely confined to the male sex. 
If the colours and ornaments of the male sex are, as "Wallace and 
others have maintained, an expression of his greater " vitality and 
growth-power," it may reasonably be asked why this vitality 
should so frequently express itself in structural colour, which can 
hardly be supposed to have much physiological importance. 
Although the present paper does not profess to attack the problem 
of the origin in the physiological processes of the individual of 
these colours, yet it is hoped that some of the points discussed 
may ultimately prove of service in the solution of this problem. 

The famihes of the Humming-birds and Sun-birds were chosen 
for two reasons. In the first place, both families include species or 
genera exhibiting metallic colouring of extraordinary brilliancy, 
and also other genera and species which are devoid of all metallic 
colouring. In the second place, the two families present marked, 
if superficial, points of resemblance, although systematists are all 
agreed in separating them very widely. On this account it was 
thought that a detailed comparison of their colouring would disclose 
facts of interest. 

* Communicated by F. E. Bkddaed, F.E.S. 



284 MISS TfEWBIGIN OS THE [Feb. 18, 

First, as to the distribution of metallic colours in the two 
families. — In the Sun-birds, the metallic tints are usually, though 
not invariabl}', confined to the male sex, and this in spite of tbe 
fact that the nests are domed. In the male, brilliant patches of 
colour frequently occur on the upper surface of the head and on 
the throat. Eather less frequently the contour-feathers of both 
the upper and lower surface show metallic tints (e. g., Nectarinia 
famosa). On the other hand the rectrices very frequently show a 
longitudinal band of colour, or, more rarelj', the central two may 
be wholly metallic (e. g., ^tJiojiyga seherice). The tail-coverts are 
frequently metallic, the wing-coverts only rarely so, and the %ving- 
quills hardly ever show any metallic colouring. Thus, in general, 
the metallic tints occur on the feathers in two ways. There may 
be a broad transverse band of metallic colour occupying the whole 
of the visible part of the feather ; this occurs especially on the 
head and throat, more rarely on the general contour-feathers. 
Again, the metallic tinting may occur as a longitudinal band of 
varying width at the edges of the feather; this is especially seen 
in the rectrices, more rarely in the case of the greater ■«ing- 
coverts. In some cases these longitudinal bands may become so 
much widened as to occupy the whole of the feather : this seems 
only to occur in the central rectrices. 

As to the range of metallic colour in Sun-birds, it is readily seen 
that the commonest metallic colours are green, blue, and violet ; a 
reddish violet is more uncommon, and a pure bronze-red and a golden 
yellow seem both to be absent. This last point is of interest in 
view of the fact that red and yellow (lipochrome) pigments are 
very widely spread in the family. 

In Humming-birds metallic tints occur in both sexes, but are 
usually more brilliant in the male. They very frequently occur 
on the general contour-feathers, the colour being then often a 
bronze-green, which is not sharply confined to a transverse band, 
but fades away gradually behind. The metallic colours which are 
especially characteristic of Humming-birds, however, occur, as is 
well known, in patches of extraordinary brilliancy either on the 
head as a crest, or on the lower surface, especially of the throat. 
The feathers forming these patches are peculiarly modified, and 
may display any of the colours of the spectrum including ruby-red 
and golden-yellow — the colours which are so markedly absent 
from the metallic feathers of Sun-birds. The rectrices of 
Humming-birds not infrequently display metallic colour, which 
may be distributed over the whole feather or may be limited to a 
transverse band near the tip. Longitudinal bands of metallic 
colour such as those of the Sun-birds do not seem to occur. 

Pigmental colours among Humming-birds are not remarkable 
for brightness of tint, being usually shades of grey or dull brown. 
The only marked exception is the colour called by systematists 
" rich chestnut " or " cinnamon," which is often limited to the 
males, as for example in Evstephanus fernandensis c? . In this 
connection it may be noticed that not only are metallic tints 



1896.] ME*tAI.tIC OOLOUHS OP BlKDS. 285 

almost invariably absent fi'oin tbe wings, but where, as in the 
above species, the male as compared with the female is charac- 
terized by the development of a special pigmental colour, this 
pigment is entirely absent from the wing- quills, though present 
in the wing-coverts. 

Having thus described some of the special pecuharities of 
distribution of the metallic tints of the two families, it may be 
well to consider what is known as to this kind of colom-ing. The 
most important paper is that of Gadow (" The Coloration of 
Feathers as affected by Structure," Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, 
pp. 409-421, 2 pis. ; see also Bronn's ' Thierreich,' Bd. vi. Abt. iv, 
S. 575-584) ; but more recently there has been pubhshed a re- 
search from the physicist's standpoint (' Die Oberfliichen- oder 
Schillerfarben,' von B. Walter : Braunschweig, vi-|-122 pp., 
8 figs., 1 pi., 1895). Gadow distinguishes metallic colours as 
subjective, and thus contrasted with objective unchanging structural 
colours such as the green of many Parrots' feathers. He examined 
numerous feathers showing metalhc colour, and found that all 
looked black when the eye was placed in the plane of the feather 
between the light and the feather, and also when the feather was 
placed under a similar condition between the eye and the light. 
In intermediate positions certain of the colours of the spectrum 
could be observed in the order in which they appear in the 
spectrum. Thus a feather A^hich when looked at from above is 
green, when successively moved through the positions named 
above, shows the colours black, green, blue, violet, black ; while a 
red feather would usually show a greater, and a blue a less range 
of colour. Further, on examining certain metallic feathers micro- 
scopically, Gadow found that " in any metallic feather the metallic 
colour is confined to the radii which are entirely devoid of cilia, 
and consist of a series of variously shaped compartments which 
overlap one another like the tiles of a roof." ' The direct physical 
cause of the colour Gadow considers to be the transparent sheath 
of keratin which covers the compartments, and which according 
to him acts like a series of prisms. Such metallic radii always 
contain blackish-brown pigment (melanin). 

Gadow's theory that the metallic colour of birds' feathers is 
due to the dispersion of white light by prisms is strongly opposed 
by Walter {op. cit.) on physical grounds. Walter holds that all 
the structural colours of animals are " Schillerfarben." He does 
not appear to distinguish between Gadow's subjective and objective 
colours, but compares the pigments of the coloured tissues to such 
colouring-matters as fuchsia and " diamond-green." This analogy 
hardly seems to be compatible with our present knowledge of the 
melanin pigments in birds, but the question is not one which 
directly affects the present discussion. 

Eeturning to Gadow's description of metallic feathers, it is 
obvious tliat if the type described by him is of universal occurrence, 

1 A similar statement in the article " Colour " in Newton's ' Dictionary of 
Birds ' is qualified by the words " as a rule," but no details are given. 



286 MISS KEWBIGIN" ON THE [Feb. 18, 

then metallic quill-feathers must be useless for purposes of flight. 
Owing to the absence of cilia, the barbules are wholly unconnected, 
and so can offer little resistance to the air. The unconnected 
nature of the bra-bules may frequently be observed in metallic 
feathers by the unaided eye, e. g., in the feathers of the Peacock. 
In confirmation of the belief that such metallic feathers must be 
useless for purposes of flight, we find that the long metallic 
feathers of the Peacock or Quezal are not the tail-quills, but 
merely the tail-coverts, and that the wing-quills in both cases are 
non-metallic. While endeavouring to continue this chain of 
reasoning, however, the writer was struck by the fact that in 
Humming-birds, where the power of flight is so marked, not 
only are the rectrices frequently metallic, but they displayed a 
closeness of textm-e which seemed incompatible with Gadow's state- 
ment that ciliae are always absent from the radii of metallic 
feathers. The metallic feathers of Sun-bu'ds, on the other hand, 
show always a certain looseness of texture as compared with the 
non-metallic. On examining the respective feathers of Sun-birds 
and Humming-birds microscopically, it was found that marked 
differences exist between them. 

"We will first describe a purple metallic feather of the Sun-bird 
Cinnyris amethystina. When examined by the unaided eye (PI. XI. 
fig. 1), this feather is seen to be divided into three regions. 
There is a distinct terminal band of metallic colour, distinguishable 
by its deep pigmentation and peculiar structure. Next we have a 
band of close texture and brown colour, which has an indentation 
at its lower end. Finally, the base of the feather is of an ashy 
colour and downy structure. The basal indentation of the brown 
band possesses some interest, because Darwin (' Descent of Man,' 
2nd edition, p. 430 et seq.) regarded a similar indentation in the 
centre of the ocellus of the Peacock as evidence of its origin from 
two confluent ocelli. 

It is possible to obtain from the feather described a single barb 
which bears barbules belonging to each of the three regions : in 
this way transition forms can be very readily seen. 

The basal barbules exhibit the usual structure of downy barbules, 
that is to say the distal portion, which from its (apparent) shape 
may be called the lamina, is more or less rudimentary, while the 
distal or filamentous region is greatly elongated and very slender, 
has only rudimentary cilise, and consists of a series of joints slightly 
overlapping one another (PI. XI. fig. 2). 

The barbules of the middle region possess a well-developed 
lamina and a long filamentous region furnished with cilia and, in 
the case of the distal barbules, with distinct hamuli (PL XI. fig. 3). 

The barbules of the metallic region are metamorphosed into short, 
wide, club-shaped bodies, supported on broad stalks (PI. XI. fig. 4). 
These clubs are deeply pigmented with brown, and show very 
distinctly transverse bars— the compartments of Gadow. Although 
to the unaided eye the transition between the metallic and the 
non-metallic barbules is abrupt, yet microscopically it is sufficiently 



1896.] METALLIC COLOUBS OF BIRDS. 287 

gradual to show that the stalk of the metallic barbule is the 
rudimentary lamina, and the club-shaped body a modification of the 
distal region of an ordinary barbule. As was observed by Gradow, 
the cilia are totally suppressed. 

To contrast with this feather, we may take one from the biul- 
liant green gorget of the Humming-bird Basilinna leucotis (PI. XI. 
fig. 7). Such a feather is comparatively short, and the especial bril- 
liancy is confined to a darkly pigmented apical band. The apex of the 
feather is very abruptly rounded and the barbs are closely connected 
so as to give a plate-like or scaly appearance. The surface is 
strongly marked with furrows, which when examined with a lens 
are seen to correspond to the barbs, each of which lies as it were 
at the bottom of a trough. The sides of this trough are formed by 
the two rows of barbules, which are inserted at a distinct angle. 
The sides of the trough have an unequal slope, as the proximal 
barbules are inserted at a larger angle than the distal. A further 
point of interest is that the naked barbs are prolonged beyond the 
apex of the feather, producing the appearance of a very delicate 
fringe. This prolongation of the naked barb was noticed many 
years ago (see the Introduction to Gould's Monograph of the 
Humming-birds), and its meaning will be explained later on. 

Examined microscopically, the downy barbules of this feather 
show nothing particularly worthy of notice. The remaining bar- 
bules have all a well-developed lamina, and a distal region usually 
well provided with cilia. Those nearest the apex of the barb, that 
is those which are very brilliantly metallic, are A'ery darkly pig- 
mented (PI. XI. fig. 9). Those near the base of the upper barbs are 
much less strongly pigmented, and show very little metallic colour. 
Between the two extremes there are also other marked differences 
(PI. XI. figs. 8 and 9). Thus in the basal barbules there is no marked 
angle between the proximal flattened region and the distal cilia- 
bearing region. In the apical barbules the proximal region is widened 
and has a well-marked infolding, while the distal region is inclined 
to it at such an angle as to be almost invisible in surface view 
(PI. XI. fig. 10). 

Microscopically, the naked tip of the barb is seen to be furnished 
with rudiments of barbules. 

As this type of metallic feather occurs in all the Humming- 
birds of which the feathers were examined, it is obvious that Gadow's 
statement that all metallic barbules are devoid of cilia is too 
universal. It is certainly true for a great number of cases (Sun- 
birds, Peacock, &c.), because in these it is the region which ordi- 
narily bears the cilia — the distal or filamentous region — which is 
modified into the colour-producing structure, and in the course of 
the modification the ciha are lost. In the Humming-birds, on the 
other hand, it is the proximal region of the barbule which is the 
colour-producing structure, and in consequence the filamentous 
region is not affected and may bear cilia as usual. In the feather 
described above, the ciUa are exceedingly well-developed in the 
metallic barbules. 

Though this paper is not concerned with the physical cause of 



288 MISS NEWBIGIN ON THE [Feb. 18, 

colour, it may be noticed as a fact for future investigators that, as 
is indicated in the figures, the laminae in the feather described show 
more or less distinctly an arrangement of cross-bars (or compart- 
ments). This is common in the case of the Humming-birds, but it 
is also sometimes distinctly visible in the laminae of the barbules of 
Sun-birds (see PI. XI. fig. 3 and PI. XTl. fig. 18), so that its signi- 
ficance is somewhat doubtful. One other fact in connection with 
the metallic colour may be noted. Contrary to the usual rule, the 
feather of the Humming-bird mentioned under certain circumstances 
exhibits metallic tiuts by transmitted light even under 5" objective. 
When this occurs, it is clearly seen that the colour is confined to the 
dark infolded part of the barbule, which alone under ordinary circum- 
stances is visible (see PI. XI. fig. 10). This infolded part cannot, 
however, be itself the cause of the metallic colour, for it is absent 
from the metallic feathers in some cases (see PI. XII. fig. 19). 

The ridging of the surface of the feather produced by the way 
in which the barbules are inserted, though apparently a factor in 
colour production, cannot be absolutely essential, for it is some- 
times absent. Thus, in Calothorax lucifer in the brilliant throat- 
patch the feathers in the middle line are very distinctly ridged and 
have the usual plate-like structure, while those at the sides of the 
throat are quite devoid of ridges but do not show diminished 
brightness. Similarly, in Cyanoleshia gonjo the brilliant green 
feathers of the crest are perfectly smooth, and have a certain hard 
gloss which is absent in the ridged feathers. 

The fact that in Humming-birds it is the proximal, and in Sun- 
bii'ds the distal region of the barbules which is metallic has more 
effect upon the general coloration than might at first sight be 
supposed. It is, in the first place, now obvious that there is no- 
thing in the structure of the metallic feathers of Humming-birds 
which is likely to affect their efficiency even in quill-feathers. We 
can thus understand how it is that many of the tail-quills in 
Humming-birds, and even the wing-quills in Eidampis jugularis, 
may exhibit metallic colour and yet perform their usual function. 
But this is not the only effect produced by the difference. In Sun- 
birds the lamina is rudimentary in the metallic barbules ; now the 
lamina tends to become rudimentary in the barbules at the bases 
of the barbs, that is in downy barbules, and in the barbules at 
the apices of the barbs. Downy barbules never seem to show a 
tendency to become metallic, and we thus find that in Sun-birds the 
metallic barbules occur only at the ends of the barbs. A little re- 
flection will show that the consequence of this is, that the metallic 
barbules will form_ a transverse band on contour-feathers, where 
the ends of the barbs stand much on the same level, and a longi- 
tudinal band on quill-feathers where the rachis is much elongated. 
The position of the bands of metallic colour on the feathers of Sun- 
birds is thus a consequence of the kind of modification to which their 
metallic barbules are subject. (See PL XI. fig. 1 and PI. XII. fig. 17.) 

In Humming-birds there is an almost complete reversal of this 
state of affairs. In them the metallic barbules have an extremely 



1896.] METALLIC COLOTTRS OF BIRDS. 289 

well-developed lamina ; therefore in this case metallic barbules can 
occur only towards the middle of the barb in contour-feathers, for 
this is the only place where the lamina is well-developed. In 
other words, in contour-feathers the metallic band cannot be, or is 
not primitively, terminal. Where it seems to be terminal, as in 
the feather described above, this is accomplished by a total or partial 
suppression of the terminal barbules, the naked barb persisting 
and forming the delicate fringe already noticed. This does not, 
however, occur in quill-feathers to the same extent, because these as 
a rule are characterized throughout by having barbules with very 
weU-developed laminae. Thus it is by no means uncommon to 
find terminal bands of metallic colour in the tail-quills of Humming- 
birds, or we may find the whole surface metallic : there never seems 
to be a longitudinal edging of metallic colour. 

Conviction as to the truth of the statement here made, that 
metallic bands on the contour-feathers of Humming-birds are not 
primitively terminal, is best attained by considering a series of 
cases. 

In Eustephanus f/aleritus, female, the breast is covered with greyish 
feathers which have near their centre a spot of brownish pigment 
which shows a faint metallic-green sheen. In the breast-feathers 
of E.fernandensis, female, undoubtedly a more specialized species, 
the spots are not much larger but the pigmentation is darker, and the 
metallic colour is much more brilliant. This kind of metallic colour- 
ing is very frequent, especially among the females of many species or 
genera {of. the species of the genus Oreotrochilus). If the barb of 
such a feather is examined mici-oscopically, it is seen that all the bar- 
bules with well-developed lamina? contain pigment and are metallic. 
Towards the base of the barb the barbules are colourless and downy, 
towards its apex they are colourless and short, the lamina is rudi- 
mentary, the filamentous portion is somewhat expanded and bears 
only rudimentary cilia (PI. XI. fig. 11). Between this type and 
that of the gorget-feathers of Basilinna hucotis (PL XI. fig. 12) 
there are all stages in the suppression of these apical barbules. Thus 
in Eustephanus fernandensis, female, itself the feathers of the poste- 
rior region of the back are brilliant green, but are quite distinctly 
tipped with white. In the specialized crest which this female is 
almost peculiar in possessing this white edging is much reduced, 
but the colourless apical barbules are still quite visible with a lens. 

In general, we may say that while the feathers of the specially 
brilliant patches have barbs with naked tips, the ordinary metallic 
contour-features have barbs which bear at their tips a series of 
non-metallic barbules. Thus the green feathers on the back even 
of Basilinna leucotis have a distinct border of pale rufous colour. 
This is of some interest from the point of view of the development 
of the metallic colours of Humming-birds. In Phaetkornis eui-ynome, 
one of the so-called 'hermit' forms without any brilliancy of 
colour, the feathers of the back are greyish black edged with a 
broad band of yellowish colour ; the dark region exhibits a very 
faint greenish sheen. If we begin with a type like this, the evolu- 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XIX. 19 



290 MISS NEWBIGIN ON THE [Feb. 18, 

tion of the ordinary metallic contour-feathers of most Humming- 
birds has been accompanied by a reduction of this terminal band 
in width and in the individual barbules forming it, a large increase 
of pigment in the laminae of the barbules forming the blackish- 
grey part of the feather in Phaethoniis, and a specialization of the 
barbules of this region, of which the most obvious result is the 
shortening of the filamentous portion and its inclination to the 
lamina. In the feathers of the patches of especial brilliancy these 
changes have been carried further, and have been accompanied by 
a shortening of the feather and rounding of its tip, and a change 
in the angle of insertion of the barbules. The changes in the 
wing-quiils seem to have been of a simpler description, and to have 
been chiefly accompanied by a specialization of the lamina. 

As to the meaning to the individual of this progressive change, 
one suggestion may be hazarded. The Humming-birds are espe- 
cially characterized by their power of flight. Now of the many 
correlated variations which must occur dm-ing the gradual improve- 
ment of the power of flight, an increased development of the 
lamina and of cilia and booklets is likely to be important. It is 
therefore perhaps not unreasonable to suppose that the metallic 
colours of Humming-birds are due to a persistence in the same line 
of variation which produced their powers of flight. If Kolliker 
(" Die Entstehung des Pigments," Zeitsch. f . wiss. Zool. vol. xlv.) is 
right in his belief that the formation of pigment is connected with 
the blood-system, it is quite comprehensible that an increase in 
structural specialization should be accompanied by an increase in 
the amount of pigment. It might be objected that the Swifts, 
which are probably nearly allied to the Humming-birds, have also 
great powers of flight and yet do not show metallic colours. In 
reply to this objection, it may be said that it is generally admitted 
that Hummiag-birds have few enemies, and that therefore variations 
might occur in them unchecked which would possibly lead to 
elimination in other forms. A more important objection is that 
the wings do not usually show metallic colour : it seems impossible 
to suggest a reason for this beyond the simple fact that the wings 
seem to be slow to vaiy in colour. It will be noticed that, in the 
especially brilliant patches, the extreme closeness of the connection 
between the adjacent barbs is a variation in the dnection of the 
ordinary condition of the feathers of flight. 

The course of the development of metallic tints in Sun-birds ofiers 
many points of contrast to that just described for Humming-birds. 
If we take (PI. XII. fig. 22) one of the ordinary contour-feathers 
of a non-metallic form, such as a female of a species of Clnnyris, 
probably C.jugidaris, it will be found that it presents considerable 
resemblance to a corresponding feather from a " hermit" Humming- 
bird. Thus it consists of a basal downy region, a mid-regioa 
pigmented with brownish black, and an apical region with discon- 
nected diverging barbs, usually of a dull olive colour. Beginning 
with such a feather, the development of metallic colour is 
accompanied by an increasing predominance and pigmentation of 



1896.] METAIiLIC COLOrES or BIRDS. 291 

this apical band, until such a metallic feather as that of fig. 1 is 
produced. The course of development of the metallic edging of 
quill-feathers may be described in a little more detail. In order 
to illustrate this, it may be convenient to describe in a concrete 
example the differences between the sexes in the coloration of 
mngs and tail. The following notes were made on a female of 
Anthreptes malaccensis and a male in nearly completed moult, but 
the characters of the adult male were checked by reference to ' 
Shelley's ' Monograph of the Sun-birds.' In the male the tail was 
composed of black feathers with an edging of metallic violet, which 
was widest in the case of the two central feathers. In the wings 
the lesser M-ing-coverts had a broad transverse band of metallic violet, 
the median coverts a similar band of dark brown, and the greater 
coverts a longitudinal band of olive-yellow, which becomes brown 
in a completely adult male. The wing-quills themselves were 
greyish brown with olive edges. In the female the tail was dark 
brown with an edging of olive-yellow. The wing-quills and ^^ing- 
coverts were ashy grey with longitudinal or transverse bands of 
olive-yellow distributed in the same way as in the male. In the 
female the general contour-feathers had a broad transverse band 
of olive-yellow, while in the male most of these feathers had been 
replaced by others with transverse metallic bauds. It must be 
noted that in all these cases the olive-yellow part of the feather 
has a peculiar looseness of structure visible even to the unaided 
eye. It should also be observed that the yellow edging to the 
quills is seen both in the rectrices and reraiges of the female in 
this as in numerous other Sun-birds, while in the male the edging 
is replaced in the case of the rectrices by a metallic band. The 
respective distributions of longitudinal and transverse bands should 
be especially noticed, as showing how very closely the nature of 
the stripe depends upon the nature of the feather, that is upon its 
elongation. 

From the above description it is obvious that some sort of relation 
exists between the olive-yellow margins of the feathers of the 
female and the metallic margins of the feathers of the male. 
In general, we may say that there is a tendency for the feathers 
with olive margins in the female to be replaced by feathers with 
metallic margins in the male. It will be noticed that the change 
is associated with increased pigmentation in the male ; in the 
median wing-coverts there is only slightly increased pigmentation 
Avithout metallic colour. Such a tendency is very widely spread 
in the family, but the exteut of replacement differs greatly. Thus 
in the species described above the olive edging of the greater 
wing-coverts and wing-quills is not replaced by a metallic edging 
in the male. In Nectarinia famosa an olive edging in the same 
feathers in the female is replaced in the male by a metallic edging. 
In Anthrobaphes violacea the tail-coverts are edged with yellow in 
the female and in most males : according to Shelley, some males as 
an individual variation have this edging metallic. It is, however, 
needless to multiply examples. Enough has been said to justify 

19* 



292 MISS NEW BIG IN ON THE [Eeb. 18. 

the main contention of the relation between the two kinds of 
feather-edging in Sun-birds. 

Microscopic examination shows that this analogy is not purely 
superficial. PI. XI. fig. 15 represents three barbules from the 
yellow edging of a wing-quill of uS^thopyga seherice, and PI. XT. 
fig. 16 three faintly metallic barbules from the border of the tail- 
quill of Anthreptes malaccensis (? represented in PI. XII. fig. IS). 
With these should be compared the brilliantly metallic barbules 
from the tail-quill oi ^iliopyya seherice (PL XII. fig. 20). Similarly 
the barbules from the olive tip of a contour-feather of a species 
of Cinnyris (PL XII. fig. 24) should be compared with the metallic 
barbules of Cinnyris amethystina (fig. 5 or 14) L These figures 
show that the barbules of the yellow edging of contour-feathers 
or quills agree with metallic barbules in having a rudimentary 
lamina and suppressed cilia, and in distinctly showing a system 
of overlapping compartments. They differ from the true metaUic 
barbules in the absence of the great flattening visible in these, 
and in the want of a considerable amount of dark pigment. 
Prom the faintly metallic barbules of Anthreptes they seem to 
differ only in the absence of pigment. The yellow colouring, at 
least in the case of contour-feathers, is confined to the barbs, 
the barbules are only very faintly pigmented with grey. The 
metallic colouring of the Sun-birds is thus the result of an accen- 
tuation of a type of feather-structure widely spread in the family. 
I have noticed this occurrence of much modified barbules apart 
from metallic colour also in the male Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). 
Some of the long tail-quills have here a very distinct longitudinal 
edging of brownish colour and loose texture. Examined micro- 
scopically, the barbules of this region show distinctly the " metallic" 
structure although there is no visible metallic colour. Similarly 
the chestnut feathers of the breast have a very distinct line across 
them, the distal region having a somewhat burnished surface, and 
terminating finally in a dai'k green metallic tip. Examined micro- 
scopically the barbules of the distal region show distinctly the 
" metallic '"' structure, and except for the absence of black pigment 
seem to differ little from the green metallic barbules. The modi- 
fication is probably a common one, and PL XL fig. 13 shows that 
it is even suggested in the Humming-birds, though in this case it 
does not appear to develop further. 

Gadbw notices that metallic colour appears only on the exposed 
parts of feathers ; apparently the " metallic " modification also occurs 
only ou the exposed parts of feathers near the apices of the barbs. 

One of the most striking features of the coloration of the Sun- 
birds is the almost universal absence of metallic colour from the 
wing-quills, even though these sometimes have an edging of loose 
structure. In Cinnyris auriceps, according to Shelley, the wing- 
quills of the female have olive edgings which are absent in the 
male. It seems reasonable to suppose that a tendency to variation 

' See also some of Gadow's figures, e. g., of a red barbule of Mthopyga ; no 
allusion, Lowever, is made to these in the text. 



1896.] METALLIC COLOFfiS OP BIRDS. 293 

in the wing-quills iu the direction of diminished efficiency for flight 
would be checked by natural selection. 

So far we have seen how the metaUic colours both of Suu-birds 
and Humming-birds depend in each case upon a combination of a 
certain structure and a black pigment. In conclusion somethiug 
may be said as to the colours themselves. In the Sun-birds a 
greenish-blue seems to be the most primitive metallic colour, and 
this is a very common tint elsewhere, e.g. Peacock, Quezal, &c. 
According to G-adow, one of the reasons why any metallic feather 
does not display all the colours of the spectrum is probably because 
the overlapping of successive colour-producing structures cuts out 
certain of the rays. If this overlapping really occurs it seems not 
unnatural to conclude that the middle rays of the spectrum, those 
in the neighbourhood of the green, would be least likely to be 
affected, and we would thus get green as a primitive metallic 
colour. The combination of this structure with a surface sculptur- 
ing might produce a purple or violet tint ; the absence of red and 
yellow may not improbably be a result of physical conditions. 
Walter explains the rarity of red and yellow metallic colours as 
due to the nature of the pigments contained in the coloured tissues, 
but this again is difficult to harmonize with our knowledge of such 
pigments. 

There can be little doubt that in Humming-birds a greenish- 
yellow is the most primitive metallic tint. It is suggested even in 
the " hermit " forms, and is very widely spread on contour-feathers 
elsewhere. In the absence, however, of any suggested physical 
explanation of the metallic colours of Humming-birds, it would 
perhaps be premature to attempt to account for the wonderful 
range of colour found in the family. As to the distribution of 
metallic colour one or two facts still remain to be noticed. Thus 
metallic colour is not always characteristic of the male. In Euste- 
phanus fernandensis female metallic colour is more or less distinctly 
present over nearly the whole of the upper and under surfaces, 
the tail-quills show bright metallic colour, and the head bears a 
special metallic crest. The male, on the other hand, has no metallic 
colour except the bright crest, the rest of the body is cinnamon- 
coloured and without metallic gloss. The absence of metallic 
colour is apparently to be accounted for here by the absence of the 
usual blackish-brown pigment. Again, a specimen marked Topaza 
pella, young male, which was examined, showed metallic-greenish 
feathers in the upper part of the head, a spot which in the adult 
is covered with black feathers. Similarly, Salvin notices that in 
Lamponiis mango the throat in the youiig bird is covered with 
glittering green feathers, and in the adult with pure black ones. 
Thus apparently an excess of black pigment is as fatal to the 
display of metallic colour as its total absence. As to the relation 
between a black colour and metallic tints there are some other 
interesting facts. In Cijanolesbia gorgo the tail-quills are greatly 
elongated and show gorgeous metallic colour, but this is confined 
to the distal end of the feathers, the proximal region being a 



294 MISS NEWBIGIN ON THE [Eeb. 18, 

velvety black. The black region extends further up the vane on 
one side of the rachis than on the other. In mounted specimens 
the overlapping of the quills occurs in such a manner that the 
successive feathers cover over the black region of the feathers in 
front. There seems to be no difference in the amount of pigment 
present in the two regions. Eemembering the, as yet, unexplained 
fact that metallic colours occur only on exposed parts of feathers, 
it seems impossible to doubt that the black region is associated 
with the overlapping of the feathers. The tail is forked, and in 
consequence it is hardly probable that the rectrices can be 
separated and spread out to form the " parachute "-like structure 
which has been described in other forms ; the black area is thus 
permanently covered up. 

In Sapplio sparganura the conditions are almost reversed, the 
exposed parts of the tail-quills are brilliantly metallic, with a band 
of black at the apex. It seems most probable that in this case, as 
in Topaza j^ella, the black colour is pi'oduced by an excess of 
melanin pigment. 

Summari/. — From the account given above it is seen that in the 
metallic feathers of Sun-bu'ds the radii are without cilia and their 
distal regions are more or less completely modified into flattened 
club-shaped bodies containing a large amount of brownish pigment, 
and consisting of a series of " overlapping compartments,'"' as 
described by Gadow. It is also seen, however, that the barbules 
near the apices of the barbs tend throughout this family to become 
modified in this way, so that the distinction between male and' 
female, or specialized aud unspeciahzed forms, is less in the struc- 
ture of the barbules than in the amount of brownish pigment 
present. From the fact that similar conditions are observed in the 
Pheasant it seems probable that this occurs not infrequently. 

In the case of the Humming-birds the metallic colour is confined, 
like the brownish pigment, to the proximal part of the barbules, 
and its presence is not associated with any modification of the 
barbules which affects their efiiciency in the feathers of flight. In 
their case, therefore, metallic colours may occur in the quills of the 
tail or (rarely) wing without interfering with the powers of flight. 
Further, as the metallic colour is associated with a speciahzation of 
the proximal region of the barbule, it cannot in contour-feathers 
primitively form a terminal band; the apparently terminal position 
is produced by the gradual suppression of the apical barbules, in 
which the proximal region is never well-developed. 

The examination of specimens upon which this paper is based 
was chiefly carried on in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, 
and I have to record my obligations especially to Mr. Eagle Clarke 
for his kindness in affording me facilities for doing so, and espe- 
cially for furnishing me with several feathers for microscopic 
investigation. 

The systematic part of the paper is based on Shelley's 'Monograph 
of the Sun-birds' (London, 1876-80), and Salvin's Catalogue of 
Humming-birds (B. M. Catalogue of Birds, vol. xvi. 1892). 



p. Z.S. 1896. Pi. XI. ' 





lAli. 





7 . 




4.. 





11. 




13. 





6. 



d 




16. 



MJ.N,del.J.SirT]t.ln.K. 



IMxTttemBros i-m.p . 



METALLIC COLOURS OF TROCHILID^ AND NECTARINnD^\ 



p. Z.S.1896 PI. XII 



m 




18. 




Jfui/Si/xe^ 





23. 




22;. a 




24. 




19. 



26. 



27. 




25. 



25 u . 

METALLIC COLOURS OF TROCHILID^ AND NECTARlNIiaffi. 



1896.] METALLIC COLOTTES OF BIEDS. 295 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XI. & XIL 

Fig. 1. Violet metallic feather of Cinnyris aTncthijstina, showing three zones : 
a=apical metallic zone; 6=browii pigmented zone with closely 
connected barbules and basal indentation ; e= downy basal zone. 
Fig. 2. Two downy barbules from eame : ^=rudimentary lamina; /=fllament- 
ous region, much elongated and with rudimentary ciliiB. Objectiva 
\", Ocular B. 
Fig. 3. Proximal radius from region b of same, showing well-developed lamina, 
slightly pigmented and marked with cross-bars, and filamentous 
region with well-developed cilia. Ob. ^", Oc. B. 
Fig. 4. Proximal radius of same, showing transition to metallic condition. The 
lamina is rudimentary, and the filamentous region is pigmented and 
somewhat expanded. Ob. ^", Oc. B. 
Fig. 5. Metallic radius of same, showing sbape, compartments, and peculiar 
flattening. The last tliree figures are all of radii taken from different 
levels on the same barb. 
Fig. 6. Fragment of metallic barb under low power, to show position of 

barbules: p=proximal radii; c?=distal. Ob. 1", Oc. B. 
Fig. 7. Metallic feather from gorget of Ba.^ilinna leucotis: a=naked barbs, 
corresponding to zone a of fig. 1; 6 = metallic region of feather, 
corresponding to zone 6 of fig. 1 ; c=downy region. 7 « is a diagram- 
matic cross-section of a single barb, to illustrate the formation of the 
surface-ridges of the feather: (^= distal radius; p=proximal radius; 
d=barb. 

Fig. 8. Proximal radius from the base of one of the metallic barbs of above 
feather. The lamina is only faintly pigmented. Ob. ^", Oc. B. 

Fig. 9. Distal radius from brilliantly metallic region of same. The Lamina is 
deeply pigmented and has a folded-in edge. The filament is without 
pigment. Ob. J", Oc. B. 

Fig. 10. Fragment of metallic barb of same with distal barbules only, to illus- 
trate normal position of barbules. Owing to the angle of insertion of 
the filamentous region, this is not visible in surface view. Ob. \", 
Oc. B. 

Fig. 11. Tip of barb of breast-feather of Eustephanim fcrnandensis J, to illus- 
trate apical modification of barbules. The lower barbules in the 
figure are metallic. Ob. 1", Oc. B. 

Fig. 12. Tip of barb of gorget-feather of BasHinna leucotis, with naked barb 
furnished only with rudiments of apical barbules. Ob. 1", Oc. B. 

Fig. 13. Barbules from three different levels on a barb of a contour-feather of 
Phactkortiis eurynMne to show details of the modification of the original 
apical barbules. Note in passing towards the apex of the barb the 
reduction of the lamina and Qattening of filamentous region. The 
filamentous region is, however, unpigmented. Ob. }", Oc. B, 

Fig. 14. Fragment of barb of Cinnyris ameihystina for comparison, and to show 
junction of metallic and non-metallic regions. Ob. 1'', Oc. B. 

Fig. 15. Three barbules from the yellow edging to a quill oi JEthopyga, seherics. 
Ob. J", Oc. B. 

Kg. 16. Three barbules from metallic edging of quill of Anthreptcs malaccensis. 
Ob. i". Oc. B. 

Fig. 17. Tail-quUl of ^M('Are/)^esw!a^ccce?iSis(?), with metallic edging on right 
side ini). 

Fig. 18. Three non-metallic barbules from above. Ob. J", Oc. B. 

Fig. 19. Three metallic barbules from tail-quill of Eustephanus fernandensis, 
Ob. \", Oc. B. 

Fig. 20. Three brilliantly metallic barbules from central tail-quill oZ Mthopyga 
seheri(B. Ob. ^", Oc. B. 

Fig. 21. Barbules from same quill, but much nearer rachis ; they show partial 
transformation, and in their natural position exhibit a faint though 
distinct metallic sheen. This partial transformation occurs chiefly in 
the ease of distal barbules, and produces a visible effect to the unaided 
eye. Ob. i", Oc. B. 



296 MR. C. W. ANDREWS OTf THE [Feb. 18, 

Fig. 22. Yellowish contour-feather from a species of Cinnyris, the tips of the 

barbs diverge and are unconnected. 
Fig. 23. Barbules from above feather taken from region marked a. Ob. \" , 

Oc. B. 
Fig. 24. Modified terminal barbules taken from region marked h, showing 

"metallic" structure. Ob. ^", Oc. B. 
Fig. 25. Three distal barbules from a metallic quill-feather of a Hummiug-bird, 

to show notched condition of the lamina in some cases. 25 a shows 

the true shape of the distal region as contrasted with its apparent one 

under ordinary conditions. Ob. \", Oc. B. 
Fig. 26. Barbule from edging of tail-quill of Pheasant, non-metallic. 
Fig. 27. Dark green metallic barbule from breast-feather of Pheasant. 



4. On a Skull of Orycteropus gaudryi, Forsyth Major^ from 
Samos. By C. W. Andrews, F.G.S., Assistant in the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

[Received February 4, 1896.] 

The existence of a member of the genus Orycteropus (the Ant- 
Bear or Aarcl-Vark) in the Lower Pliocene of 8amos was first made 
known by Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major in the well-known paper * in 
which he described the results of his excavations in that island. In 
this preliminary note he merely stated that the Pliocene species is 
about one-fifth smaller than the recent forms and that the lateral 
metatarsals are proportionately larger. In a subsequent communi- 
cation ^ he pointed out some characters in the dentition and in the 
form of the skull, particularly in the size and shape of the lachry- 
mal, which further differentiate the fossil from the living species. 

In the present note it is proposed to give figures and a brief 
description of an exceedingly perfect and well-preserved skull of 
this species from Samos which has recently been acquired for the 
National Museum. In this specimen the only important portion 
missing is the anterior end of the snout, which has been broken off 
about 5 centim. in front of the orbit and about 3 centim. from the 
hinder end of the nasals. The right zygomatic arch is lost, but the 
left is complete, and the tympanic ring, frequently lost in mace- 
ration in recent specimens, is preserved on both sides and on the 
left retains its natural position. The mandibular rami are pressed 
together so that their lower edges are in contact throughout their 
lensth. The size indicates an animal about one-fifth less than the 
living species, exactly agreemg in this respect with the type of 
0. gaudryi, to which species it is referred. It wiU be seen that, on 
the whole, the fossil resembles the northern Orycteropus cethiopicus 
rather more than it does the southern 0. cajjensis ^. 

On the occipital surface the mastoid portion of the periotic is less 
prominent than in the recent species, and is more overlapped by 

* Comptes Eendus de I'Academie des Sciences, voL cvii. (1888), p. 1178. 

= Proe. Zool. Soc. 1893, p. 239. 

' For a detailed comparison of the skulls of the recent species, see Duvernoy, 
" Memoire sur les Orycteropes," Ann. Sei. Nat. (Zoologie), ser. 3, vol. xix. ( 1 853), 
p. 185. 



1896.1 



J 



SKFLL OF ORYCTEEOPTJS GAUDRYI. 



297 



the squamosal, which forms a prominent ridge external to it. The 
tympanic ring is nearly circular, instead of being oval with its long 
axis directed downward and forward. The postorbital processes of 
the frontals are larger, and their hinder edges are sharp and thin. 
I cannot detect any difference in the profile of the upper surface of 
the skulls of the recent and fossil forms, except such as may have 
been caused by a slight crushing of the preorbital region ; and the 
difference in the size and form of the lachrymals pointed out by 
Torsyth Major cannot be takea as a character of any great im- 
portance, for the lachrymal in recent skulls varies very considerably, 
and in one specimen from Kassala it is extremely similar both in 
size and shape to the fossil. The antorbital foramen opens above 
the hinder lobe of m.\ and this is also the case in the Kassala skull ; 
in other specimens it is over m-. 





Skull of Orycteropus gaudryi, Forsyth Major. 
A, from above ; B, from side. About two-thirds natural size. 

The mandible differs from that of the recent forms only in the 



298 ON THE SKTTLL OF ORTCTEEOPtTS GAUDUTI. [Feb. 18, 

position of the condyle, which is borne upon a much shorter pedicle 
and has a more horizontal articular surface. 

The minute structure of the teeth is precisely as in 0. capensis, 
so that they give no indications of the possible origin of their 
peculiar character. 

In the left maxilla six teeth remain in place, and in front of them 
is an empty alveolus ; on the right there are five teeth and two 
alveoli. The most anterior tooth preserved is pm. 3 (counting 
from behind forward); this is small and laterally compressed, its 
flat crown slopes downward and forward. The next is similar, 
but less compressed. The hindermost premolar is a stout simple 
tooth ; its worn crown consists of two flat surfaces meeting in an 
angle and forming a transverse ridge. The two first molars are very 
similar to those of the recent species, but tlie last (m.^) is rather 
different. In the living forms it is somewhat variable in shape, 
but usually consists of a single column and is nearly circular iu 
section ; in one sJiuU from Somaliland, it is, however, oval in 
section and shows traces, at least on the outer side, of division 
into two lobes, the hinder being much the smaller. The circular 
type of tooth evidently results from the reduction of the hinder 
lobe, which in the fossil is only a little smaller than the anterior 
one, from which it is separated by a well-marked v^ertical groove on 
the outer side and a less distinct one on the inner. In a young 
skull of a recent species, in which the last molars are only just 
coming into use, they are distinctly bilobed, so that the upper part 
of the crown of the unworn tooth resembles in form the worn 
molar of the Pliocene species. 

In the mandible six teeth are preserved on both sides. The two 
anterior ones are much compressed ; the next is stouter and its 
grinding surfaces form a transverse ridge. The first two molars 
are similar to those of the living species : the third (m.3) is clearly 
bilobed and is nearly as long as m.^. In the recent species the 
division into columns is distinct only on the inner side, and the tooth 
is much shorter from before backward than the preceding one. 

The dimensions of the skull and mandible are : — 

SJcull. 

Widtb between ends of postorbital processes . . 53 millim. 

Outside width at postglenoid processes 60 

"Width of cranium behind postorbital processes 36 

Greatest width of occipital surface 52 






Height of foramen magnum 13 „ 

Width „ „ 22 „ 



Distance between postorbitalprocess and zygoma 1 7 



51 



Mandible. 

Height at coronoid process 65 millim. 

„ condyle 52 „ 

Height of ramus behind last molar 16 „ 

„ „ in front of first molar 12 „ 



1896.] 



ON THE AlfATOilY OF EHTNCHOPS, 



299 



Dimensions of the teeth : — 
Length of upper m. 3 . , 



Length of low 



er 



m.2 

m. 1 

pm. 1 

pm. 2 

pm.3 

pm. 4 (alveolus only) 

m.3 



m 

m, 

pm 

pm 

pm 



2 

1 
1 

2 

3 



7*5 millim. 
12 
11 

8 

6 

5 

4 
10 
11 
11 

8 

6 

5 



Length of upper molar series 31 

„ lower „ „ 34 

The very close resemblance between the Lower Pliocene and 
recent species is both remarkable and disappointing, for it might 
have been expected that in the former some generalized characters 
would be found that would throw some light on the probable 
ancestry of this most aberrant mammal ; this, however, it has been 
seen, is not the case. 

As Dr. Forsyth Major has pointed out, the former distribution 
of the genus seems to show that it is of northern origin and that 
it spread into Africa along with the rest of the Pliocene Mammalia 
■with which it has been found, and was not derived from any southern 
land-area. Although at present it has been found only at Samos 
and at Maragha in Western Persia, some twenty degrees farther 
east, the accompanying mammalian fauna has a much wider range. 
It has been met with at Concud in Spain, Mt. Leberon in Southern 
France, Baltavar in Hungary, and Troy in Asia Minor ; it pro- 
bably also ranged far to the east of Maragha, since Rhinoceros 
llanfordi, a species occurring in that locality, is also recoi'ded from 
Baluchistan and from Southern China, where it is associated with 
a Giraffe. Although Orycteropus has not yet been discovered in 
these localities, it will probably be found to have ranged far both to 
the east and west of its limits as at present known. 

5. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Anatomy of 
Rhynchops. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., 
Prosector to the Society. 

[Eeceived Febuary 4, 1896.] 

So far as I am aware the existing knowledge of Rhynchops is 

entirely derived from a paper by Brandt ' upon its osteology. I 

found, therefore, with great pleasure a specimen of this genus 

among the spirit-preserved birds sent home from Western Africa 

1 Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. ser. 6, Sci. Nat. iii. p. 218 (1840). 



300 



3IK. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE 



[Feb. 18, 



by the late W. A. Forbes, upon the dissection of which the following 
notes are based. 

As to external characters, the pterylosis offers no salient point 
of difference from that of the G-ulls as described by Nitzsch. The 
oil-gland is tutted. There are 12 rectrices. The bird is aquinto- 
cubital. As regards the alimentary viscera the most important 
fact to comment upon is the rudimentary and nipple-like character 
of the caeca. 

The tetisores patarjii are illustrated in the drawing exhibited 
(woodcut, fig. 1). They are exactly like those of Rigsa tridactyla. 




Muscles of the patagium of Bhynchops. 

t.p.l., tendon of tensor pafaqii longus ; t.p.b., tensor patagii brems ; B, iU wriat- 

ward slip ; F, patagial fan ; A, tendinous threads on ulnar side of arm. 

of which I possess a drawing by ^Ir. TT. A. Forbes. There are 
two tendons to the tensor hrevis, of which the anterior is for the 
greater part of its length made up of three separate strands. The 
hinder teudon is much slighter. The anterior tendon gives off a 
little way from the forearm a wristward slip (fig. 1, B), from which, 
where it joins the tendon of the extensor radialis metacarpi, a 
patagial fan (F) arises which joins the loncpis. This fan as well as 
the main tendon of the brrvis are continued over to the ulnar side 
of the foreai-m as a diffuse glistening tendon. From the point 
where the wristward slip of the brevis springs there is another con- 
nection with the hii/jus, which is lettered A in the drawing (fig. 1). 



1896.] 



ANATOMY or RUl'NCHOPS. 



301 



Bhyncliops shows a peculiar feature of Larus argentatus (cf. fig. 2) 
and of most Auks iu the existence of these patagial tendons (A) 
on the ulnar side of the arm. In Ehi/mhoj^^is there are two instead 
of only one of these ; they run side by side obliquely, or really at 
right angles to the longus tendon when the wiug is extended, a,nd 
end upon the extensor vietacaijn radialis muscle, on the inner side 
of the forearm ; the posterior of the two is inserted at a point 

Fig. 2. 




Patagial tendons of Larus argenfafus (after a MS. sketch by the late 
W. A. Forbes). 

n, osseous nodule. Other lettering as in fig. 1. 

almost exactly corresponding with the insertion of the wristward 
slip of the brevis, though, as already said, on the opposite side of 
the arm. On the opposite wing I could find only a single tendon ; 
it was, however, very much longer, I'eaching further over the arm. 
The pectoralis muscle sends a slip to the patagial tendons, which is 
slightly diffei-eutiated from the rest of the pecioralis as a muscular 
belly : there is also a yellowish fibroid slip from the deltoid crest of 
the humerus. 

I could detect 710 biceps sli]) to the patagium on either wing. I 
looked, of course, very carefully for this muscle, as it is present in 
all the immediate allies of Khynchops. 

The biceps is a very slender muscle which arises from the 
coracoid only. I found no trace of the missing humeral head. 
The muscle is divisible into two halves, the division commencing 
early iu the slender tendon of origin. The outer of the two 



302 



Olf THE A-NATOMX OF EHXNCHOPS, 



[Feb. IS, 



halves, that which abuts upon the patagium, is chiefly tendon, 
there being a belly of only about half an inch in length, strung as 
it were upon a long thin tendon. The inner half of the muscle, on 
the contrary, is muscular almost to its insertion. 

I did not succeed in finding any traces of the eocpansor secun- 
dariorum, for which as a characteristic muscle I looked carefully. 

The deltoid is not extensive. Its humeral attachment occupies 
rather more than the first third of that bone. It ends exactly on 
a level with the end of the attachment of the anterior section of 
the latissinius dorsi. 

The anconceus lonr/us, in addition to the partly fleshy and partly 
tendinous origin fi-om the coracoid, has a longish and entirely 
tendinous scapular head ; it also is bound down to the humerus by 
a broad tendon. 

In the leg-muscles the most remarkable divergence from the 
Larine character is in the total absence of the ambiens (on both 
sides of the body). 

The femoro-caudal is present and has a long tendon of insertion. 

The accessory femoro-caudal is broader than the latter, is entirely 
fleshy, and joins it some way before its insertion. 

The semitendinosus with its accessory are present. 

There is nothing remarkable about the bicefs or semimem- 
hranosus. 

There is only one peroneus, whose tendon joins that of one of 
the superficial long flexors. 

The deep flexors blend entirely about halfway along the meta- 
tarsus ; the conjoined tendons give off no slip to the small hallux. 

§ Syrinx. 

The syrinx of Rhynchops (fig. 3) is a perfectly typical tracheo- 
bronchial syrinx with a single pair of intrinsic muscles. 

Re. 3. 




Syrinx of Bhynchops ; lateral view. 



1896.] THE SECRETABT ON ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. 303 

The last three or four tracheal rings are closely united, but not 
fused, to form a box, and there is a well-marked pessulus. The 
first bronchial semiring, to which the intrinsic muscles are attached, 
is much longer from back to front, and is arched in the usual way. 
After this follows a rather deep semiring, which is immediately 
succeeded by several thinner bars ; these latter get deeper towards 
the opening into the lungs. 

§ General Observations and Classification of the Laridse. 

In having no ambieus Bhynchops is unique among the Laridae, 
but not among the Limicolae in general, if, that is to say, we 
include, as I think should be done, the Auks in the Limicolae. In 
the latter group the ambiens is sometimes present and sometimes 
absent. The Gull-tribe can be conveniently (even if merely arti- 
ficially) divided up as follows, lihijnclioj^s undoubtedly belonging 
to a distinct subfamily, not definitely nearer to the Terns than to 
the G-ulls :— 

SternincB. ABXT-t-\ Cseca nipples. Biceps slip present. Ex- 
pansor secuudariorum absent. 

Ehynchojnna. ABXY— . Cseca nipples. Biceps slip and ex- 
pansor secundariorum absent. 

Larince. AXY + , Caica nipples, biceps slip, and expansor 
secuudariorum present. 

Stercorariince. AXY-1-. Cseca long. Biceps slip present. Ex- 
pansor secundariorum absent. 

I should regard Gygis as a Gull and Anous as a Tern, on 
account of their leg-muscles ; but then Anous has the ea-pansor 
secundariorum. These two genera require further investigation 
before they can be placed ; and I am a little suspicious that they 
may be found to destroy the neatness of the above arrangement. 



March 3, 1896. 

Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., LL.D., F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of February 1896 : — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of February was 50, of which 20 were by 
presentation, 2 by birth, 17 by purchase, 2 in exchange, and 9 
were received on deposit. The total number of departures during 
the same period by death and removals was 79. 

The following additions are of special interest : — 

1. A young male Klipspringer Antelope {Oreotragus saltator), 
presented by Commander Alfred Paget, K.N., H.M.8. ' Dolphin,' 
Port Said. 

^ AXY-|- in a species of Sternula (Forbes, MS.)- 



304 MR. G. E. H. BAEKETT-HAMIIiTOIf ON [Mar. 3, 

Capt. Paget informs me that this animal was captured in the 
Khor Abent, halfway beU^een Suakin and Cassala. It is new to 
the Collection. 

2. A Hybrid Antelope, bred between the male of Tragelaphus 
r/ratus (received from the Hamburg Grardens, July 27, 1894) and a 
female Tragelaphus spehii, presented by James A. JVicholls, Esq., 
F.Z.S., Oct. 14, 1890. 

This curious hybrid in general appearance appears to take after 
the rufous colour of the female of T. gratus. It has a black 
dorsal stripe aiid is spotted on the flanks. So far as we can tell, 
the period of gestation in this instance was about seven months. 



Mr. G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, E.Z.S., exhibited several fresh- 
looking skeletons of the Norway Lemming {Myodes lemmus), 
obtained by Dr. H. Gadow in caves near Athouguia, in Portugal, 
and made the following remarks : — 

Early in the year 1895 Dr. H. Gadow handed me for examination 
some skeletal remains of a specits of small mammal, which, on 
a first inspection, appeared to be those of some species of Vole — 
Microtus. Thinking the remains were those of Voles I put them 
aside for a time, but later on, when I had an opportunity of 
examining them more carefully, I found, to my surprise, that they 
consisted of some skeletons and detached bones of the Norway 
Lemming, Myodes lemmus. When first received by me the 
remains consisted of a good many fragments and single bones, and 
of two almost complete skeletons. These latter were completely 
enveloped in the original skin, which had become so dried and 
hardened that in order to enable myself to examine the skeletons 
I had to get it removed. The whole appearance of the specimens 
was so fresh that, unaware as I was of their true character, I had 
the dried skin, which enveloped them like mummies, removed, 
so that, I regret to say, not one of these most interesting 
specimens has been preserved in the condition in which I recei\ed 
it. tSome of the vertebrae, however, are still connected together 
by the dried remains of the ligaments. This, and the whiteness 
and excellent preservation of the bones, will show how easy it was 
to be decei\ed as to their nature, and to come to the belief that 
they were of recent origin and perhaps unimportant. 

This discovery of Dr. Gadow's is of very great interest, as it 
eno-rmously increases our knowledge of the distribution of the 
Norway Lemming in past times, and helps to throw light upon 
the former climatic conditions of Portugal. 

According to Professor E. Coliett \ ihe most recent authority 
on the Norway Lemming, this animal has its principal home in 
Norway, where it inhabits all the mountain plateau from north to 
south of the country, and in some localities is distributed down 
to the sea-level. Its range includes also Swedish and Russian 
Lapland, but ceases eastward on the western shores of the White 
Sea, and, though the animal is spread over the greater part of the 

' ' Myodes lemmus, its Habits and Migrations in Norway.' Christiania, 1895. 



1896.] SKELETAI, BEMAINS OF THE NOBWAT LEMMIJfG. 305 

Kola Peninsula, it does not seem to habitually appear so far east- 
ward as Archangel. Thus the present southern range of the 
animal does not extend below about 58^° North latitude. We 
know, however, that in recent geological times it had a much 
more southern distribution, extending at least as far as the south 
of England and Saxony, since its remains have been found in the 
Somersetshire caves, six lower jaws from which, now in the 
Taunton Museum, were identified by Sandford^ These bones 
are said to be slightly smaller and to have the condj'les more 
slender than those of recent specimens, but to agree very closely 
with them, especially with the skulls of young animals ^. The 
only other locality where, so far as I am aware, the bones of this 
species have been found is at Quedlinburg, in Saxony, where 
HenseP found it, together with M. torquaUis, in 1855. among fossils 
from the diluvium. The present discovery will therefore show 
that the range of the Norway Lemming extended formerly to at 
least nearly the south of the Iberian Peninsula, and that, too, 
judging from the fresh appearance of the remains, in quite recent 
geological times. - 

The present skulls resemble those of recent iJemmings very 
closely indeed, but, like the specimens found in the Somersetshire 
caves, they are smaller than those of large adult recent animals. 
T cannot, however, find any characters sufiiciently important to 
enable me to separate the two specifically. 

In conclusion, I should like to di-aw attention to the following 
statement, which is to be found on pages 147 and 148 of Messrs. 
Abel Chapman and W. J. Back's work on ' Wild Spain' (chapter 
xii.). Writing of Ibex-shooting in the Sierra de Gredos of Old 
Castile, these authors remark : — " One day, close to the snow- 
line, we came across a fat, blue-grey, little beastie, apparently of 
the Dormouse tribe (Liron, in Spanish), but he got to earth, or 
rather rock, ere we could capture him." This description is too 
vague to enable me to do more than to make a suggestion, and 
the suggestion that Lemmings exist in Spain at the present 
day is too startling to be lightly brought forward ; but I should 
like to point out that the description would apply veiy well to 
Myocles schistieolor — a species which (if it really be a good species) 
is, I believe, only distinguishable from M. lemmus by its bluish- 
grey colour. 

At all events, in view of Dr. Gadow's remarkable discovery of 
fresh-looking Lemming bones on comparatively low ground, it 
would be interesting to know what is the true nature of the 
"fat, blue-grey, little beastie"; and I venture to express a hope 
that this animal will be found to be a Lemming or a Vole, and 

' W. A. Sandford, in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. (1870), p. 12.5, 
pi. Tiii. fig. 3; and Dove, Somerset. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xv. (1870), p. 55. 

' H. P. Blivckmore and E. R. Aston, in P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 460-471. 

' Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesell, vii. (1855), pp. 488-501 ; also at Wolfen- 
biittel, A. Nehring in Zeitschr. fiir ges. Naturwis. Ed. xlv. (1875), and in Kent, 
E. T. Kewton, Geol. Mag. 1890, p. 452, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. 1. 
p. 188 (1894). 



306 ON SKELETAL REMAINS OF THE NOEWAT LEMMING. [Mar. 3. 

not, as supposed by Messrs. Chapman and Buck, one o£ the 
Dormouse tribe. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



1896. 



PART I. 



Plate Page 

"•I . 

Ill- }■ African Heeperiidse 2 

IV. I 

V.J 

VI. New Lepidoptera from Nyasa-land 108 

VII. Agama smithii 

VIII. Agama lionotus , 

IX. Synodontis smithii 217 

X. Lepidoptera from Arabia and Somaliland 242 

XI 1 

} Metallic colour.s of Trochilidse and Nectariniidse 283 

XII. i 



I 212 



NOTICE. 

The ' Proceedinga ' are issued in four parts, as foUows : — 

Part I. containing papers read in January and February, on June Ist. 
II. „ „ „ March and April, on August Ist. 

III. „ „ „ May and June, on October Ist. 

IV. „ „ „ November and December, on April 1st. 



^.^1- 



Ui^ 



^" 






PROCEEDINGS 



OF THB 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



OF IHB, 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 



189G. 



PART II. 

CONTAINING PAPERS HEAD IN 

MARCH AND APRIL. 



AUGUST 1st, 1896. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

LONDON : 
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PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



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LIST OF CONTENTS. 
PART IL— 1896. 



March 3, 1896. 

Page 
Dr. H. Gadow. Remarks on Bone-Caves in Estremadura, explored in 1886 , 30fi 

Remarks on the Direrseneies between the " Rules for naming Animals " of the German Zoo- 
logical Society and the Stricklandian Code of Nomenclature. By P. L. Sclater, 
M.A., Ph.D., F.R S., Secretary to the Society 306 

Discussion on the Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. Remarks by Graf Hans von Berlepscii, 
Sir William Flower, Mr. Harti rt. Prof. Lankesteu. F.R.S., Mr. Elwes, Dr. D. Sharp, 
P.R.S., Mr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Dr. H. O. Forbes, and Mr. W. F. Kikby 319 



f> 



1 . On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jaan Kalinowski in Central Peru. By Graf ] 

Hans v. Berlepscii and Jeax Stolzmans. (Plates XIII. & XIV.) 322 

■J. On West-Indian Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans. By M. Adrien Dollvus 388 - 



March 17, 1896. 1. 

Mr. Sclater. Remarks upon the prospectus of ' Das Tierreich ' 400 

Mr. Sclater. . Remarks on the appointment of an International Committee on Zoological i 

Nomenclature 40] 

1. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Hymenopterons Fauna of Cevlon. By Lt.-Col 

C. T. Bingham, F.Z S., F.E.S. (Plate XV.) " 401 , 

"* ' ' i 

2. On British Hydroids and Medu8». By Edward T. Browne, B. A., F.Z.S., Zoological 

Research Laboratory, University College, London. (Plates XVI. & XVII.) •. .... 469 .^ 

S. On some Extinct Fishes of the Teleostean Family Gotiorhyiwhidce. By A. Smith 

Woodward, F.Z.S. (Plate XVIIL) i-T--.- 500 *; 

Contents continued on page 3 of. Wrapper. i 



1896.] SKELETAL BEilAlNS OF IHIE NORWAY LEJEMING. 305 

Kola Peninsula, it does not seem to habitually appear so far east- 
ward as Archangel. Thus the present southern range of the 
animal does not extend below about 58i^ North latitude. We 
know, however, that in recent geological times it had a much 
more southern distribution, extending at least as far as the south 
of England and Saxony, since its remains have beeu found in the 
Somersetshire caves, six lower jaws from which, now in the 
Taunton Museum, were identified by Sandford\ These bones 
are said to be slightly smaller and to have the condyles more 
slender than those of recent specimens, but to agi-ee very closely 
with them, especially with the skulls of young animals -. The 
only other locality where, so far as I am aware, the bones of this 
species have been found is at Qaedlinburg, in Saxony, where 
HenseP found it, together with 31. torquatus, in 1855, among fossils 
from the diluvium. The present discovery will therefore show 
that the range of the Norway Lemming extended formerly to at 
least nearly the south of the Iberian Peninsula, and that, too, 
judging from the fresh appearance of the remains, in quite recent 
geological times. 

The present skulls resemble those of recent Lemmings very 
closely indeed, but, like the specimens found in the Somersetshire 
caves, they are smaller than those of large adult recent animals. 
I cannot, however, find anj^ characters sufiiciently important to 
enable me to separate the two specifically. 

In conclusion, I should like to draw attention to the following 
statement, which is to be found on pages 147 and 148 of Messrs. 
Abel Chapman and W. J. Buck's work on ' Wild Spain" (chapter 
xii.). Writing of Ibex-shooting in the Sierra de Gredos of Old 
Castile, these authors remark : — " One day, close to the snow- 
line, we came across a fat, blue-grey, little beastie, apparently of 
the Dormouse tribe (Liron, in Spanish), but he got to earth, or 
rather rock, ere we could capture him." This description is too 
vague to enable me to do more than to make a suggestion, and 
the suggestion that Lemmings exist in Spain at the present 
day is ton startling to be lightly brought forward ; but I should 
like to point out that the description would apply very well to 
Myodes scliisticolor — a species which (if it really be a good species) 
is, I believe, only distinguishable from M. lemmus by its bluish- 
grey colour. 

At all events, in view of Dr. Q-adow's remarkable discovery of 
fresh-looking Lemming bones on comparatively low ground, it 
would be interesting to know what is the true nature of the 
" fat, blue-grey, little beastie " ; and I venture to express a hope 
that this animal will be found to be a Lemming or a Yole, and 

1 W. A. Sandford, in Quart. Jouvn. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. (1870), p. 125, 
pi. viii. fig. 3 ; and Dove, Somerset. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xv. (1870), p. 55. 

2 H. P. Blackmore and B. E. Aston, in P. Z. S. 1874, pp. 460-471. 

' Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesell. vii. (1855), pp. 458-501 ; also at Wolfen- 
biittel, A. Nehring in Zeitschr. fiir ges. Naturwis. Bd. xlv. p. 1 (1875), and in 
Kent, E. T. Newton, Geol. Mag. 1890, p. 452, and Quart. Journ. Geol, Soc. 
vol. 1. p. 188 (1894). 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XX. 20 



306 MR. p. L. scLAtEtt ON THE [Mar. 3, 

not, as supposed by Messrs. Chapman and Buck, one of the 
Dormouse tribe. 

Dr. H. Gadow gave an account of the caves which he had ex- 
plored in the summer of 1886. They were situated in the province 
of Estremadura, in the low sierra between the villages of Athouguia 
and Otta, the nearest town being Santarem. The geological 
formation was hard white-blue limestone of the Ehaetic system. 
The caves lay only two or three hundred feet above the sea-level, 
and the particular one which yielded the bones was choked near 
the entrance with loose dry dust. About a foot below the surface 
of the dust was found an unpolished flint arrow-head. The cave 
was absolutely dry, and its horizontal bottom, extending for about 
60 feet into the mountain, was covered with about two or three 
feet of the dust, which contained boues of small Ruminants and of 
Bear, besides those of the Lemmings. The Lemming-bones were 
found at the far end of the cave, almost on the top of the dust. 

Mr. Sclater opened a discussion on the Rules of Zoological 
Nomenclature by reading the following paper : — 

Remarks on the Divergencies between the '' Rules for 
naming Animals '^ of the German Zoological Society 
and the Stricklandian Code of Nomenclature. 

Before proceeding to the immediate subject of the discussion 
which we propose to hold this evening, I msh to call the attention 
of the meeting to the new work, to be called ' Das Tierreich,' 
Avhich has been planned by the G-erman Zoological Society. The 
object of it is to give an account of all the known species of recent 
animals described up to the present period. The proposed work 
will embrace, as we are informed, the most important synonyms, 
references to the best figures, and an account of the geographical 
range added to a short description of every species. This, it must be 
allowed, is a gigantic undertaking well worthy of a great scientific 
nation, and we must all heartily wish it success. The described 
species of recent animals, as will be seen by the table (which has 
been kindly compiled for me by Dr. David Sharp, F.E.S., with the 
assistance of his corps of Recorders), numbers some 386,000 
species \ Supposing that we admit that on the average five 

' Census Specierum Animalium Viventium hucusque descriptarum : a rough 
estimate of the number of described species of animals in the sections 
adopted in the ' Zoological Record ' : — 

Number. 

1. Mammalia 2,500 

2. AvRs 12,500 

3. ReptUia and Batrachia 4,400 

4. Pisces 12,000 

5. Tunicata 900 

6. MoUuica 50,000 

7. Brachiopoda 150 

8. Bryozoa 1,800 

Carried forward.. 84,250 



1896.] EtTLES OF ZOOLOGICAL ?fOMEirCLATtrE.B. 307 

species can be got into a page (which appears to be barely possible) 
and allow 800 pages to each volume, 96 volumes would be required 
to complete ' Das Tierreich.' As, however, the great firm of 
Friedlander and Son ' have undertaken the publication of the work, 
and appear to have agreed to find the necessary funds to pay for 
the contributions to it, we may, I think, feel tolerably certain that 
the task will be undertaken, although it is probable that many of 
us may not live to see its completion. 

The German Eules for Xomenclature (App. II. no. 10), to which 
I am about to direct your special attention to-night, are to be those 
employed by the various contributors to the 'Tierreich,' as their 
guide in determining the scientific names to be used in the work. 
It will be obvious, therefore, that for this cause they are of special 
importance and are well worthy of our consideration. Prof. F. E. 
Schulze, who has undertaken the editorship of ' Das Tierreich,' 
and \A'ith whom I have been in correspondence on the subject, 
having courteously expressed a wish that it might be possible to 
reconcile the differences between the German Rules and the Code 
of Nomenclature adopted by the British Association and usually 
employed in this country, I have undertaken to bring the subject 
before this Society. 

In order to consider whether we can agree it is necessary first 
to ascertain the points of difference, and these are what I propose 
to bring forward to-night. But before doing so I will commence 
with a few general remarks on some of the principal codes of 
nomenclature that have been put forward by modern zoologists. 

As we all know, I believe, the first code that adopted the " law 
of priority" as its principal rule and originated various other 
usages, to which we are now well accustomed, was that drawn up 
by Strickland in 1842 (Appendix II. no. 1). The Stricklandian 
Code, however, although generally approved and adopted, was not 
at that time formally sanctioned by the British Association. 

In 1863 the late Sir William Jardine took up the subject, and, 

' The contract between the Deutsche Zoologische Gesellschaft and Messrs. E. 
Friedlander and Son will be found printed at full length in the ' Verhand- 
lungen ' of that Society for 1895, pp. 4 et seqq. 

Number. 

Brought forward 84,250 

9. Crustacea 20,000 

10. Arachnida, 10,000 

11. Myriopoda SioA Prototracheata 3,000 

12. Inseota 260,000 

13. Echinoderma 3,000 

14. Vermes 6,150 

15. Coelenterata 2,000 

16. Spongim l.^OO 

17. Protozoa 6.100 

Total 386,000 

This may be compared with Dr. Grunther's estimates of the described species 
in 1830 (73,588) and 1881 (311,653), lately published in the ' Annals & Mag, 
of Nat. History ' (ser. 6, vol. reii. p. 180). 



308 , toi. p. L. scLAfEE OK THE [Mar. 3, 

ill conformity with a resolution adopted by Section D of the 
British Association at Newcastle, reprinted the Eules (2). The 
Committee, of which he was Chairman, was dii'ected to consider 
what changes, if any, it was desirable to make in them. Certain 
alterations (six in number in all) were proposed to be made by the 
Committee, as specified in their Eeport. This report (3) was 
finally adopted by the Association in Section D at the Bath 
Meeting on the 19th September, 1865, It is well to remark, 
however, that the six proposed alterations of the original Code, 
although specified at full length in the Eeport of the Committee, 
were never incorporated into the text of the Stricklaudian Code. 

In 1878, at the request of the Greneral Committee ^ of the 
British Association, I prepared for publication a new edition of 
the Stricklaudian Code, to which I added the Eeport of the 
Committee appointed at the Bath Meeting. This edition (4) was 
pubHshed for the Association by Murray of Albermarle Street, and 
copies of it may still be had on application at the offices of the 
British Association. There are some here on the table. 

In 1877 the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science took up the question of Nomenclature and appointed 
Mr. W. H. Dall to investigate the subject. Mr. Dall made an 
excellent report, which will be found printed in the volume of the 
Association's Proceedings for 1878 (5). 

In 1881 the Societe Zoologique de Erance proposed a Code of 
Eules pr-epared by a Committee. These were published at Paris 
along with a report on the subject prepared by M. Chaper (6). 

In the following year (1882) the Congres geologique Inter- 
national published a set of Eules on Nomenclature (7). Both 
these codes were intended to apply to Zoology and Botany alike. 
The rules in both cases are few in number, but are accompanied 
by valuable commentaries. They do not materially affect the 
special points now in question, except in rejectiug generic names 
previously employed either in Zoology or Botany. 

The highly elalDorate and precise Code of Nomenclature which 
was adopted by the American Ornithologists'" Union in 1886, and 
was published along with the first edition of the ' Check-list of 
North American Birds ' (8), although generally based upon the 
Stricklaudian Eules, deviates from them in several material par- 
ticulars. The most important of these is, the proposal to commence 
Zoological Nomenclature with the tenth edition of the ' Systema 
Naturse' (1758) instead of the twelfth (1766). The operation of 
this rule, which will be again alluded to presently, has, as is well 
known, caused very serious differences in the names applied to 
the same birds by the English and American ornithologists. The 
American Code of Nomenclature is also in conflict with us upon 
the two other points which are proposed for special discussion this 
evening. ■» 

In 1891 the ' AUgemeine Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft 
?.u Berlin' put forward their Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 
which was adopted at their Greneral Meeting at Frankfort a. Main 
1 See ' Report of the British Association,' 1865, p. 25. 



1896.] BTJLES OP ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLArPEB. 309 

in May of that year (9). These Eules follow the American Eules 
very nearly, especially as regards the three points which are 
proposed for special discussion this evening. 

In 1892 the International Congress of Zoology at their Moscow 
Meeting adopted a set of Rules of Nomenclature, which appear to 
differ little in effect from those of the Societe Zoologique de 
France. These Eules (11) were separately published at Paris in 
1895. 

We now come to the Eules adopted by the Deutsche Zoologische 
Gesellschaft in 189-4 (10), which are of special importance for 
reasons that I have already pointed out, and to some of which, 
as being in direct conflict with those of the Stricklandian Code, I 
wish to call your special attention this evening. In order to 
render them more easy of access upon the present occasion I have 
translated and printed the text of the Eules themselves (see 
Appendix I., p. 316), though I have not thought it necessary to 
add to each rule the commentaries and explanations which are 
appended to them, in smaller type, in the original. On reading 
them thi-ough it will be seen that these rules in many particulars 
conform to the excellent system originally put forward by Strickland 
and now generally adopted by zoologists all over the world. The 
usual sequence of divisions of animals into Orders, Families, 
Subfamilies, Genera, and Species is recognized. The families are 
to be formed ending in -idcp, and the subfamilies in -ince, and though 
priority is strictly enforced, corrections in orthography are not 
only permitted but approved of. In fact there seem to be only 
three principal points in which the Code of the German Zoological 
Society differs from ours, and it is to these three points to which 
I now propose to call your attention, after which I will say a few 
words on two or three points of minor importance. 

1. The German Eules (Sect. 1) disclaim any relation to Botany"" 
so that, according to them, the same generic names may be used in 
Zoology and Botany. This is contrary to the Stricklandian Code 
(Sect. 10). 

It is quite certain that the Stricklandian Code did not allow 
the same name to be employed for a genus in Zoology and in 
Botany. But in the British Association revision of 1863, amongst 
the six alterations proposed to be made in that Code was ore 
" that Botany should not be introduced into the Stricklandian 
Eules and Eecommendations." This, however, I do not take to 
mean that the Eule alluded to is to be repealed, but merely that 
the Eules as a whole were intended for Zoologists and not for 
Botanists. But in the American Code (see Principle IV.) the 
contrary view was taken and it was enacted that the " use of a 
name in Botany does not prevent its subsequent use in Zoology." 
We will take a salient example on this point. The Swifts until 
recently have been universally called by ornithologists Cypselus, 
and the family to which they belong Cypselida;. Micropus o£ 
Meyer and Wolf, which has one year's precedence over Cypselus, 
has been passed over, because Micropus is an old Linnean term for 
a genus of plants. In accordance with their Eules the American 



310 MB. P. L. SCLATEE ON THE [jSIar. 3, 

ornithologists have recently rejected the name Cypselus in favour 
of Micropus and renamed the family Micropodidce accordingly. 

While I quite agree that it is not necessary that zoologists and 
botanists should use exactly the same Code of Nomenclature, for 
in many respects their practices have long been different, I think 
it would be a great evil to allow Animals and Plants to be called 
by the same names, as in some cases it would not be prima facie 
apparent whether a particular term was intended to refer to au 
animal or a plant. Besides this, we know that in some of the 
lower forms it is by no means easy to decide whether certain 
species should be referred to the animal or to the vegetable 
kingdom. Strickland was very decided upon this subject, and I 
see no reason at all why we should deviate from his practice, which 
vip to a recent period has been generally followed by zoologists. 

2. Under Sect. 5 of the Gei-man Eules the same term is to be 
used for the generic and specific name of a species, if these names 
have priority. This is contrary to the Stricklandian Code (Sect. 13). 

In the original Stricklandian Code (Section 13) it is enacted that 
" a new specific name must be given to a species when its old name 
has been adopted for a genus which includes that species." In the 
British Association revision of the Code (Eecommendation IV.) it 
was proposed to reverse this Rule, and to throw aside the generic in 
order to retain the specific name. It was the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Code, I believe (Canon XXX.), which first formally proposed 
that specific names, when adopted as generic, should not be changed, 
and this Rule has now been adopted in both the German Codes. 

It should be remarked that the proposal of the B. A. revision to 
alter the generic name in these cases, instead of the specific, has 
hardly met with acceptance in any quarter. In Mr. DaU's report 
upon this subject (5) he well observes : — 

" This innovation, the sweeping character of which the Com- 
mittee cannot have realized, if carried into effect, would uproot 
hundreds of the generic names best known to science, and so 
familiar that the fact that they were originally specific names has 
been almost totally forgotten. Its spirit is opposed to the funda- 
mental principles of nomenclature, and the end to be gained is of 
the most trivial character." 

Although I was a Member of the Bath Committee that agreed 
to this Eecommendation, I must confess that I am strongly 
opposed to it, and have always followed the opposite course enacted 
by the original Stricklandian Code, that in these cases the specific 
name is the one to be changed. Moreover, this last practice has, 
until recently, been generally adopted by English zoologists. Of 
late years, however, the " Scomber-scomber " principle, as it is 
familiarly called \ has met with many supporters. Though 
inelegant and almost ridiculous, it has, at least, one merit. It 

' " Scomber scomber " (Linn. S. N. ed. xii. p. 492) seems to be the only 
instance in which Linnaeus used the same generic and specific name for a 
species. But it is doubtful whether this was not really a printer's error, for in 
the tenth edition (p. 297) he wrote Scomber scombnis, and on referring to the 
two copies of the twelfth edition, formerly belonging to Linnseus himself, and 



1896.] EULES OP ZOOLOGICAL NOM£>'CLATrKE. 311 

enables us to retain the original (often Linnean) name, for which 
there is in many cases great difficultj' in finding a substitute that 
all will agree upon. Moreover, the usage of the same generic and 
specific term in such cases has now met with extensive acceptance 
on the Continent. At the same time it is only right to call 
attention to the formidable changes which the acceptance of the 
tautonymic principle would cause in the names of some of our 
most famihar animals. In order to show this clearly I give a list 
of 25 species of well-known English birds for which we should 
require a change of names if tautonyms are accepted \ 

3. The German Eules (Sect. 7) adopt the 10th edition of the 
'Systema Naturae' (1758) as the starting-point of Zoological 
Nomenclature, whereas the Stricklandian Code (Sect. 2) adopts 
the 12th (1766). 

The question of the proper edition of Linnaeus's ' Systema 
Naturae ' to be adopted as the starting-point of the binary system of 
Nomenclature appears to be the most difficult of the three principal 
questions now before us to settle satisfactorily, and to involve the 
most serious consequences. It seems to me reasonable, on a pnm a 
facie view, that Linnaeus, having been the inventor and founder of 
the binary system of Nomenclature, should be allo^ ed the credit 
and the privilege of completing his own work in the manner he 
thought best. By adopting the twelfth edition of the ' Systema 

' List of Names of British Bircls affected by the tautonymic principle. 

B. O. TJ. List. Page Tautonymic names. 

Sylvia cinerea 11. Sylvia sylvia. 

Begulus cristatus 14. Begulus regulus. 

Hypola is icterin a 17. Hypolais hypolais. 

Cinclus melanog aster 24. Ciiiclus ciiv^lna. 

Troglodytes parvulus 29. Troglodytes troglodytes. 

Carduelis elegans 47. Carduelis cardv.elis. 

Serinus hortulanus 49. Seriniis sennus. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris .50. Coccothraustes coccothraustes. 

Pyrrhocorax graculus 66. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. 

Pica i-ustica 68. Pica pica. 

Scops g ill 89. Scops scops. 

Bubo ignavus 90. Bubo bubo. 

Buteo vulgaris 94. Biiteo buteo. 

Tinnunculus alaudarius 104. Tinnunculus tinnunculiis. 

Fuligula cristata 129. Fuligula fuligula. 

Turtur communis 139. Turtur turtur. 

Perdix cinerea 142. Perdix perdix. 

Coturnix communis 143. Coturnix coturnix. 

Lag opus mutus 144. Lagopus lagopus. 

Tetrao tetrix 145. Tetrao tetrao. 

Porzana maruetta 147. Porzana porzana. 

Crex prafensis 149. Crex crex. 

Grus communis 152. Grus grus. 

(Edicnemus scolopax 155. (Edicnemus cedicnemus. 

Vanellus vulgaris 161 . Vanellus vanellus. 

now in the Library of the Linnean Society, it will be found that the second 
scomber is altered, apparently in Linna?u8's own handwriting, into scombrus 
(see note on this subject, ' Ibis,' 1895, p. 168). Instead of the Sco'mber-scomber 
principle it would be better to call it the " tautonymic principle," and names 
formed upon this principle tautonyms. 



312 MB,, p. L, SCLATER ON THE [Mar. 3, 

Naturae ' as our startiug-point (as is enacted in the Stricklandian 
Code) we allow Linnseus this privilege. If we take the tenth 
edition, as proposed by the Amei'ican ornithologists, and now 
adopted in tbe two German Codes, we deny him the right o£ 
correcting his own work, which, under the circumstances, appears 
to be obviously unfair and injudicious. For it is unquestionably 
the case that Linnaeus altered some of his names in his last and 
most perfect edition of 1766-68, and added others to his list. If 
we acknowledge the authority of the authors who wrote between 
1758 and 1766 we shall have to change some of Linnseus's best- 
known names. For example, the Horned Screamer of South 
America has been universally known to ornithologists as Palamedea 
cornuta, as named by Linnaeus in the twelfth edition of the ' Sy sterna,' 
the genus having been omitted in the tenth edition. In the 
meanwhile, however, Brisson in 1762 (Orn. v. p. 518) had used 
" Anhhna " of Marcgrave as its generic name, and Mr. Stejneger 
has accordingly proposed to call the Horned Screamer Anliima 
cornuta (Stand. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 135). If this alteration be adopted, 
the names of the family Palamedeklce and of the suborder Pala- 
medece will likewise have to be changed. 

I will take another example of the inconvenience of allowing 
Linnaeus's names to be suj^erseded. The Common Darter of 
Central and South America is the PloUis anhinga of Linnaeus's 
twelfth edition and is almost universally known under this name, 
which also gives its name to the family Plotidce. Unfortunately, 
Brisson in the interval between the two editions of the ' Systema ' 
proposed the generic term Anhinga for the same bird, and the 
American Check-list consequently proceeds to call the Darter 
'■'■Anhinga anhinga,'" and the family " Anhingidce." It must be 
admitted that both these alterations, which are consequent upon 
the adoption of 1758 as the commencement of binary nomenclature 
in place of 1766, as well as many other changes of the same 
character which I need not now cite, are matters of considerable 
importance. Strickland, the founder of our modern Codes of 
Nomenclature, after deliberately considering the point, adopted 
the latest and most perfect edition of the ' Systema Naturae ' as 
his starting-point. I think we should do unwisely to deviate 
from Strickland's views on this subject. It is true that Strickland 
proposed to allow such of Brisson's names as were additional to 
those of the twelfth edition of the ' Systema Naturae ' to be 
retained, but he certainly did not contemplate the supercession of 
any of Linnaeus's names by those of Brisson or of any other 
authority. On the ground of priority, therefore, I claim that, as 
first decided by Strickland, we ought to adopt the twelfth and most 
perfect edition of the ' Systema Naturte ' as the basis of modern 
Nomenclature. Even if we adopt the tenth edition as our starting- 
point, a special proviso should be made that none of the names 
contained in the twelfth edition should be allowed to be disturbed. 

There are two or three less important points in Zoological 
Nomenclature upon which I wish to add a few words. 

(1) The German Code, which we are now principally considering 



1896.] uxTLES or zoological nomenclatttrb. 313 

(Canon X.), enacts that the name of the author, if given, should 
follow the scientific name without any intervening sign. The 
prevailing practice in this country has been to place a comma after 
the specific name and before the authority. But on this subject, 
I must say, I think that the German Code has good reason on its 
side. When, for example, we write Turdus viscivorus, Linn., we 
mean in fact Turdus viscivorus Linncn — that is, the Turdus visci- 
vorus of Linnaeus, Linncn being in the genitive case after the 
nominative Turdus viscivorus. If this view, which, no doubt, is the 
correct one, is taken, it is obvious that no comma is required between 
the nominative and the genitive which follows it. The adoption 
o£ this reform would save a great many thousand commas in our 
zoological works. When tbe author's name refers only to the 
specific aud not to the generic term, both English andGerman Codes 
agree that the author's name should be enclosed in parentheses. 

I must remind you, however, that the invariable addition of an 
author's name to a scientific name is a modern practice, and in 
many cases wholly unnecessary. It converts a binary system into 
a trinary one. In familiar names, such as Turdus viscivorus, for 
example, it is obviously quite unnecessary to add any authority to 
such a well-known term. 

(2) Another point on which I am glad to be able to agree with 
the German Code is that (see Canon V.) it permits orthographical 
corrections " when the word is, without doubt, wrongly written or 
incorrectly transcribed." The American rule upon this subject 
(Canon XXXI.), and still more the American practice, is, in my 
opinion, simply perverse. The rule enacts that " neither generic nor 
specific names are to be rejected for faulty construction, inapplic- 
ability of meaning, or erroneous signification." They therefore con- 
template, and not only contemplate but insist upon, the surrender of 
the plainest rules of grammar to the principle of priority. We have 
only to turn over the pages of the ' Check-list ' to find abundant illus- 
trations of this deformity. (Estrelata is written ^strelaia, although 
it is probable that Bonaparte, who was a good classical scholar, 
only spelt it this way by a slip of his pen : Aithyia is spelt Aythya, 
although we know, from its obvious Greek equivalent, that this 
is wrong : Heniconetta is used without the H, although the Greek 
word from which it is derived, carried an initial aspirate : Pedioecetes 
is written Pediocates, as originally misspelt by Baird, although 
there can be no doubt that he meant by it an inhabitant (oiVjjr/ys) 
of the plain (TreS/ov). We will not multiply examples of these 
errors, but need only remark that no one with a pretence to a 
classical education is likely to submit to the causeless infliction of 
such barbarisms. 

The German Code is quite on our side in this instance and not 
only permits such corrections but gives excellent examples (see 
explanation to Sect. V.) of the proper way in which they should 
be carried out. 

Whether corrections of obvious misstatements of fact, and the 
consequent rejection of certain names, should be allowed is another 
question. To me it seems absurd to call an American bird Bvcco 



314 MB. p. L. SCLATEE ON THE [Mar. 3, 

capensis, and a Tortoise not found in Chili Testudo chilensis. I 
have consequently refused to use such names, preferring accuracy 
to priority. But the American Code, it is quite clear, does not 
permit such alterations, and I fear that the German Code under the 
explanations of Sect. V. is against my views upon this point. 
On this subject, however, the original Stricklandian Code (see 
explanations to Sect. X.) clearly rules in my favour. 

(3) There is one point which seems not to have been touched 
upon in any of the Rules hitherto promulgated. It is the last to 
which I shall call your attention this evening. That is, the expe- 
diency of rejecting ambiguous specific names in certain instances. 
An example of such a case will best explain my meaning. I will 
take a well-known one, but there are many like it. Lepus timidus 
of Linnaeus was probably intended by the learned Swede as the 
epithet of the Mountain or Variable Hare of Northern Europe. 
It has, however, until recently, been almost universally applied to 
the common lowland species, Lepus europcviis of Pallas \ Recent 
authors having discovered the error have proposed to re-impose 
the name of Lepus timidus upon the Northern species =:i^j3MS 
variabilis, Pallas. I maintain, however, that, under the circum- 
stances that have happened, Lepus timidus can no longer be used 
as a name at all. It is perfectly useless as a specific designation, 
because when Lepus timidus is spoken of (whether ' Linn.' be 
added to it or not) nobody can tell without further information 
whether it is intended to indicate Lepus variabilis or Lepus europceus. 
Under such circumstances the specific term timidus ought to be 
considered as " void for ambiguity " and the next given name 
" variahilis" of Pallas employed in its place. There are many 
other cases of the same sort, but of course such rejections should 
be sanctioned only in extreme cases, when it is certain that the 
retention of the older name wiU lead to confusion. 

The Canon that I should suggest on this subject would be some- 
thing as follows : — 

Specific names which have been applied habitually to one species 
but can be proved to be properly apphcable to another may be 
superseded by the next oldest applicable term in both cases. 

Before concluding this address I will say a few words as to my 
views on the vexed subjects of trinomials. That subspecies actually 
exist in nature cannot, 1 think, be denied by anybody who believes 
in the origin of species by descent. Nearly all forms of animal 
life, which have a wide disti'ibution, show difEerences when 
individuals from the two extremes of the range of the species are 
compared. These differences are in many cases united by inter- 
mediate forms which occur in the more central portion of the range. 
" Subspecies " appears to me to be an excellent term to designate 
the slight differences exhibited in these cases, far better than 
" climatic " or " geograpliical " variety, which is often used for them. 
"We are thus enabled to retain "variety" for abnormal variations 
from the typical form (such as albinisms &c.) which occur without 

^ " See Bell's 'British Qiindnippds,' p.S31 (1884) : Blapiiip.Wirbelth.Europ. 
p. 412 (1857). 



1896.] KULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMESCLATUTIE. 315 

reference to locality. The students of geographical variation in 
America, particularly those of Mammals and Birds, may have gone 
a little into the extreme in recognizing subspecies, but there can be 
no question that the phenomenon occurs, and is well worthy of 
record under a name of some sort. The British forms of the Coal- 
Tit and the Marsh-Tit, which have been named Parus britannicus 
and Parus dresseri, appear to me to be good instances of subspecies. 
I should propose to call them Parus ater britannicus and Parus 
palustris dresseri, while the corresponding forms of the continent 
should be termed Parus ater typicus and Panis palustris typims 
when they are spoken of in the restricted sense only. la ordinary 
cases, however, it is sufficient to say Parus ater and Parus palustris 
without any reference to the subspecies. To give these slight and 
in some cases barely recognizable vai-iations the same rank as is 
awarded to Tardus mvsicus and T^irdus viscivorus seems tome to be 
highly undesirable, and the recognition of subspecies indicated by 
trinomials gives us an easy way out of the difficulty. 

Finally I may be permitted to say that in questions of priority, 
as in everything else, it is the extreme men that lead us into 
difficulties, and that have made the very mention of " priority " 
distasteftd to some of our best workers in Zoology. Some ardent 
spirits seem to take a pleasure in inventing excuses for alterations 
in the best and most long-established names without considering, 
and without even caring, whether subsequent writers will consent to 
follow them. More moderate systematists are wise enough to let 
names remain as they are, unless there is an absolute necessity for 
making a change. In the case of many of the names of the older 
authors, which we are invited to associate sometimes with one 
species and sometimes with another, it is often simply a matter of 
opinion or, I may say, conjecture as to which out of half-a-dozen 
species they were intended to refer. Accipiter l-orshun of S. G. 
G-melin is a noted instance of this sort. It was first resurrectionized 
in 1874 by Dr. Sharpe as the proper name of the Black Kite. Other 
authors have referred it to the Golden Eagle, and even, I believe, 
to one of the Owls. Surely it is better to consign such an indefi- 
nite term as this to the limbo of unrecognizable synonyms. In 
reviving the name Anser fabalis for the Bean-Goose — a term which 
has slept in peace ever since it was invented by Latham in 1785 — 
we must allow that one of our leading ornithologists had better 
grounds to go upon. There can be no question that Latham 
translated the name of " Bean-Goose" into Latin as " Anser fabalis:' 
At the same time there can be little doubt that he did not "consider 
that in doing this he was inventing a new specific term for that 
well-known bird, which, like everybody else for the last 110 years, 
he continued to call Anser segetum. It is surely sufficient to quote 
such uncertain names amongst our synonyms without adopting 
them as definite designations of familiar species. It is, I repeat, 
the extremist and the sensationalist, who strive to astonish lis by 
carrying out the law of priority to its " bitter end," that have 
caused the disgust which many of us feel at the mere mention 
of priority in nomenclature. 



316 ME. p, L. sciATEK ON THE [Mar. 3, 

Appendix I. 

Bides for the Scientific Naming of Animals, compiled by the German 

Zoological Society. 

A. GENERAL RULES. 

1. Zoological Nomenclature includes extinct as well as recent 
animals, but has no relation to botanical names. 

2. Only such scientific names can be accepted as are published in 
print, in connection with a clear description either by words or 
figures. 

3. Scientific names must be in Latin. 

4. Names of the same origin and only differing from each other 
in the way they are written are to be considered identical. 

5. Alterations in names otherwise valid are only permitted in 
accordance with the requirements of Sections 13 and 22, and further 
for the purpose of purely orthographical correction when the word 
is without doubt wrongly written or incorrectly transcribed. Such 
alterations do not affect the authorship of the name. 

6. Of the various permissible names for the same conception only 
the one first published is valid (Law of Priority). 

7. The application of the Law of Priority begins with the tenth 
edition of Linnseus's ' Systema Naturae ' (1758). 

8. When by subsequent authors a systematic conception is 
extended or reduced, the original name is nevertheless to be 
regarded as permissible. 

9. The author of a scientific name is he who has first proposed it 
in a permissible foi-m. If the author's name is not known, the title 
of the publication must take its place. 

10. If the name of the author is given it should follow the scien- 
tific name without intervening sign. In all cases in which a second 
author's name is used a comma should be placed before it. 

11. Class (classis), Order {ordo),Yami[y(fa7nilia), Genus (genus), 
and Species {species) are conceptions descending in rank one after 
the other, and are to be taken in the order here given. These 
terms should not be employed in a contrary or capricious relation 
or order. 

B. RULES EOR DESIGNATING SPECIES. 

12. Every species should be designated by one generic and one 
specific name (Binary Nomenclature). 

13. The specific name, which should be treated always as one 
word, should depend grammatically upon the generic name. 

14. The same specific name can only be used once in the same 
genus. 

15. In the case of a species being subdivided, the original name is 
to be retained for the species which contains the form originally 
described. In doubtful cases the decision of the author who makes 
the separation shall be followed. 

16. When various names are proposed for the same species nearly 



1896.] BULES OP ZOOLOGICAL JfOMENCLATURE. 317 

at the same date, so that the priority canuot be ascertained, the 
decision ot" the first author that points oat the synonymy should 
be followed. 

17. In the case of species with a cycle of generation of different 
forms, the specific term must be taken from an adult form capable 
of reproduction. In these cases, as also in species in which 
Polymorphy occurs, the Law of Pi'iorifcy must be observed. 

18. The author of the specihc name is the author of the species. 

19. The author's name should be placed in parentheses when 
the original generic name is replaced by another. 

20. Hybrids should be designated either by a horizontal cross 
between the parents' names, or by these names being placed one 
above the other with a line between. The parents' sexes should be 
stated, when known. The name of the describer of the hybrid 
should be added, preceded by a comma. 

C. EULES JO& THE NAMES OF SUBSPECIES AND OTHER DIVERGENCES 
FROM TYPICAL SPECIES OR SUBSPECIES. 

21. When constant local forms, varieties, strains, &c. require 
special names, these names should be placed after the specific name. 
The rules for such names are the same as those for specific names. 

D. RULES FOR GENERIC NAMES. 

22. Names of genera should be substantives, and of the singular 
number. They should be one word and be written with a large 
initial letter. If a subgenus is used, its name (which follows the 
same rules as a generic name) should be given in parentheses after 
the generic name. 

23. A generic name is only valid when a known or a sufficiently 
characterized species (or several species) is referred to it, or when 
a sufficient diagnosis of it is given. 

24. The same generic name can only be employed once in Zoology 
Nor can names already proposed as subgeneric be employed also 
as generic names in another sense. 

25. When several generic names are proposed for a genus at nearly 
the same date, so that their priority cannot be settled, the name for 
which a type-species is given is to be preferred. In all uncertain 
cases the decision of the author who first arranges the synonymy 
is to be followed. 

26. When a genus is separated into several genera the old name 
must be retained for the type-species. If this canuot be positively 
ascertained, the author who splits up the genus must select one of 
the species originally in the genus as the type. When a subgenus 
is raised to generic rank the subgeneric name becomes the generic 
name. 

E. RULES FOR THE NAMES OF THE HIGHER SrSTEMATIC GROUPS. 

27. Names for higher systematic groups of animals must have a 
plural termination. 



318 MR. p. L. SCLATBE OlS- THE [Mar. 3, 

28. Namea of Families and Subfamilies must henceforth be taken 
from the name of one of the genera belonging to the group, and 
formed from the stem of that name, with the addition of -idcB (plural 
of -ides [Gr. -et'^j/s], mase.) for the Families and -ince (fem.) for 
the Subfamilies. 

Appendix II. 
Titles of the principal Modern Codes of Zoological Nomenclature. 

1. Eepoi-t of a Committee appointed to consider the Kules by 

which the Nomenclature of Zoology may be established on 
a uniform and permanent basis. London, 1842. [Eep. 
Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1842, pt. 1, p. 105 (1843), also 
printed separately.] 

2. fiules for Zoological Nomenclature by the late Hugh E. 

Strickland, M.A., F.R.S., authorized by Section D of British 
Association at Manchester, 1 842. Reprinted by Requisition 
of Section D at Newcastle, 1863. Edinburgh, 1863. 

3. Report of a Committee " appointed to report on the changes 

which they may consider desirable to make, if any, in the 
Rules of Zoological jSTomenclature drawn up by Mr. H. E. 
Strickland, at the instance of the British Association at 
their Meeting in Manchester in 1842." London, 1866. 
[Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1865, pt. 1, p. 25 (1866).] 

4. Rules for Zoological Nomenclature drawn up by the late 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. (assisted by many Zoologists, 
British and Foreign), at the instance of the British 
Association. [New edition with preface by P. L. Sclater.] 
London, 1878. 

5. Report of the Committee on Zoological Nomenclature to 

Section B, of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at the Nashville Meeting, August 31, 
1877. [Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1877, p. 7 (1878).] 

6. Societe Zoologique de France. De la Nomenclature des 

Etres organises. Regies applicables a la Nomenclature des 
Etres organises proposees par la Societe Zoologique de 
France. Paris, 1881. 

7. Regies a suivre pour etablir la Nomenclature des especes. 

Rapport du Secretaire de la Commission H. Douville. Con- 
gres geologique International. Compte Rendu de la 2"* 
Session, Bologne, 1881. Bologne, 1882. 

8. The Code of Nomenclature and Check-list of North American 

Birds, adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union. 
Neiv Tori; 1886. 

9. Regeln fiir die zoologische Nomenclatur. Angenommen von 

der Allgemeinen Deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft 
zu Berlin auf der XVI. Jahresversammlung in Frankfurt a. 
M. am 12. und 13. Mai, 1891. [J. f. 0. 1891, p. 315 ; also 
published separately.] 

10. Regeln fiir die wissenschaftliche Benennung der Thiere 



1896.] KULES OF ZOOLOGICAL KOMKN^CLATURE. SIS 

zusammengestellt von der Deiitschen Zoologischen Gesell- 
schaft. Leipzig, 1894. 
11. Regies de la jS^omenclature des Etres organises adoptees 
par les Congres Internationaux de Zoologie (Paris, 1889 ; 
Moscou, 1892). Paris, 1895. 

A communication was read from Graf Hans von Berlepsch, 
C.M.Z.S., expressing his regret at not being able to be present on 
this occasion, and giving his opinion on the three points specially 
discussed. He was not disinclined to give way on the first, but 
maintained the necessity of the second and third alterations pro- 
posed in the German Rules. 

The Presidext (Sir William Mower) said that the question of 
nomenclature was a most important one in the study of Natural 
History. The existing confusion was caused, not only by the 
absence of definite and universally accepted rules, but also by 
divergences in the mode of interpretation of such rules as were 
accepted — divergences which he feared would always exist, however 
theoretically perfect the rules may be made. He allowed that the 
tautonymic principle, unfortunate as it was in many respects, was 
the logical outcome of the system of priority, the basis of the 
Stricklandian and all other Codes. The evil arose from the use of 
specific names in a generic sense, a practice which never ought to 
have been permitted. With the various Codes now before us it 
was sometimes difficult to discTiminate between regulations for the 
introduction of new names, and those applying to the treatment 
of names already in use — two objects which must be kept apart. 
In the former case we could not be too strict, but in the latter 
yir William Flower contended that there should be some latitude 
allowed in favour of universal usage, and he objected to the 
supersession of a name known to the whole scientific world by one 
which had been buried and forgotten almost as soon as it was 
called into existence. Por instance, he did not like the revival 
of Anser fabalis for the well-known A. segetum, nor of the genus 
Frocavia for Hyrax. With regard to the 10th or 12th edition 
of the ' Systema Naturae ' for a starting-point, he had always 
preferred the British Association ruling in favour of the latter, 
but it was evident that the former was gaining ground, and would 
probably be eventually adopted. In conclusion, although he said 
he was glad that Mr. Sclater had introduced the subject, as a dis- 
cussion like this must help to clear up our ideas upon it, he was 
not very hopeful of an absolute agreement ever being arrived at. 

Mr. HABTERTsaid that the Code of the German Zoological Society 
was almost the same as that of the German Ornithological Society. 
With regard to names used in Botany and Zoology, he considered 
that from a practical standpoint it would be almost impossible to 
create a name if the same rules applied to both, because it would 
necessitate a search through botanical as well as zoological litera- 
ture before a name could be settled upon. He therefore thought 
Botany should be ignored, for mistakes as to whether a name was 



320 MR. t. t. SClATEfi, OJf THE [Mar. 3, 

meant for a plant or an animal could seldom, if ever, occur. He 
thought the tautouymic principle ought to be accepted. The 
correct starting-point of Zoological Nomenclature, he was of 
opinion, was the 10th ed. of the ' Systema Naturte,' because in that 
edition Linufeus first made use of the binary system of nomen- 
clature ; and as the question of justness had been mentioned he 
considered that it would be unjust to authors who created names 
bet\A'een the dates of the two editions, if the twelfth were adopted ; 
he was, moreover, of opinion that if the 12th edition were adopted, 
because it contained corrections and emendations of the older 
edition, it would make a bad precedent, and that any other author 
might, if so inclined, claim to alter his original names after he had 
created and published them, and so cause confusion. He agreed with 
Mr. Sclater that the comma between the specific name and the 
authority was unnecessary. With regard to the law of priority, 
he thought that if that law was accepted at all it ought to be carried 
out thoroughly. He followed Mr. Sclater iu his opinion on 
trinomials. 

Prof. Lankbster, F.E.S., said that the mam consideration in 
regard to the rules of nomenclature should be that of convenience, 
and the digging up of old names ought to be avoided. He thought 
the 12th edition of the ' .System a NaturiB ' should be adopted as 
the starting-point of Zoological Nomenclature, as a tribute of 
respect to Linnaeus, since it was the last edition of that work and 
contained Linnaeus's revised list of genera and species. On the 
whole, he was inclined to accept the tautonymic principle, but he 
thought that some difficulty arose owing to the existence of doubts 
in some cases as to which was the original species intended to bear 
the name. He suggested that an International Committee under 
the auspices of this Society should be formed, not to draw up a 
code of rules, but to produce an autlioritative list of names — once 
and for all — about which no lawyer-like haggling should hereafter 
be permitted. Eules such as those embodied in the Stricklandian 
Code might be laid down for guiding the future action of makers 
of specific and generic names. But \^ith regard to the past what 
was needed was, not a principle as to the application of which 
everyone might argue and differ and cause confusion, but an authori- 
tative declaration admitting of no appeal and of no discussion. 
■Let the zoologists of Britain, America, France, and Germany 
agree that such a list of the names of all known animals shall be 
produced once for all, and let this list take absolute and indis- 
putable precedence. 

Mr. Elwes said that the Eules of the Stricklandian Code, 
though excellent at the time they were instituted, were not 
now equally applicable to all branches of Zoology. The attempt 
to make the 10th or even the 12th edition of Linnaeus the 
starting-point for specific names would, if apphed strictly, 
soon bring the nomenclature of Lepidoptera into a hopeless 
state of confusion, which would result iu deterring beginners 
from following any rules but those of conveuieuce. After all, 



1896.] UULES OF ZOOLOGICAL XOHEXCIATUEE. 321 

specific names were given to natural objects only in order that 
naturalists might know what they were talking and writing about. 
He thought that uniformity was much more important than pro- 
priety, and the only way of solving a difficulty that was yearly 
increasing would be to appoint International Committees in various 
branches of science, which should be empowered to fix as a starting- 
point for specific nomenclature some very much more recent period 
than that of Linnaeus. Whenever a catalogue or standard work 
in any branch of Zoologj' could be found, such as Staudinger's 
' Catalogue of Palaearctic Lepidoptera,' 1871, the nomenclature of 
which was based on a careful study, and a sufficient knowledge of 
the natural objects of which it treated, so that its nomenclature 
had been almost universally accepted and adopted, he would accept 
its specific names right or wrong, and look on any attempt to go 
back to earlier authors, many of whom knew little or nothing of 
the species they attempted to describe, as a great injury to science. 

It was very often impossible to know with certainty what these 
authors meant, and even when the types existed they were 
frequently, as in the case of many of Walker's so-called types of 
Lepidoptera, worse than useless. Such changes would not, of 
course, apply to generic names, which must be altered as our know- 
ledge increased. He saw no reason why names used in Botany 
should not also be used in Zoology, and agreed with Mr. Hartert, 
that no practical confusion resulted from this being done. With 
regard to trinomials, he saw no means of doing wdthout them, 
but preferred them to be used with the prefix of var., ah., hijhr., or 
gen., so as to indicate, more precisely than could be done without 
such a prefix, their relation to the species from which they spring. 
Such prefixes had been employed most properly in Staudinger's 
catalogue, and their proper use was well understood, though there 
was some danger of their undue multiplication without sufficient 
definition. He thought that Dr. Sclater had done a great service to 
science in raising this discussion, which he hoped would not be 
allowed to drop without result. 

Dr. D. Shakp, F.Ii.S., said the German Eules were not drawn 
up in a way to be practically useful. In the case of each one it 
should have been stated whether it was merely prospective or was 
intended to be also retrospective in application ; and if limited to 
the former, to what extent neglect of the rule was to disqualify a 
name. If these points were not agreed on, the adoption of these 
rules would add to the existing confusion. He further pointed out 
that the application of the law of priority had in Entomology failed 
to produce the agreement that its advocates claimed it would pro- 
mote. Some names had now been in ase for generations with two 
diflferent applications, naturaUsts being apparently divided into 
two schools. 

Mr. W. T. Blantoed, P.E.S., said that nomenclature was simply 
a matter of convenience, and he thought it hardly worth the labour 
to draw up another code of rules, because they would be sure to be 
subject to difEerent interpretations. He objected to the use of 

Peoc. Zool. See— 1896, No. XXI. 21 



322 GEAF VON BEKLEPSCH AND II. J. STOLZJIANN ON [Mar. 3, 

simple trinomials for varieties of animals, and pointed out that, 
besides geographical races, there were several other kinds of 
variation which might be desigaated by prefixing letters to the third 
name. With regard to ambiguous names, of which Mr. Sclater 
gave Lepus timidus as an example, he was of opinion that Linnaeus 
meant to include both the Mountain Hare of Norway and the 
Common Hare under this name, and he thought that LejJus timidus 
could be retained for the latter, without causing confusion. 

Dr. H. O. FoEBES thought that if objection were taken to tauto- 
nyms — which were but the logical result of the law of priority — 
the generic and not the specific name ought to be changed. The 
generic portion of a name was hable to change at any time with 
the increase of our knowledge, and it was evident that, if it became 
necessary to place the species in some other genus, the law of 
priority would demand the replacement of that name as its specific 
designation. The result of this would be that, by change in the 
specific part of a tautonym, there would be a constant liability to 
change in both parts of the appellation of a species. 

Mr. W E. KiEBX was of opinion that botanical names should not 
knowingly be used again in Zoology, and remarked that the German 
Zoologists were not practically unanimous on this question. He 
was inclined to think that the lOth edition of the ' Systema Naturae ' 
was the most logical one to follow. He stated that when preparing 
his ' Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera,' the idea had 
occurred to him of making Doubleday and Westwood's ' G-enera ' 
his starting-point for nomenclature, but he had found this im- 
practicable, and was consequently obliged to revert to the strict 
law of priority. 

The follo^ving papers were read : — 



1. On the Ornithological Researches of M. Jean Kalinowski 
in Central Peru. By Graf Hans von Berlepsch and 
Jean Stolzmann. 

[Eeceived January 7, 1896.] 
(Plates Xin. & XIV.) 

Les trois riches collections envoyees au Muse'um Branicki de 
Varsovie par M. Jean Kalinowski, autrefois explorateur du Kamt- 
schatka et de la Coree, nous permettent de presenter aux lecteurs 
une Uste complete des oiseaux du Perou central fournis par notre 
infatigable voyageur '. Afin que nptre article ue soit pas trop 
etendu, nous I'avons divise en deux parties, dont la premiere con- 
tient les families de Turdidce, St/lviidce, Cinclidce, Troc/lodytidce, 

1 La liste des oiseaux de la cote peruTierme etait publics par nous dans les 
P. Z. S. 1893, p. 371 fif. 



p. z.s.isse.pi.xin. 




J-G-KeulemarLS del et litK. 



MiTvterrx Bros - uanp . 



DUBUSIA STICTOCEPHALA. 



p. Z.S. 1896. PI. XIV. 




^ 7.^ 



J.GKeTjIemans clel etlith- 



Mirvtem. Bros . innp . 



TYFLANNISCUS FROTSTTALIS . 



1896.] 



THE OEjrlTHOLOGT OF CENTRAL PEE.U. 



323 



Motacillidce, Mniotiltidce, Vireonidce, Hirundinidce, GoerebidcB, Tana- 
gridce, Fringillidce, Icteridce, Gorvidce, Tyrannidce, Pipridce, Gotin- 
gidce, Dendrocolaptidce, Formicariidce^ Pteroptochidce ; et la seconde, 
qui sera publiee prochainement, embrassera toutes les families 
restantes. 

M. KaKnowski, dans I'espace de trois annees efc demie (1890, 
1891, 1892, et una partie de 1893), a explore la region des hautes 
Cordilleres aux environs de Tarma et du lac Junin, et a ensuite 
visite la region boisee du versant oriental des Andes, notamfnent 
la valle'e de Chanchamayo et celle de Vitoc. Toute cette partie du 
Perou central avait deja ete exploree par le celebre naturaliste 
Suisse de Tschudi et par Texcelleut explorateur polonais Constantin 
Jelski, et neanmoins les recherches de Kalinowski ont ete sufBsam- 
ment fructueuses pour nous fournir plus de vingt especes nouvelles 
et un grand nombre de sous-especes non encore decrites. En 
outre elles ont enrichi I'avifaane peruvienne d'un certain nombre 
d'especes, deja connues, mais qui ont ete trouvees pour la premiere 
fois sur le territoire du Perou. Voila la liste d'especes nouvelles 
deja de'crites ou qui serout decrites prochainement par nous d'apres 
des specimens fournis par Kalinowski : — 



1. Dubusia stictocepliala, nobis *. 

2. Buarremon poliophrys, nobis. 

3. Phrygilus chlorouotua, nobis. 

4. Pseudochloris sharpei, 7iobis*. 
6. Spinus olivaceus, nobis *. 

6. Orchilus albiventris, nobis *. 

7. Tyranniscus frontalis, nobis *. 

8. Mitrephanes olivaceus, nobis *, 

9. Pipra comata, nobis *. 

10. Siptornis taczanowskii, nobis*. 

11. marayuiocensis, nobis. 

12. Xiphocolaptes phajopygus, 

nobis. 



13. Thamnophilus variegafciceps, 

7iobis. 

14. Dysithamaus dubius, nobis *. 

15. Myrmotherula longicauda, nobis *. 

16. sororia, nobis *. 

17. Myrmeciza spodiogastra, nobis *. 

18. Spathura annaB, 7iobis*. 

19. Lesbia julise, nobis MS.* 

20. Maeropsalis kalinowskii, nobis *. 

21. Dendrobates valdizani, woiis*. 

22. Leptosittaca branickii, nobis *. 

23. Tkeristicus branickii, nobis *. 

24. Podiceps taczanowskii, nobis t. 



* Especes decrites par nous dans I'lbis, 1894, pp. 385-406. 
t Deorite dans I'Ibis, 1894, pp. 109-112. 

Ajoutons a cette liste les quatre especes decrites par nous 
'apres les oiseaux de la premiere collection Kalinowski (cote du 



d'apres 
Perou) " 



a savoir 



1. Saltator immaculatus, nobis. 

2. Molothrus occidentalis, MoJis. 



3. Dives kalinowskii, nobis, 

4. Cinclodes taczanowskii, nobis. 



Ce qui nous donne 28 especes nouvelles pour un pays explore 
deja soigneusement par des voyageurs habiles comme MM. de 
Tschudi et Jelski. Ce resultat inattendu fait honneur a M. Kali- 
nowski. 

Parmi les oiseaux fournis par notre voyageur se trouve aussi 
le type d'un nouveau genre (Lejytosittaca). 

Les especes connues deja mais introduites pour la premiere fois 



' Pas encore decrite par nous. 



« L.c. 
21* 



324 



GRAF VON BEELEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN OS [Mar. 3, 



dans la faune pe'ruvienne par les recherches de Kalinowski sont les 
suivantes : — 



1. Odontorhynchus branickii, Berl. ^ 

Tacz. 

2. Spinua sclateri (Sharpe) ? 

3. Pipreola frontalis, Scl. 

4. Picolaptes fuscicapillus. Pels. 

5. Formicivora caudata, Scl., subsp. ? 

6. PhjeoIiEjma cervinigularis, Salv. 

7. Campophilus pollens {Bp.), subsp. 

Notre voyageur a done enrich i I'avifaune peruvienne d'environ 
quarante especes. 



8. Phaethornis pj'gmseus {Spix), 

subsp. 

9. Heliothrix auriculatus, Nordm. 

10. Porzana melanophsea (FJez7Z.). 

11. jSIgialites occidentalis, CaJ). 

12. Phalaropus wilsoni, Sabine. 

13. Eurypyga major, Hartl. 



La contree exploree par Kalinowski n'est pas tres etendue, mais 
elle presente una extreme variabilite de conditions par suite des 
differences d'altitude. Ainsi notre voyageur a pu visiter de noui- 
breuses localites situees entre 2600' au-dessus du niveau de la mer 
et la liraite des neiges perpetuelles. Ces differences d'elevations 
nous expliquent la grande richesse de I'avifaune de cette contree. 

Pour que nos lecteurs pourraient s'orienter plus facilement, nous 
aliens diviser toutes les localites visitees par Kalinowski en deux 
groupes : celles situees dans les parties depourvues de forets, c'est- 
a-dire dans les regions de la Sierra et de la Puna et celles situees 
dans la region des forets (" montaiia " des peruviens). 

{a) Localites situees dans la region decouverte (entre 8000' et la 
limite des neiges perpetuelles) : — 

Ghicla — petite ville, station terminale du celebre chemin de fer de 
I'Oroya. Chicla est situee a une hauteur absolue de 12,300'. 

Ingapirca — village au bord du lac Junin nomme aussi la Laguna 
de Chinchaycocha (12,900'). Dans le voisinage se trouve Ondores 
(environ la meme elevation). 

Tarma — capitale du departement de Juniu, 9735'. Le rio de 
Tarma (qui plus has prend le noni du rio de Chanchamayo) s'unit 
a un autre fleuve venant du nord ; au confluent de ces deux 
rivieres se trouve la bourgade 6! Acobamba. Sur la route d'Aco- 
bamba a Junin est situee la bourgade de Palcamayo. 

Macabamba et Hacienda de Queta se trouvent aux environs de 
Tarma. 

Jauja — ville du departement de Junin dans la vallee du fleuve 
de Jauja. L'elevation moyenne de la vallee aux environs de la 
ville est evaluee par Paz Soldan a 11,000'. 

II nous a ete impossible de trouver dans I'atlas de Paz Soldan 
les localites de Banos, Canchacso et Tapo, nous pouvons seulement 
afRrmer qu'elles sont situees dans le departement de Junin. 
Kalinowski indique sur les etiquettes que Banos est situe a la 
limite des neiges perpetuelles ; pour Tapo il evalue la hauteur a 
11,000'. Canchacso doit etre aussi un point tres eleve a en juger 
par la presence du Cinclodes 7-ividaris. 

(6) Localites situees dans la montaiia (region de forets). Nous 
avons dit que le rio de Tarma prend plus bas le nom de rio de 



1896.] THE OBNITHOLOGY OF CENTRAL PEETI. 325 

Chanchamayo. En s'unissant avec le rio de Vitoc et celui d'Ocsa- 
bamba il forme le fleuve Perene, qui avec le fleuve Apoiirimac 
donne naissance au fleuve Tambo — la souche du fleuve Ucayali. 
Nous voyons done que les vallees de Chanchamayo et de Vitoc sont 
voisines. 

Dans la valleede ChancJiamayo sont situees les loealites suivantes 
visitees par Kalinowski : La Merced (2600'), La Gloria (3200'), et 
Borgona (2600'). 

La vallee de Vitoc, dans la partie superieure, s'appelle Eio de 
Aynama^'o, pres des sources duquel se trouve une petite ferme 
nominee Maraynioc, tres bien connue des uaturalistes par I'ex- 
ploration de M. Jelski, ou celui- ci a fait ses plus inte'ressants 
decouvertes. Maraynioc est situe a la limits superieure de la 
foret, c'est-a-dire de 11,000' a 12,000' d'elevation. Dans la meme 
vallee de Vitoc, mais beaucoup plus bas, se trouve une autre ferme 
— VEsperanza — situee d'apres Kalinowski a 3500' d'elevation. 
Comme stations intermediaires entre Maraynioc et I'Esperanza 
sont situees les loealites suivantes visitees par Kalinowski : — 
Pariayacu, Tambo de Aza, Sarnaixiycha, Iltiarmipaycha, Cuhi- 
machay, Puyas-Yacii, Chontabamha, San Emilio,Tendalpata, CMlpes 
et Garita del Sol. Kalinowski dosigne les six premieres loealites 
par le nom general de " Maraynioc " a cause du voisinage de cette 
ferme; les cinq autres sont toujours marquees "Vitoc," etant 
situees dans la vallee de ce nom. 

Earn. TtTBDiD^. 

1. TtlEDUS NIGEICEPS, Cab. 

La Gloria (aout 1890) et Garita del Sol (juillet et aout 1891). 

La femelle jeune est d'un brun fonce en dessus avec une teinte 
roussatre au sommet de la tete et principalement sur le front. 
Le croupion et les sous-caudales sont d'un ardoise legerement 
teinte de roussatre. Les cotes de la tete d'un brun roussatre avec 
un sourcil postoculaire un pen plus clair a peine visible, les tiges 
des couvertures auriculaire plus claires ou roussatres. La 
gorge strie'e longitudinalement de brun olive sur un fond blanc 
roussatre. La poitrine d'un brun olive roussatre. Le ventre et 
I'abdomen d'un blanc grisatre plus pur au milieu, avec les cotes 
d'un brun olivatre. Les sous-caudales d'un blanc roussatre, bordees 
sur les cotes d'un gris d'ardoise. Les remiges et les rectrices 
noiratres bordees de brun roussatre. Les sous-al aires d'un brun 
olive melange de roux-brun clair. Bee noiratre melange de 
jaunatre, pattes d'lm brun jaunatre, " iris brun fonce." 

$ . Long, totale 233, envergure 354, aile 110, queue 84, bee 25, 
tarse 29 mm. 

L^ne autre femelle, qui ne parait pas completement adulte, a le 
dessus d'un gris olivatre fonce, legerement marbre de noiratre ; le 
front est un peu plus roussatre et le croupion plus schistace que 
le dos. La gorge d'un blanc roussatre variee de raies longitudinales 
noiratres. Le menton meme est blanchatre uniforme. La poitrine 



326 GEAF TON BEELEPSCH AITD M. J. STOLZMANTT ON [Mar. 3, 

anterieure et les flancs d'un gris roussatre, moins roussatre sur les 
cotes de Tabdomen ; le milieu de rabdomen et les re'gions anales 
d'un blanc sale ; les sous-caudales gi-ises, chaque pliuue portant uue 
ligne blanche assez large et cuneiforme le long du rachis. L'aile 
pliee est de la couleur du dos ; les remiges sont d'un noir brunatre, 
largement bordees de gris sur leurs barbes externes ; les rectrices 
noiratres, avec les bordures d'un gris fonce. " Bee brun, pattes 
d'un jaune brunatre." 

5 . Aile 100, queue 76, culmen 21, tarse 27 mm. 

D'apres Kalinowski le male adulte a le bee jaune a la base, 
brunatre dans la partie terminale ; pattes d'un jaune brunatre. 

2. TuEDxrs PH^OPXGTJS spoDioL^Mrs, subsp. nov. 

Turdus liliceopygioicles, Tacz. (nee Seebohm) Orn. Perou, i. p. 490, 
et iii. p. 508. 

T. pbaeopygo (Cab.) e Guiana siinillimiis, sed major et gula ad 
juguJum usqxie fere omnino nigro-hrunnea, marginHyus^^^umariim 
lateralilv^ albis tenuissimis distinguendus. S al. 118^, 
caud. 98|, culm. 19, ^«rs. 28| mm. 

Hah. in Peruvia centrali (Mus. Branicki). 

Tin male adulte de la Gloria du 1 aout 1890. " Iris brun fonce ; 
bee noiratre, avec la partie basale de la mandibule inferieure d'un 
jaune oHvatre ; pattes brunes." 

L'oiseau envoye differe des oiseaux typiques de la Guyane 
anglaise par des dimensions generalement plus grandes et par 
la gorge plus uniformement noiratre, couleur qui est aussi plus 
etendue en bas. Les plumes noiratres de la gorge ne presentent 
qu'une bordiu-e tres etroite blanchatre, tandis que chez la forme 
typique il y a des bordures larges d'un blanc pur formant des 
stries regulieres. Quant a la couleur des parties supe'rieures, 
l'oiseau du Perou central s'aceorde presque entierement avec la 
forme typique, tandis que la forme qui habite I'Ecuador oriental, 
et qui est representee dans les collections de Bogota, se distingue par 
le dos colore d'un brun sature ou brun de bistre {T. ^Iweojiygus 
saturatus, Berl.). 

3. TtTEDUS IGNOBILIS, Scl. 

, Trois males de La Merced (aout 1890 et Janvier 1891). " Iris 
brun fonce, bee et pattes d'un brun come." 

Tin male compare aux oiseaux du Perou septentrional (Cbiri- 
moto et Tarapoto) s'aceorde dans tons les details sauf la queue, 
qui est plus longue chez les oiseaux du Perou central. 

4. TuEDrs CHiGUANCO, Lafr. et d'Orb. 
Merula cJiiguanco, Tacz. 1. c. i. p. 494. 

Deux males, dont I'nn d'Acobamba (21 septembre 1890) et 
I'autre de Tarma (13 aout 1893). "Iris d'un rouge brique sale, 
bee et pattes jaunes." Un jeune male de Garita del Sol (3 octobre 
1891). " Iris brun clair." 

Les deux males adultes different de la femelle d'Ica (cote 



1896.] THE OElflTHOLOGY OF CENTEAL PERU. 327 

du Perou) par la couleur des yeux, du bee et des pattes (voir 
P. Z. S. 1892, p. 373). 

5. TrUDUS GIGAS GIGAISTTODES (Cab.). 

Pariayacu : une paire, novembre 1891. " Iris rouge, bee et 
pattes d'lin jaune orange, bord de la paupiere jaune." 

6. TimDTJS SEEEAiTDS, Tsch. 

Un male de Maraynioc (7000'), 24 octobre 1892, " Iris rouge 
cannelle sale, bee et la paupiere jaunes, pattes d'un jaune brunStre." 

7. TuEDUs swAiNsoxi, Cab. 

La Gloria et La Mereed (Janvier 1891) : deux males et une 
femelle. 

Fam. Stlviid-5!. 

8. Myiadestes ealloides (d'Orb,). 

Un jeune oiseau de Garita del Sol (24 mars 1893). " Iris brun 
fonee, pattes brunes, bee noir." 

9. Myiadestes leijcotis (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol : deux males, juillet et oetobre 1891. " L-is 
brun fonce, mandibule superieure et pattes noires, mandibule 
inferieure couleur de rose jaunatre." 

Fam. CiNCLiD^. 

10. CrNCLTJS LETJCOCEPHALTJS, Tsch. 

Deux femelles, dont une de Palcamayo (juillet 1890) et I'autre 
de Maraynioc (7 juin 1893). " Lis brun fonce." 

Fam. TeoglodytiDjE. 

11. ClNNICEETHIA PEETJANA (Cab.). 

Pariayacu : deux femelles (novembre et decembre 1891), et 
trois exemplaires de Maraynioc (juillet et aout 1892, mars 1893). 
Iris chez trois exemplaires marque " rouge-brique," chez deux 
autres " brun clair." " Bee plombe brunatre, pattes brunes." 

L'une des femelles de Pariayacu (de 12 decembre 1891) possede 
tout le front jusqu'au bord posterieur des yeux et le tour de I'oeil 
d'un blane presque pur. Chez une autre de Maraynioc (du 19 
mars 1893) le blane s'etend moins largement sur le front et il est 
legerement teinte de fauve. II est a remarquer que I'apparition 
du blane sur le front et autour des yeux se repete souvent chez 
les autres especes du genre CinnicertJiia, comme par example chez 
la C. olivascens, Sharpe (C. unibrimnea, Scl. & Salv., nee Lafr., voir 
P. Z. S. 1879, p. 492). II est difficile de considerer ce caractere 
sporadique comme un cas d'albinisme, puisqu'il se montre sur 
differentes parties du corps, tandis que le blane chez la Cinnicerthia 



328 GEAF YON BBRLEPSCH AHJJ M. J, STOLZMAKN ON [Mar. 3, 

occupe toujours soit le front, soit le tour des yeux, soit les deux 
parties ensemble. II se pourrait que ce soit un retour vers un 
caractere possede jadis par quelque ancetre de la Cinnicerthia. 

Une jeune femelle de Maraynioc (13 aoiit 1892) possede le 
dessous du corps, surtout la gorge, beaucoup plus claire que les 
autres exemplaires. Le front chez elle est largement d'un gris 
cendre, qui s'etend sous forme d'un tres large sourcil jusqu'a la 
nuque. Cet exemplaire possede en outre les raies noires de la 
queue beaucoup moins nombreuses (a peu pres 27) que les autres 
(a peu pres 36). " Iris brun." 

12. HbNICOEHINA LET7COPHE.TS (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol : deux males et une femelle, juin et juillet 1891. 
" Iris brun fonce, bee noir, pattes brunes." 

La difference indiquee par Taezanowski entre une femelle de 
Sillapata (Perou central) et des individus de Tambillo (Perou du 
Nord) ne parait pas constante. Nos oiseaux de Vitoc ont les 
remiges et les rectrices aussi distinctement rayees que les oiseaux 
de I'Ecuador occidental et de Bogota. II n'y a non plus de dif- 
ferences dans les dimensions. 

13. Thbtothoeus cantatob, Tacz. 

La Merced et La Gloria : deux femelles, juillet 1890 et avril 
1891. "Iris brun jaunatre, bee brun bleu atre, pattes d'un gris 
brunatre." 

Cex deux exemplaires s'accordent en tout avec I'oiseau typique 
du Musee Universitaire de Varsovie. 

14. Teoglodxtes fkatee, Sharpe. 

T. solstitialis, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 505 ; id. Orn. Perou, i. 
p. 521. 

T. solstitialis f rater, Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 261. 

Maraynioc : un male et deux jeuues oiseaux, octobre et decembre 
1891 etaoiit 1892. " Iris brun fonce, bee brun avec la mandibule 
inferieure blancbatre, pattes d'un brun carne." Ces oiseaux, quant 
aux dimensions, s'accordent avec le T. frater de la Bolivie, mais 
ils presentent la strie sourciliere d'un blanc plus roussatre. 

15. Teoglodttes mttscxtxtjs audax (Tsch.). 

T. audax, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 525. 

La Merced : deux femelles, aout 1890 et fevrier 1891. " Iris 
brun fonce, bee brun en dessus, brun grisatre en dessous ; pattes 
d'un brun grisatre." 

Cet oiseau se rapprocbe surtout de la forme du T. musculus qui 
habite la Guyane anglaise, et ne s'en distingue que par le bee un 
peu plus court et la queue plus longue. Les flancs presentent 
une legere indication de stries transversales, qu'on ne voit pas 
chez les oiseaux de la Guyane. 

2 . Aile 52, queue 44, culmen 12|, tarse 18^ mm. 

C'est probablement le T. audax de Tschudi, qui habite, dit-on, la 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CENTRAL PERU. 329 

region des forets du Perou nord-oriental ; maisil faudrait examiner 
le type du T. audax dans le Musee de Neuchatel. 

16. Troglodytes muscultjs puna, subsp. nov. 
T. audax, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 525 (partim). 

T. musculo e Bahia simillimus, sed multo major et colore s^ihhis 
omnino rufescente, snhca%idaUbus minime nigra maculafis ; jiedi- 
btts fortioribus et nigrescentioribus. 

Hab. in Peruvia alta. 

cJ ad. Long, totale 142-145, envergure 193-195, aile 60-59| , 
queue 51-49^, culmen 15|-14j, tarse 21^-20| mm. 

Ingapirca : deux males (mai et juiu 1890) ; un male et une 
femelle de I'hacienda de Queta (juillet et aout 1892 et 1893). 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Cette forme est procbe du T. musculus, Namn., de Bahia, mais 
s'en distingue par sa taille considerablement plus forte, par la 
couleur roussatre du dessous du corps plus uniformement repandue, 
par le manque absolu de tacbes noires sur les sous-caudales et par 
les pattes plus fortes et plus noiratres. 

17. CiSTOTHORUS GRAMINICOLA, TaCZ. 

Ingapirca: trois males du mai et du juin 1890. "Iris brun 
fonce." 

Ces oiseaux, compares aux types du Muse'e Universitaire de 
Varsovie trouvcs par M. Jelski aux environs de Maraynioc, 
presentent quelques differences bien marquees. La taille en 
general est plus forte chez les oiseaux d'lngapirca, la queue surtout 
est plus loDgue. Les stries du pileum sont mieux prononcees 
et d'une couleur roussatre au lieu de grisatre. Les stries de la 
face superieure de la queue sont plus larges. La couleur du 
dessus du corps est en general plus claire et plus roussatre. La 
couleur roussatre des cotes du corps et de la poitrine moins 
developpee et plus pale que cbez les oiseaux de Pumamarca et de 
Maraynioc. 

Dimensions : — 

Maraynioc. Pumamarca. Ingapirca. 

6- S. ' ' 

Aile 48 47 

Queue .... 45 41 

Culmen .. 11 \\\ 

Tarse .... 20 20 

Nous n'avons pas eu I'occasion de comparer nos oiseaux a des 
exemplaires typiques du C. polyglottus (Vieill.) du Paraguay. 

18. Odontorhynchus branickii, Berl. et Tacz. 

Garita del Sol : un male adulte du 22 juillet 1891. " Iris brun 
fence, bee et pattes bruns." 

Al. 63, caud. 56, culm. 13|, tars. 16^ mm. 

S'accorde parfaitement avec les oiseaux typiques de I'Ecuador 



s. 


6. 


6. 


54 


52 


49 mm. 


56 


53i 


53 „ 


12 


12' 


Hi » 


19 


19 


18 „ 



330 GEAF VON BEELEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

oriental du Musee Branicki a Varsovie, sauf que les ailes et la 
queue sont un peu plus longues. 

Espece nouvelle pour la faune peruvienne. 

Fam. MoTACiLLiD^. 

19. Anthtjs pukcattjs beevikosteis (Tacz.). 

A. furcatus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 459. 

Ingapirca : deux paires, juin 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 
Berlepsch, ayant eu I'occasion de comparer les oiseaux d'lngapirca 
a uue belle serie de 13 individus de V Anihus furcatus typique de 
Valle Grande en Bolivia (coll. Garlepp), a pu constater que les 
oiseaux du Perou central different constamment par le blanc des 
rectrices externes plus e'tendu, par les taches de la poitrine plus 
larges et plus intenses, par le bee plus mince et par le queue un 
peu plus courte. On pourrait done les distinguer comma A. fur- 
catus hrevirostris (Tacz.). 

20. Anthtjs calcaeatxjs, Tacz. 

A. correndera, Tacz, Orn. Perou, i. p. 458. 

Junin : nombreux individus, mai et juin 1890. " Iris brun 
fonce, bee noiratre avec la base de la mandibule inferieure carnee, 
pattes d'un came sale." 

Berlepsch avait deja demontre, en commun avec le Dr. Lever- 
kiihn (Ornis, 3890, p. 8), que VA. calcaratus, Tacz., differe con- 
stamment de YA. correndera du Chili par la couleur de la rectrice 
externe de chaque cote, qui est presque entierement blanche (sauf 
une bordure etroite noiratre a la partie basale de la barbe interne), 
par le fond de la couleur du dessus du corps plus ochreux et par le 
dessous du corps plus jaunatre, enfin par le bee et les tarses plus 
longs. 

21. Anthus bogotensis, Scl. 

Une paire de Maraynioc, 15 aout et 20 septembre 1892. 

La seule difference appreciable entre les oiseaux du Perou et 
eeux de I'Ecuador se voit dans la longueur du bee (un peu plus 
court chez les oiseaux du Perou). Un oiseau de Bogota du Musee 
Berlepsch (A. hoc/otensis typique) differe des oiseaiix de I'Ecuador 
et du Perou par le manque absolu du bord interne noiratre de la 
rectrice externe. 

Fam. Mniotiltid^, 

22. COMPSOTHLXPIS PITIATUMI (VieiU.). 

Garita del Sol : une femelle, 24 avril 1893. 

23. Dendeoica c^eulea (Wils.). 

La Gloria: un exemplaire du Janvier 1891. San Emilio: une 
femelle, 14 mars 1893. 



1896.] THE OKNITHOLOGT OF CENTEAL PERU. 331 

24. De>t)E0ica blackbtjunijE (Gm.) 

Une femelle et un oiseau sans indication de sexe de Garita del 
Sol du mars 1893. 

25. Dendeoica iESTiYA (Gm.). 

La Merced : un male du 26 fevrier 1891. " Iris brun fonce, 
bee brun plombe, pattes olivatres." 

26. BaSILETJTEEXJS LrTEOTIEIDIS steiaticeps (Cab.). 

MyiotMypis striaticejjs, Cab. Joum. f. Orn. 1873, p. 316. 

B. luteoviridis, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 477. 

Maraynioc : deux males et une femelle (juillet, aout et novembre 
1892). ' Garita del Sol : un male (juillet 1891). 

Les oiseaux du Perou central et de la Bolivie se distinguent des 
oiseaux typiques de Bogota par les stries foncees laterales du 
pileum beaucoup plus prononcees que chez le vrai B. luteoviridis. 

27. Basileuteeijs bivittatts chetsogastee (Tscb.). 

B. hivittatus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 473. 

La Merced : deux femelles, octobre 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 
Les oiseaux du Perou central se distinguent des exemplaires 
typiques de la Bolivie par les dimensions plus petites et par des 
details de la coloration, a savoir : le vert du dessus du corps est 
un peu plus pale ou plus jaunatre ; les stries bordant le roux du 
milieu de la tete sont d'un noiratre moins fonce ou plus brunatre. 
Les plumes an commencement du front sont verdatres au lieu de 
noiratres ; le milieu de I'oceiput est d'un vert plus jaunatre que 
celui du dos, ce que n'est pas le cas chez le vrai B. hivittatus; 
la strie surciliere est d'un jaune verdatre plus clair, et prolongee 
jusqu'au dessus des oreilles. On pourrait meme elever cette 
forme au rang d'espece. 

Dimensions : $ $ : aile 59-61g, queue 52, culmen 10f-ll|, 
tarse 18|— 19| mm. 

28. Basileuteeus coEOifATrs (Tscb.). 

Garita del Sol : une femelle, juillet 1891. " Iris brun fonce, 
bee noir, pattes d'un brun olivatre." 

29. Basilexjteetjs ueopygialis poliotheix, subsp. nov. 
B. urojpygialis \ Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 478 (partim). 

B. uropygiali, Scl., simillimus, differt pileo usque ad nucham 

1 Le type du B. uropygialis, Scl., est dit Stre du Bresil, et peut-etre cette 
indication de localite est-elle correcte. Berlepsch a eu I'occasion d'exatniner 
dans le Musee de Munich le type de la Muscicapafulvicaiida, Spix (Av. Bras. ii. 
p. 20, tab. xxviii. fig. 2), qui venait de I'Amazone bresUien, et a reconnu que 
c'est un Basileuterus identique au B. uropygialis, Scl., ou tres voisin. II est 
done bien probable que fulvicauda, Spix, est un nom plus ancien pour le 
B. uropygialis, Scl., mais il faut encore une reexamination et une comparaison 
du type de la M. fulvicauda avec les individus du B. uropygialis. — Bebi.. et 
Stolzh. 



332 GEAF TON BERLEPSCH AJfD M. J. STOLZMANIT OS [Mar. 3, 

pure ardesiaco nee brunneo mixto, colore dorsi olivaeeo etiam 
clariore. Ala 68|-66, cauda 56f-49|, culmen 12-llf, tarms 
23|-20| mm. 
La Gloria (aout) et La Merced (octobre 1890) : deux males. 
" Iris brun f once." 

Les deux oiseaux de Chanchamayo different d'un autre de 
I'Ecuador oriental du Musee Berlepscb et d'une femelle _ de 
Huambo, Perou nord-est (coll. Stolzmann), du Musee Branicki 
par la couleur du dessus de la tete, qui est d'un ardoise plus clair 
ou moins brunatre, et qui est plus etendu vers la nuque. Chez les 
oiseaux de I'Ecuador oriental et du Perou septentrional les plumes 
du dessus de la tete presentent des taclies brunatres a la points 
qui manquent completement aux oiseaux de Chanchamayo. Le 
dos est d'un vert olive un peu plus clair. 

30. Stlyania canadensis (L.). 

Myiodioctes canadensis, Tacz. Om. Perou, i. p. 468. 

La Gloria et La Merced (decembre et Janvier) : deux femelles. 

31. Setophaga vekticalis, Lafr. et d'Orb. 

La Gloria : une femelle, aout 1890. Garita del Sol : deux 
males, aout 1891, et une femelle, 23 avril 1893. " Iris brun fonce." 

Un ceuf de cette espece fourni par M. Kalinowski est ovc, 
attenue graduellement vers le petit bout. Le fond est d'un blanc 
pur, couA'ert d'une fine mouclieture plus dense sur le gros bout, ou 
elle forme une couronne. Les macules sont de differentes 
couleurs : celles de la gamme inferieure sont d'un roux pale et en 
general elles sont plus grosses que celles de la gamme superieure, 
qui sont d'un roux brunatre assez fence. H y a aussi une certaine 
quantite de petites taches d'un cendre assez fonce rassemblees 
surtout au gros bout. Dimensions : 18^ x 13 mm. 

32. Setophaga melanocephala, Tsch. 

Garita del Sol et Maraynioc (octobre et novembre 1891). 
Vitoc (mai 1893). 

Pam. VlKEONlDJE. 

33. VlEEOSTXYIA JOSEPHiE, Scl. 

Garita del Sol : un male, 2 septembre 1891. 

34. Cycloehis guianbnsis (Gm.). 

La Gloria : un male, aout 1890. " Iris d'un jaune orange." 
Al. 72^, caud. 56|, culm. 17|, tars. 21 mm. 
Get oiseau s'accorde parfaitement avec des individus de la 
Guyane anglaise. Les pieds paraissent d'une couleur plus pale. 

Pam. HieundinidjE. 

35. HiETJNDO EETTHEOGASTEA, Bodd. 

La Merced: une jeune femelle, 10 mars 1891. 



1896.] THE OHIflTHOLOGT OF OENTBAL PEBTT. 333 

36. TACHrCINETA ALBIVEIS-TEIS (Bodd.). 
Hirundo albiventris, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 239. 

La Merced : une paire d'oiseaux jeuiies, 10 Janvier et 20 aout 
1891. " Iris brun f once." 

Ces oiseaux se distingiient des individus de Cayenne par le 
blanc des barbes internes des rectrices externes plus etendu vers 
la pointe. 

37. Atticoea fasciata (Gm.). 

La Merced ; trois individus, juillet et aout 1890. " Iris brun 
fonce." 

Tin male examine par Berlepscb est plus petit que les oiseaux 
de la Guyane anglaise, de Trinidad et de I'Ecuador oriental dans 
sa collection. Le bee parait aussi plus petit, la bande de la 
poitrine plus large, que chez les oiseaux de la Guyane anglaise. 
Le type de VA. fasciata venait de Cayenne. 

38. Atticoea cta^'oleuca (VieiU.). 

La Merced : nombreux individus du juillet 1890. " Iris brun 
fonce." 

39. Atticoea jiueina (Cass.). 

A. cinerea, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, i. p. 243. 

Acobamba : un male du 11 juillet 1890. "Iris brun fonce." 

Al. 112|, caud. 64|, culm. 6|, tars. lO.f, caud. furcata 14^ mm. 

Bee plus etroit, parties superieures, surtout le pileum, plus 
verdatres, et parties iuferieures plus grisatres, moins brunatres que 
chez les oiseaux de I'Ecuador compares par nous. 

40. Atticoea andecola (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Hirundo andecola, Lafr. et d'Orb. Svn. av. (1837) p. 69 (typ. 
ex La Paz, Bolina); Tschudi, F. P. Orn. p. 132 ; Tacz. Orn. du 
Perou, i. p. 242. 

Atticora cinerea (partim), Sharpe, C. B. Brit. Mus. x. p. 184 
("young"). ^ 

Une paire d'oiseaux adultes de I'hacienda de Queta, pres de 
Tarma, 25 decembre 1892. " Iris brun fonce, presque noir ; bee 
noir, pattes carnees." 





Long. tot. 


Al. 


Caud. 


Culm. 


Tars. 


Caudae furca, 


cJ. 


... 130 


123^ 


601 


n 


13 


6 mm. 


$. 


... 128 


1161 


55 


4 


12 


H " 



Dr. Sharpe a eu tort de reunir VA. andecola, Lafi'. et d'Orb., 
a YA. murina (Cass.) { = A. cinerea auct., nee Gm.). Ce sont 
evidemment deux especes tout-a-fait distinctes. 

Nos deux oiseaux de Tarma s'accordent parfaitement avec la 
description donnee par Lafresnaye et d'Orbigny de leur E. ande- 
cola (l. c), de meme qu'avec deux individus recueillis par G. Garlepp 
a Chililaya, lac Titicaca. 



334 GRAF VOIf BEELEPSCH AKD M. J. STOXZMAKN ON [Mar. 3' 

lis different de 1'^. murina, Cass., de I'Ecuador et d'Acobamba, 
par la queue tres peu fourcbue (recbancrure mesurant de 5 
a 61 au lieu de 19 mm.), par les rectrices plus larges, les 
tectrices sous-caudales beaucoup plus prolongees, les ailes plus 
longues, enfiu par la coloration du dessous du corps. Cbez VA. 
murina toutes les parties inferieures du corps soat d'une couleur 
grise brunatre uniforme, tandis que cbez VA. andecola la gorge est 
cCun noirdtre enfume, la poitrine et Vahdom^n neanmohis d'un 
hlanchdtre sale. Les tectrices sous-caudales cbez VA. andecola sont 
d'un brunatre pale a bordures apicales blancbatres, tandis que chez 
VA, murina elles sont noiratres, terminees d'une tacbe d'un bleu 
d'acier a la pointe. Les parties superieiu'es sont d'un bleu d'acier 
verdatre moins vif, surtout sur la tete. 

41. Atticoba tibiaxis (Cass.). 

La Gloria : uu male en mue et une jeune femelle, 6 aout 1890. 
" Iris brun fonce." 

42. Stelgidopteetx ettficollis (Vieill.). 

La Merced : trois exemplaires, juillet, aout et septembre 1890. 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Fam. CoeeebiDjE. 

43. DlGLOSSA PECTOEALIS, Cab. 

Plusieurs exemplaires de Maraynioc (juillet, novembre et 
decembre 1891, aout 1892, jauvier et mars 1893). " Iris brun 
fonce, bee et pattes noirs." 

44. DlGLOSSA PEESOKATA (Fras.). 

Maraynioc et Garita del Sol (septembre et novembre 1891, 
juillet et decembre 1892). 

45. DlGLOSSA BEin)i:NEiTE:s^TEis, Lafr. 

Nombreux individus de Palcomayo et d'Acobamba (juillet 1890), 
de Maraynioc et de Tarma (uovembre 1891, aout 1892, et fevrier- 
juillet 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

Nos oiseaux du Perou central different d'un male de Paucar- 
tambo du Musee Berlepscb en ce qu'ils ne presentent que des 
traces de stries surcilieres grisatres, qui sont bien prononcees cbez 
le dernier. 

46. DiGLOSSOPIS CiEEtTLESCENS PAiLIDA, Subsp. nOV. 

D. cmndescens, Tacz. (nee Scl.) P. Z. S. 1874, p. 511 (Nina- 
bamba) ; id. P. Z. S. 1879, p. 225 (Palto & TambUlo) ; id. P. Z. S. 
1882, p. 8 (Chacbapoyas, Tamiapampa, Acbamal) ; id. Orn. du 
Perou, i. p. 422. 

D. caerulescenti (^Scl.) simillima, sed colore supra subtusque 
multo jpallidiore, gula, jpectore, lateribusque corporis pallide 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CEN^TB.VL PERU. 33& 

ccerulescenti-griseis nee saturate ulti-amarino-a rdesiacis dis- 
tinguenda. 
Hob. in Peruvia alta, ceatrali et septentrionali. 

Long. tot. Al. Caud. Culm. Tars. 

cJ cJ Chaehapoyas 

(MiLseum H. V. Berl.) 124,129 72, 73^ 58^,65 13i, 12| 20^ mm. 

2 Chirimoto 

(Museum H. V. Berl.) 124 69 57 13j 20 „ 

S Q-arita del Sol 
(Museum Brauicki) 124^ 64^ 52^ 12| 20| „ 

Un male de Garita del Sol du 7 septembre 1891. 

Feu le docteur Taczanowski avait deja demontrc dans son 
' Ornithologie da Perou' {l.c.)c\}ie les individus peruviens de 
Diglossopis different des Diglossopis ccerulescens typiques par la 
couleur du corps generalement plus pale, surtout dans les parties 
inferieures. Cette difference parait tout-a-£ait constante et se 
manifeste principalement dans la couleur de la gorge, du haut de 
la poitrine et des cotes du corps, qui est d'un gris bleuatre a peine 
plus obscur que le milieu de I'abdomen, au lieu d'un bleu ardoise 
obscur comme chez la D. aendesceiis typique de Venezuela. Les 
tectrices sous-caudales sont plus largement bordees de blanc, le 
milieu de I'abdomen plus largement blanchatre ; enfin, les parties 
superieures d'un ardoise bleuatre plus pjile et plus teme. 

II est remarquable que le genre Diglossopis n'avait pas, jusqu'a 
present, ete trouve dans la republique de I'Ecuador. 

47. CoNiaosxKiiM cxANEUii, Tacz. 

Maraynioc: quatre exemplaires, novsmbre 1891, aout et sep- 
tembre 1892. " Iris brun fonce, bee et pattes noirs." 

Tin exemplaire du G. sitticolor, Lafr., de San Rafael (Ecuador), 
du Musee Branicki, presente des traces d'un sourcil bleu. 

48. CONIEOSTRTJAI FERRtTGIIfEITEIfTBE, Scl. 

Maraynioc : deux paires, aoiit 1892. " Iris brun fonce, bee et 
pattes noirs." 

49. CojSiEOSTRtJJi ATEOCTAifBUM, Lafr. 

Garita del Sol (juillet 1891 et mars 1892); Culumachay (aout 
1892). Le male adulte de Garita a le dos superieur plus noiratre, 
moins lave de bleu violace, les parties inferieures d'un noir moins 
bleuatre, et les dimensions un pen moindres qu'un male adulte de 
Tamiapampa, Perou du nord. 

50. CoJTiEOSTRTJM ciNEREUM, Lafr. et d'Orb. 

Tarma : un male du 15 decembre 1890 ; Pariayacu : trois ex- 
emplaires, aout 1892. " Iris brun fonce." Ces oiseaux sont tout-a- 
fait identiques a des individus recueillis par Garlepp sur le versant 
oriental des Andes de la Bolivie occidentale \ 

'■ Les oiseaux du littoral du Perou (Lima, Arequipa) nommes par nous 
C. cinereum (voir P. Z. S. 1892, p. 374) se distinguent de ceux de I'orient du 



336 GHAF TON BElltEPSCH X'Sli M. i. S*lfOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

51. Xenodacnis paeina, Cab. 

Mara^mioc : cinq individus, octobre et novembre 1891, et un 
male, 28 aout 1892. " Iris brun fouce, bee noir, pattes brunes." 

52. Dacnis cayana glaucogtjlaris, subap. nov. 
D. cayana, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 428. 

cJ huic D. cayanse simillimus, sed differt gulce nigredine niagis 
restricta necnon plumarum apicibus cyaneo-virescentihus. $ a 
femina D. cayanse gulce plumis griseis cceruleo inarginatis 
distinguenda. 
Hah. in Peruvia, Ecuadoria et Columbia. 

La Grloria (aoiit) et La Merced (aout et septembre 1890) : quatre 
exemplaires. " Iris chez le male rouge, chez la femelle d'un brun 
rougeatre. Pattes carnees." 

C'est la forme occidentale de la D. cayana, qui se distingue de 
la forme typique de Cayenne par le noir de la gorge du male plus 
restreiut et melange d'un vert bleuatre aux bords des plumes. 
Chez le male de la Guyane le noir de la gorge est plus intense et 
presque uniforme. La meme difEerence se voit entre les femelles 



Perou et de la Bolivia par le pileum d'un gris cendre presque semblable a celui 
du dos, au lieu d'etre sensibloiient plus noiratre. En outre, chez les premiers la 
stria surciliere est plus courte et s'arrete un peu an arriere de I'oeil, tandis que 
chez I'oiseau typique elle est prolongee jusqu'aux cotes de I'occiput. Enfiii, 
chez les oiseaux da I'occident les parties inferieures du corps at les cotes de la 
tSte sont d'une couleur plus claire et plus roussatre, la gorge at la poitrine 
jamais lavee d'un gris cendre comma chez I'oiseau de I'orient. Les oiseaux de 
Lima ont aussi les dimensions g6neralement un peu moindres, surtout la queue 
plus courte. 

MM. Lafresnaye et d'Orbigny ont decrit le Conirostrum cinereuni com me 
habitant de "Yungas, rep. Boliviana, et Tacna, rep. Peruviana," mais leur 
diagnose s'applique 6videmment a la forme da I'oriant, car on y lit: "Supra 
totum scliistaceo-cinereum, ' pileo, alls, caudaque nigris,' subtus pallida cineras- 
cens, abdomine medio anoque pallida." Nous nous pensons done autorises a 
decrira la forme du littoral comma sous-espece nouvelle : 

Conirostrum cinereum littorale, subsp. nov. 

C. cinereum, Berl. et Stolzm. P. Z. S. 1892, p. 374 (Lima). 

C. 0. cinereo {ex Bolivia or. et Peruv. or.) simillimum, sed paula minor, cauda 
imprimis breviore, pileo cinereo dorso concolore, nee plus minusve nigrescente 
lavafo, stria superciliari breviore, necnon corpore stihtus magis fulvescente 
iincto,jugulo pectoreqiie hand griseo perfusis distingiiendum. 

Hah. in Peruvia littorali, circum Lima et Arequipa. 

Mus. Branicki (typus ex Lima) et Berlepsch. 

Al. Caud. Culm. Tars. 

a cin^eum morale | ^^ ^g ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^g,_ ^^ ^^ 

C. cinereu7n : 1 

1. ad. Bohvia I 61^ 534 lOJ 18^ 



(coll. Garlepp). 

2. c? c? ad. Tarma et "I „, , .., .„ „i lai 17X 

Maraynioc J "^* ^^^ ^^'^^ lo*, l^t 

3. $ $ Maraynioc ...61i,.60i 62|, 51| lOf, 10 19^,18^ 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CBNTRAt FEBU. 837 

des deux formes. La femelle de la D. cayana typique a la 
gorge d'un blanc grisatre presque uniforme, tandis que la femelle 
de la D. cayana glaucogularis presente des bords bleuatres aux 
plumes. 

L'oiseau du Perou central pourrait etre oonsidere comme type 
de la D. cayana rjlaucogularis, parce qu'il a la gorge plus melangee 
de bleuatre que les individus dn Haut-Amazone et de Bogota. 
N"otons aussi que l'oiseau du Perou central a le bee plus long et 
plus fort que les oiseaux des localites plus septentrionales ; il a 
aussi les ailes et la queue plus longues que les oiseaux de I'Amazone 
superieur, mais les individus de Bogota les ont en general encore 
plus longues. 

Dimensions : — 







La Merced. 




Huambo. 


Yurim 


aguas. 




s. 


6. ?. 


$. 


cJ. ?. 


6. 


6. 


Aile ... 


67 


66i 63 


63 


64 61| 


63 


62 


Queue . 


49i 


45" 47 


49 


50 47 


43i 


42 


Culmen . . 


13 


13 13 


131 


12 14 


121 


]2l 


Tarse . . . 


15 


15 14 


15 


14 15 


15 


14 



mm. 



53. Dacnis angelica (de Filippi). 

La Merced (aout et septembre 1890), Borgona (avril 1891), 
aarita del Sol (avril 1892). " Iris jaune." 

Les individus du Perou central s'accordent tout-a-fait avec les 
oiseaux typiques de Bogota. 

54. Aebelobhina c^rulea microrhtncha (Berl.). 
Coereha ccerulea, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 437. 

La Merced : trois males, septembre 1890. " Iris brun fonce, 
pattes jaune pale." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec les specimens de Bucaramanga et 
de Bogota nommes A. ccerulea microrliynclia. lis ne different 
que par la nuance des parties inferieures, qui parait un peu plus 
claire. 

55. Ccereba chloropyga (Cab.). 

Certhiola peruviana, Tacz. (nee Cab.) Orn. Perou, i. p. 439, part. 

La Merced: deux males du septembre 1890. "Iris brun 
fence." 

Al. 63|, caud. 37^, culm. 12^, tars. 15| mm. 

Ces oiseaux ne different de la C. cliloropyga typique de Babia 
que par les ailes plus longues et le dos un peu plus obscur. lis 
sont presque identiques a ceux de la Bolivie. La C. peruviana, 
Cab., basee sur un oiseau a miroir blanc, recueilli par Warszewicz, 
est peut-etre la meme que la C magnirostris, Tacz. 

56. Chlorophanbs spiza c^btjlescens (Cass.). 
Ch. atricapilla, Tacz. Orn. Perou, i. p. 435. 

La Merced (aout 1890, Janvier et mars 1891) et Borgona (join 
Peoo. Zool. Soo.— 1896, No. XXII. 22 



338 G&AF VON BEELEPSCH AND M, J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 5, 

1891): cinq males. "Iris rouge sale, mandibule iafe'rieure jaune 
olivatre." 

57. Chlobophanes pulcherrtma stigmatura, subsp. n. 

Dacnis pulcherrima, Tacz. Oro. Perou, i. p. 432. 

d mari Ch. pulcherrimae, Sd., simillimus, sed differt macula alba 
magna suhterm'mali in pogonio inferno rectricis exterrwB. " Inde 
fusco-hrunnea." 

Hah. in Peruvia ceutrali (Garita del Sol). 

6. Al. 70, caud. 46|, culm. 12|, tars. 17^ mm. 
_ Garita del Sol : deux males adultes, juillet et aout 1891. Les 
oiseaux du Perou central se distinguent par une grande tache 
blanche subterminale sur la barbe interne de la rectrice externe, 
qui est remplace'e, cbez les exemplaires de I'Ecuador et de Bogota, 
par une fine bordure blanche a la meme place. 

Nous nous sommes permis de placer la Dacnis pulcherrima dans 
le genre Chlorojihanes .' La forme et la coloration du bee sont 
presque les memes, et il y a une certaine analogie dans la coloration 
du plumage. 

Fam. Tanagrid^. 

58. Procnias tersa occidentalis (Scl.). 

P. occidentalis, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 437. 
Un male adulte de San Emilio, Vitoc, 1892. 
Al. 85, caud. 51, culm. 10^, tars. 15J mm. 
Get individu s'accorde dans tons les details avec les oiseaux de 
la Colombie. 

59. Chlorophonia toerejoni, Tacz. 

Garita del Sol : une femelle, 8 novembre 1892. 

60. EUPHONIA NIGRICOLLIS (VieiU.). 

Garita del Sel (juillet 1891) et Chontabamba (aout 1891): 
trois males. 

Ces oiseaux sont identiques aux specimens du Bre'sil merid. du 
Musee Berlepsch. 

61. EuPHONiA CHRTSOPASTA, Scl. et Salv. 

La Merced (aout et septembre 1890) et Borgona (juin 1891): 
cinq exemplaires. " Iris brun fence, la base du bee et les pattes 
d'un olive bleuatre." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent en general avec les spe'cimens de Bogota 
du Musee Berlepsch, ne'anmoins ils presentent des couleurs un 
pen plus vives et plus claires et des dimensions un peu plus fortes. 

62. EuPHONIA XANTHOGASTRA, Suudev. 

La Merced: deux males, aout et septembre 1890 ; Garita del 
Sol (norembre 1891). " Iris brun fonc^." 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CEXTEAL PERU. S39 

63. EuPHONiA LANiiROSTRis, Lafr. et d'Orb. 

La Merced : trois exeinpLiires, septerabre 1890. " Iris brun 
foiice.'' 

Espece non comprise dans ' I'Ornitliologie du Perou ' par L. Tac- 
zauowski, mais trouvee deja par Mr. Whitely k Marassura (Perou 
sud-est). 

Un male adulte examine par Berlepsch (al. 665, caud. 39|, 
culm. 104, tars. l.> mm.) se distingue d'uu male adulte recueilli 
par Grariepp a Omeja, Bolivie oceid., par le bleu d'acier des parties 
superieures moins viohitre, par le jaune orange du front et des 
parties iuterieures plus pale, le jaune du front un pen plus ctendu 
en arriere et le bord noiratre du menton plus large. La E. crassi- 
rostris, Scl., de la Colombie se distingue aisement par le manque 
complet des plumes noiratres au menton, par le jaune des parties 
inferieures et du front plus pale, moins orange, et par le blanc 
moins ropandu sur les rectrices exterieures. 

64. EtrPHONiA OHLOROTiCA SERRiROSTRis (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

La Merced: trois individus, aout et septembre 1890. "Iris 
brun fonce." 

65. Epphonia eufiventbis (Vieill.). 

La Gloria : un male, 3 aout 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 

Al. 595, caud. 33^, culm. 10^, tars. 15| mm. 

('et oiseau ne se dististiugue des individus de I'Ecuador oriental 
du Musee Berlepsch que par le bleu d'acier des parties superieures 
et de la gorge plus verdatre, moins violace, et par cette couieur plus 
etendue vers la poitrine. 

66. Calliste ckilensis (Vig.) '. 
Calliste yeni, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 457. 

La Merced : nombreux exemplaires, aout et septembre 1890. 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec des specimens d'lquitos (Amazone 
sup.), mais ils ont les ailes, la queue et le bee un peu plus longs. 
Les couleurs sont un peu plus vives. 

67. Calliste schkaski (Spix). 

La Gloria (aout 1890 et Janvier 1891) et La Merced (1890): 
nombreux individus. " Iris brun fonce." 

68. Calliste xanthogastra rostrata, subsp. nov. 

La Merced : trois specimens (aout et septembre 1890), ftt de 
La Gloria (Janvier 1891). " Iris brun fonce." 

S 6 . A1.65f, 65J; caud. 45^, 43^5 culm. 11|, Hi; tars. 17, 
15| mm. 

Deux males examines par Berlepsch ont les ailes, la queue et le 

^ Qiioique cette espece ne se trouve pas sur le territoire chilien, il faudra 
accepter le nom chilensis coiume plus ancien. — Berl. et Stolzm. 



340 GEAF TON BEELEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

bee plus longs que les oiseaux de I'Ecuador et de Bogota. On 
pourrait peut-etre distinguer la forme du Perou central sous le 
nom de C. xanihogastra rostrata. 

69. Calliste ptjnctuIiAta, Scl. et Salv. 

Garita del Sol : una paire, mars 1893. " Iris brun fonce, raan- 
dibule superieure noire, mandibule inferieure et pattes d'un plombe 
bleuatre." 

c?. Al. 66|, caud. 471, culm. Hi, tars. 17| mm. 
$. „ 63, „ 471, „ lOi, „ 16i „ 

Probablement les oiseaux trouves par Tschudi dans la region 
boisee da Perou oriental et cites par lui (Fauna Per. ii, p. 203) et 
par Taczanowski (Orn. Perou, ii. p. 460) comme O. jpunctata (L.) 
appartiennent-ils a cette espece. 

70. Calliste pulchea (Tsch.). 

La Gloria (Janvier et fevrier 1891) et Garita del Sol (aout 1891) : 
trois males et une femelle. " Iris brun fence, bee noir, pattes 
d'un plombe bleuatre." 

71. Calliste gyeoloides (Lafr.). 

La Merced (aout et septeinbre 1890), La Gloria (fevrier 1891), 
et Garita del Sol (juillet 1891) ; nombreux individus. " Iris brun 
fonce." 

Berlepsch a compare un male et une femelle a des specimens 
de Bogota. Les oiseaux du Perou central ont les ailes et la queue 
un peu plus courtes et le brun du dessus de la tete un peu plus 
pale et plus terne. Ces memes exemplaires compares par Stolzmann 
avec uu male de Chimbo (Ecuador occ.) presentent des differences 
bien marquees : I'aile est plus courte de 8 mm., le demi-collier 
nucal mieux prononce, la couleur bleue du dessous plus vive cbez 
les oiseaux du Perou central que chez les specimens de I'Ecuador. 

72. Calliste fulviceevix, Scl. et Salv. 

Garita del Sol : deux paires du juillet et d'aout 1891. " Iria 
brun fonce, bee noir, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

Nous n'avons pas eu I'occasion de comparer nos oiseaux aux 
types boliviens, mais nous avons remai'que qu'ils presentent 
plusieurs differences compares a la figure de MM. Sclater et 
Salvin (voir P. Z. S. 1876, plancbe xxx.). 

73. Calliste ahgentea (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol : trois paires, juillet, aout et septembre 1891. 
" Iris brun fonce, bee noir, pattes d'un plombe brunatre." 

74. Calliste boliviana (Bp.). 

La Merced : deux paires, juillet et septembre 1890. "Iris brun 
fonce." 



1896.] THE ORIflTHOLOGT OF CENTRAL PERU. 341 

75. Callisxe nigricincta (Bp.). 

La Merced (septembre 1890) et Borgona (avril et mai 1891) : 
trois males et uae femelle. " Iris brun fonce." 

Les speeimeus du Perou central different de ceux de I'Ecuador 
et de EoraVma (Guyane anglaise) en ayant les ailes et la queue plus 
longues. Le bleu du croupion et des scapulaires est beaucoup plus 
intense, les cotes de I'abdomen plus laves de bleu, les remiges pri- 
maires bordees de bleu au lieu de bleu verdatre, la gorge plus lavee 
de lilace. 

Dimensions des oiseaux du Pe'rou central : 



cJ. 


AUe 74, 


queue 55-54, 


culmen 9|-10i, 


tarse 16-15 mm 


$. 


„ 65, 


» 53, 


9, 


)> 15 „ 



76. CaLLISTE NIGRIVIRIDIS BERLEPSCHI (TaCZ.). 

. - Garita del Sol: quatre individus, juillet et aout 1891. 

Nos oiseaux sont un peu interniediaires entre les specimens 
de la C. nigriviridis typique de Bogota et ceux de Tambillo 
(coll. Hokmann) qui ont servi des types a Taczanowski pour sa 
C. berlepschi. 

77. C-U.LISTE CTANicoLLis (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

La Merced (juillet, aout et septembre), Borgona (avril 1891), 
Gcrita del Sol (juillet 1891), et Esperanza (juin 1891). "Iris 
brun fonce." 

78. Calliste PARzuDAKii (Lafr.). 

Garita del Sol : un male du 2 octbbre 1891. " Iris brun fon.ce, 
bee noir, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

79. Calliste melanotis, Scl. 

Garita del Sol : deux males ad., une femeUe et un jeune male, 
juillet et aout 1891 et avril 1893. " Iris brun fonce, bee noir, 
pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

80. Calliste xanthocephala (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol: un male et deux femelles, juillet et aout 1891. 
" Iris brun fonce, bee noir, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

81. Chlorochrxsa callipar^ea (Tsch.). 

Un jeune male de Garita del Sol, 22 juillet 1891. "Iris brun 
fonce, bee noir, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

Cet oiseau, compare a des individus de la CM. bourcieri (Bp.) 
de I'Ecuador et de la Colombie, presente les m ernes differences 
qu'un oiseau recueilli par Jelski. Voyez Tacz. et Berl. P. Z. S. 
1885, p. 77. 

82. Prockopis atroc^tettxea (Tsch.). 

Diva atroccerulea, Tacz. Om. Perou, ii. p. 456. 
- - Garita del Sol, deux males, 4 septembre 1891 ; Maraynioc, cinq 



3J2 GKAr TON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

specimens, aout et septembre 1892 et Janvier 1893. " Iris brun 
fonce, bee uoir avec la mandibule inferieure elaire, pattes cl'un 
plombe bleuatre." 

83. Ieidoenis jelskti, Cab. 

Maraynioc : huit exeuiplaires, octobre et decembre 1891, pin, 
juillet eib aout 1892, et Janvier 1893. " Iris rouge tres fonce, bee 
noir a mandibule inferieure d'un bleuatre elaire, pattes d'un noir 
brunatre." 

84. Ieidoenis analis (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol ; deux paires, juillet 1891. "Iris rouge fonce, 
bee d'un olive bleuatre, noir a I'arete dorsale, pattes noires." 

85. Ieidoenis eeinhaedti, Scl. 

Culumaohay et Puyas-Tacu (Maraynioc) : trois specimens, juillet 
et aout 1892." 

86. Delotheaupis castaneitentbis (Scl.). 
Pipridea castaneovenhns, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 451. 
Pariayacu et Culumachay (Maraynioc) : sept exemplaires, aout, 

septembre et octobre 1892. " Iris rouge, bee noir a mandibule 
inferieure d'un plombe bleuatre ; pattes d'un noir brunatre." 

87. POECILOTHEATJPIS LACETMOSA (Du Bus). 

Maraynioc : cinq males et deux femelles, novembre et decembre 
1891, aout 1892, et Janvier 1893. " Iris brun fonce, bee et pattea 
noirs." 

88. P(ECILOTHEAUPIS IGNTVENTEIS IGNICEISSA (Cab.). 

P. ignicrissa, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 482. 

Maraynioc : nombreux specimens, juillet et septembre 1891, aout, 
septembre et decembre 1892, et Janvier 1893. " Iris chez le male 
brun fouce, chez la femelle brun clair ; bee et pattes noirs," 

89. Bl'theaupis cucullata ctanonoxa, subsp. nov. 
B. cucullata (Jard.), Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 483. 

B, a B. cucullata {typica) differt dorso, alis, caudaque eatua 
pulchre cyaneis nee olivaceo-ccerulescentibus, necnon nigredine 
capitis in ret/ione nuchali et gutturali multo magis restricta. 

d . Al. 141, caud. 93|, culm. 22|, tars. 32| mm. 
?. „ 131, „ 88|, „ 21, „ 31^ „ 

ffab. in Peruvia centrali (Mus. Branicld et Berlepsch). 

Maraynioc : cinq individus, novembre 1891, aout 1892, et juin 
1893. " Iris jaune I'ougeatre, bee et pattes noirs." 

Les individus de Buthraupis du Perou central se distingueut des 
oiseaux typiques de Bogota par le dos, les tectrices sous-alaires et 
les borduxes des ailes et de la queue d'un beau bleu pur, tandis que 
les oiseaux typiques y presentent up bleu terne olivatre. Les 



1 896.] THE OBNITHOLOGT OF CENTEAL PERU. 343 

premiers ont aussi le noir de la calotte et tie la gorge en dessous 
beaucoup plus restreint. 

Un jeune oiseau de Huasampilla, Perou du sud (coll. Whitely) 
du Miisee Berlepsch, a le bleu du dessus encore plus clair et plus 
vif et le noir de la calotte encore plus reduit, le bee plus petit que 
cliez les oiseaiix du Pt-rou central. Peut-etre ces differences ne 
sont-elles pas constantes. 

Les oiseaux de I'Ecuador sont intermediaires entre la forme 
typique et la B. c. cyanonota. lis s'accordent avee les peruviens 
dans la nuance du bleu des parties superieures, mais le noir de la 
calotte et de la gorge est aussi etendu que chez les oiseaux de 
Bogota. On pourrait en faire une troisieme sous-espece : B. cucul- 
lata intermedia. 

90. COMPSOCOMA SUMPTUOSA (Less.). 

Garita del Sol : un male et deux femelles, juillet, aout et sep- 
tembre 1891. " Iris brun rougeatre, bee noir a mandibule inferieure 
d'un plombe bleuatre ; pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

91. DuBUSiA STICTOCEPHALA, Berl. et Stolzm. (Plate XIII.) 
Buhuda stictocephala, Berl. & Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 386. 
Maraynioc : trois males adultes et un jeune, decembre 1891, 

septembre 1892, et juiu 1893. 

Espece nouvelle pour la faune du Perou. 

92. Tanagba C(elesti8 major, subsp. nov. 
T. ccelestis, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 485. 

T. T. coelesti, Sj)ix e Fontehou,simiUima, sed differt alis caudaque 
longiorihvs^ rostro quoque erassiore, necnon corpore snpra s^ibUig- 
que viridescentiore, uropyc/io quoque miims albescente. 

Hah. in Peruvia centrali et septentrionali. 

La Merced (juillet et septembre 1890, fevrier 1891) et Garita 
del Sol (aout 1891) : huit exemplaires. "Iris brun fonce." 

Les oiseaux du Perou centr. et sept, ont les ailes et la queue 
beaucoup plus longues que les oiseaux typiques de Fonteboa 
(Bresil)\ En outre ils ont le bee plus gi-os, les parties superieures et 
inferieures un peu plus verdatres, et le croupion moins blanchatre. 

Dimensions (oiseaux de La Merced) : — 

d . Aile 99-92, queue 75|-7l, culmen 14|-14, tarse 19^-19 mm. 
$. „ 90, „ 67, „ 141, „ 20 

93. Taitagba palmabum melanopteea (Scl.). 

La Merced : trois paires, juillet et aout 1890. " Iris brun 
fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec des individus de la Guyane anglaise 
et de Bogota, mais I'olive des grandes tectrices alaires superieures 
et du miroir parait plus fonce et le miroir meme un peu plus 

petit. 

' Voir Berlepsch, Journal f, Omith. 1889. p. 2, 



344 GEAP TON BEELEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

94. Tanagea daewini, Bp. 

La Merced (aout 1890), Maraynioc (novembre 1891), et Tarma 
(mars 1893). 

Ces oiseaux ne different pas des individus du Perou du nord et 
de I'Ecuador. Les oiseaux de Lima ont le bee plus gros et plus 
long et le jaune de la poitrine plus pale que les individus d'autres 
localites, mais il parait qu'il y a des intermediaires. 

95. Tanagea cyanocephala (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Garita del Sol: una paire, juillet et septembre 1891. 

Nos oiseaux s'accordent mieux avec ceux de I'Ecuador occ, 
qu'avec les oiseaux typiques de la Bolivie. lis se distinguent de 
ces derniers par la nuance des parties inferieures, qui est d'un 
cendre bleuatre un peu plus fonce et par la couleur des tectrices 
sous-caudales, qui sont plus lavees de verdatre. 

96. EnAMPHOCELUS JACAPA CONNECTENS, Subsp. nOV. 

Bh. atrosericeus, Tsch. Fauna Per. ii. p. 206 ; Tacz. Orn. Perou, 
ii. p. 493. 

(S hide Eh. atrosericei, Lafr, et cl'Orh., simillimus, sed differt jjec- 
,.'.., ..tore, ahdomine, dorsoque minus 'pure nigris, plus minusve colore 
sanguineo-hrunneo lavatis. 

2 huic Eh. jacapse, L., simillima, sed ahdomine uropygioque 
similiter pallide rufescenti-brunneis, plumis dorsalibus obscure 
nigris apice btmnneo marginatis, capiie pallide bi-unneo, fronte, 
regione paroti^a, gidaque sanguineo lavatis, nee, sicut in femina 
Eh. atrosericei, unieolore brunneo-nigra, 

. Hab.'m Peruvia centrali et meridionali. 

La Merced : nombreux individus, juillet, septembre et octobre 
1890, et mars 1891. " Iris d'un brun cafe." 

S. Al. 77|, caud. 77, culm. 16, tars. 21^ mm. 

+ • 5» 772, " ' "' " ■'-"2' '^"2 " 

Cette forme, dont Berlepsch possede aussi un male de Maranura, 
Perou merid. (coll. Whitely), parait tout-a-£ait intermediaire entre 
le Rli. jaeajxi et le Rh. atrosericeus. Le male ressemble davantage 
a celui du dernier, mais il a le noir de la poitrine, du ventre et du 
dos moins pur et moins intense et un peu lave de rouge de sang 
ternei -Cette particularite est encore plus prononcee chez I'oiseau 
de Maranura, qui a presque tout I'abdomen lave d'ua rouge de 
sang terne. 

La femelle de cette forme s'accorde tout-a-fait dans les couleurs 
•avec ceUe du Bh. jacapa, mais elle est fort differente de celle du 
Bh. atrosericeus. Tandis que cette derniere est d'un noir mat 
brun&tre presque uniforme (avec seulement quelque melange de 
bordures roussatres au milieu de I'abdomen chez quelques indi- 
vidus), les femelles de Chanchamayo. possedent tout I'abdomen d'un 
roux rougeatre, le croupion aussi fortement lave de roussatre, les 
plumes du dos noiratres avec des bordyres iiruaes, la tete d'un 



1896.] 



THE OENITHOLOGT OP CENTBAl PEETJ. 



345 



brun pale et terne lavee f ortement de rouge de sang sur le front, 
les joues, ]a gorge, etc. 

Le bee chez cette forme nouvelle parait un peu plus long et 
moius courbe que chez le Rh. atrosericeus. 

97. Ptranga testacea tschudh, Berl. et Stolzm. 

P. testacea tschuch'i, Berl. et Stolzm. P. Z. S, 1892, p. 375. 
P. azarce, Tacz. (nee d'Orb.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 495. 
La Merced : un jeune male, octobre 1890. 

98. Pteakga aedens (Tsch.). 

Garita del Sol : une paire, juillet et septembre 1891. 

99. Tachyphonus eufivehteis (Spix). 

La Gloria (aout 1890 et mars 1891) et Borgoiia (avril 1891). 
" Iris brun fonee." 

100. Thlypopsis oetstata maceopteetx, subsp. nov. 

TTi. ornata, Tacz. (nee Sol.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 507 (partim). 

Th. ornatae ex Ecuador occ. simillima, sed major, alis caudaque 
imprimis longiorihus, 7-osiro crassiore, necvon capite, c/ula, pec- 
tore, lateribusque corporis Icetius rujis distinguenda. 

Hab. in Peruvia centrali. 

Maraynioc : cinq exeraplaires, octobre 1891, octobre et novembre 
1892. " Iris gris olivatre, bee et pattes d'un noir brunatre." 

Dimensions comparatives : — 





Th. ornata. 


Th. ornata. 


Th. 0. macropteryx. 




Bugnat 
(Ecuador occ). 


Cayandeled 
(Ecuador occ). 


Maraynioc 
(PeruT.) 


Aile . . . 


6- 
... 57 


6. $. $. 
61i 61 55 


6. ?. 
67|-71^ 66 mm. 


Queue . 


. .. 53 


51i 50i 48| 


56^ 61 551 „ 


Culmen 


.. 10| 


101 10 lo; 


lli-12i Hi „ 


Tarse . 


... 18| 


18| 20^ 19. 


201-211 2H „ 



101. Thltpopsis amAzonum, Sol. 

Th. amazonum, Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xi. (1886) p. 229 (descr. 
orig., spec, ex Amazonia sup. et Matogrosso). 

La Merced : cinq specimens, juillet et aout 1890 et Janvier 1891. 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent parfaitement avec la description de 
Mr. Sclater. Espece non comprise dans 1' ' Ornithologie du 
Perou ' de Taczanowski. 

102. Sericossypha alboceistata (Lafr.). 

Tendalpata, une paire, avril 1893 ; Tambo de Aza, trois individus, 
juin 1893. 

. . 103. Chloeospingxts atjeicitlaris (Cab.). 

Maraynioc ; sept exemplaires, novembre 1891, juillet, aout, sejp- 



346 GRAF \0^ BEULEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN OS [Mar. 3, 

tembre et novembre 1892, et Janvier 1893. "Iris brun fonce, bee 
brun a mandibule inferieure d'un plombe clair, pattes d'un plombe 
clair." 

104. CHLOROSPlNGtrS CHKTSOGASTEB, TaCZ. 

Quatre exemplaires de Maraynioc (octobre, novembre et decem- 
bre 1892). " Iris gris olivatre, bee et pattes d'un noir brunatre.'" 

Cette espeee a ete decrite par feu Taczanowski d'apres la femelle 
unique envoyee par M. Jelski de Tambopata. Le male envoye 
dernierement par M. Kalinowski nous a permis de constater 
qu'il differe tres peu de la femelle, ce qui est presque general dans 
le genre CMorospingus. II possede les couleurs un peu plus vives ; 
le cendre du somraet de la tete est plus pur, le jaune du dessous 
du corps un peu plus sature que ehez le femelle ,: on pent dire 
aussi que le bee est plus fonce — presque noir. Mais e'est par les 
dimensions que le male se distingue surtout de la femelle, conime 
on verra par la table suivante : — 

Aile. Queue. Culmen. Tarse. 

cJ cJ (de Maraynioc) .. 85,91^ 72 12, 12| 20 mm. 

$ (de Maraynioc) 80 " 63 12 20 „ 

(f (de Tambopata) 1 80 64 — 20 
(d'apres Taczanowski) J 

105. Chloeospingtjs cinekeocephalus, Taez. 

Tambo de Aza, Maraynioc : deux femelles (novembre et decembre 
1892). "Iris blanc sale, bee noir, pattes plombees." 

106. Chlorospingus leucogaster (Tacz.). 

Culumacbay et Pariayaou (Maraynioc); sept exemplaires (juillet, 
aout, septembre et decembre 1892). 

107. Psetjdospingus ' xanthophthalmus (Taez.). 

Maraynioc: cinq exemplaires, novembre 1891, juin, aout et 
octobre 1893, et mars 1893. "Iris d'un jaune pale, bee et pattes 
noirs." 

Le male de cette interessante forme n'etait pas connu jusqu'a 
present. M. Kalinowski nous a fourni dans son dernier envoi 
deux males, qui nous permettent d'en donuer la description. Par 
leur coloration ils sont ideutiques a la femelle ; il u'y a de differ- 

' Psciidospingus, gen. hot. Tanagridanim, generi Chlorospingo afiinis, sad 
rostro graciliore, potius dacnidiformi caudaqiie alls multo longiore, necnon 
eoloribus distinguenduni. Species: — 

1. Ps. verticalis (Lafr.)= Chlorospingus verticalis (Lafr.). 

2. Ps. xanthophthalmus (Taez.). 

Les especes de ce genre different des especes du genre Chlorospingus par le 
bee pi us mince rappellant plutotcelui du g^nre Dacnis, par la queue tres longue, 
plus longue que I'aile, et par le plumage soyeux et un peu luisant. 

Sui\ant I'observation de Stolzmanu, les moeurs du Ps. xanthophthalmua 
different egalement de celles des especes du genre Chlorospingus qu'il a eu I'oc- 
casjou d'observer uu Perou du nord. 



1896.] THE OENITHOLOGT OF CENTRAL PEETT. 347 

ence que dans les dimensions, qui sont plus fortes chez les males 
que chez les femelles, ce qui ressort de la table suivante : — 

cJ.Aile73, queue 75, culmen 13, tarse 20 mm. 
2' „ 64, „ 72, „ 11, „ 20 „ 

La seule difference que Stolzmann a trouve entre les exemplaires 
de Maraynioc et la femelle de Tamiapampa, Pcrou du nord (coll. 
Stolzmann), est que celle-ci a la ligne dorsale du bee un peu 
c'ourbee en bas, tandis quelle est presque droite dans les specimens 
du Perou central. 

108. PiPiLOPSis TRicoLOE (Tacz.). 
Carenochrous tricolor, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, i. p. 525. 

Garita del Sol: un male adulte et une femelle jeune, aout 1891. 
" Iris brun clair, bee noir, pattes brunes." 

109. PiPILOPSIS MTSTACALIS (Tacz.). 

Carenochrous taczanowskii, Scl. et Salv., Tacz. Orn. Pe'rou, ii 
p. 526. 

Maraynioc : six exemplaires, novembre 1891 , juillet et aout ] 892, 
et Janvier, fevrier et juillet 1893. » Iris rouge, bee et pattes 
noirs." 

'110. BUAEREMON BRTTNJfEINUCHUS (Lafr.). 

Garita del Sol: une femelle, 17 juillet 1891. 

111. BtJARREMON POLIOPHEXS, sp. n. 

B. torquatus, Tacz. (nee Lafr. et d'Orb.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 530 
(Maraynioc). 

B. B. torquato, Lafr. et (TOrh., similUmus, differt superciliis supra- 
et postocularihus griseis, icenice verticali concoloribus, nee albis, 
stria tenuissima solummodo partem anteriorem supercilii usq^ie 
ad ocuhtm superve cingente alba ( fere ut in B. assimili). 

Long. tot. 176, al. 80^, caud. 84^, culm. 15|, tars. 29| ram. 

Hah. in Peruvia centrali (Mus. Branicki et Varsov,). 

Maraynioc : deux femelles, novembre 1892 et avril 1893. 

Cette espece nouvelle se distingue aise'ment du B. torquatus, 
Lafr. et d'Orb., de la Boli\ ie, dont Berlepscb a compare trois 
individus boliviens, par la strie surciliere d'un gris ardoise sem- 
blable a celui du vertex au lieu d'etre d'un blanc pur. II n'y a 
qu'une bordure etroite blanch atre au-dessus de la partie anterieure 
de la strie surciliere, qui s'arrete au-dessus de I'ceil. Par cette 
particularite I'espece nouvelle s'accorde avec le B. assimilis, Boiss., 
mais elle possede la bande noire au haut de la poitrine comme chez 
le B. torquatus, bande qui manque completement au B. assimilis. 
11 s'accorde aussi avec la B. torquatus dans tous les autres details 
de la coloration et dans les dimensions. 

La description donnee par M. Taczanowski des individus re- 
cueillis par M. Jelski a Maraynioc sous le nom de B. torquatus 
s'applique tres blen aux oiseaux de Kalinowski. 



348 GBAP VON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

112. CiSSOPIS LEVERIANA MINOR (Tsch.). 

C. minor, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 536. 

La Merced (juillet at octobre 1890, mars 1891), Garita del Sol 
(septembre 1891). ''Iris jaiine." 

Un male examine par Berlepsch a le bee plus long et plus 
attenue vers le bout qu'un oiseau de Bogota. Le noir du dos et 
de la poitrine est plus etendu en bas et d'un eclat plus verdatre 
au lieu de bleuatre. Les rectrices externes moins largement 
terminees de blanc. 

113. PSITTOSPIZA ELEGANS (Tsch.). 

Maraynioc : nombreux exemplaires, novembre et decembre 1891, 
juillet, aout et octobre 1892, et avril 1893. 

Un male de Tamiapampa (Perou sept.), compare par Stolzmann 
avec les oiseaux du Perou central, presente les dimensions plus 
fortes et le roux-cannelle du A'isage et du crissum plus clair. 

114. Saltatob stjpeeciliaeis, Spix. 

S. aearee, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 540. 

S. ccerulescens, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 544 (partim). 

La Merced : plusieurs oiseaux, juillet et aout 1890 et Janvier 
et fevrier 1891. "Iris brun clair." 

Un male examine par Berlepsch s'accorde en general avec les 
oiseaux d'lquitos (Amazone sup.) et ne s'en distingue que par les 
ailes et la queue un peu plus longues et par la couleur de la 
poitrine et du haut du ventre un peu plus blanchatre ou moins 
melangee de gris roussatre. 

115. SaLTATOR MAGNUS (Grm.). 

La Gloria (aout 1890) et La Merced (avril 1891) : deux femelles. 
*' Iris brun." 

116. Saltatoe albociliaris (Phil, et Landb.). 

Pitylus alhociliarisyVhil. et Landb., Wiegm. Arch. 1863, p. 122; 
Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 549. 

Saltator laticlavius, Sol. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 151 ; Tacz. Orn. Perou, 
ii. p. 545. 

Acobamba (juillet 1890), Garita del Sol (juillet 1891) et Maray- 
nioc (novembre 1891 et aout 1892). " Iris brun, bee jaune sale, 
pattes noiratres." 

U n'y a pas de doute que le Saltator laticlavius, Scl., ne soit 
synonyme du Pitylus albociliaris, Phil, et Landb. Comma le dernier 
nom est plus ancien, il doit etre accepte pour cetta espece. 

117. SCHISTOCHLAMYS ATBA (Gm.). 

Orcliesticus ater, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 547. 
. Le Merced : trois specimens, juillet et aout 1890. "Iris brun 
grisatre.'" , . 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CENTBAL PEStT. 349 

Fam. rKiifGiLLiD.i;. 

118. Pheuctictjs chetsogasteb (Less.), subsp. 

Plusieurs individus de Huamani (decembre 1889), de Garita del 
Sol (juillefc 1891) et de Maraynioe (aout 1892 et juin 1893). 
" Iris brun fence." 

Ces oiseaux appartiennent a la forme a gros bee (<•/. Berl. et 
Tacz. P. Z. S. 1884, p. 292) qii'oii pourrait peut-etre distinguer 
comme race locale du Ph. chrysogaster typique (habitant la region 
littorale de I'Ecuador et du Perou). 

119. Volatinia jacarina splendens (Vieill.). 

Trois exemplaires de La Merced (juillet 1890, fevrier et mars 
1891). 

Un oiseau examine par Berlepseb a les tectrices soiis-alaires 
entierement noires, et par consequent appartient a la forme 
splendens. II ne differe d'un male de la Guyane anglaise que par 
la queue un peu plus courte. 

N.B. — La Volatinia de Lima nomme par nous V.jacarini devrait 
peut-etre constituer une race distincte ; car, selon les observations 
de Jelski et d'autres voyageurs, le male ue prend jamais une livree 
tout-a-fait noire. II parait que les males de Lima out les remiges 
et les tectrices superieures toujours bordees d'un brun grisatre. 
Les tectrices sous-alaires sont en partie blanches comme dans la 
V. jacarini typique. 

120. Spoeophila castaneiventeis, Cab. 
Spermophila castaneiventris, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 2. 

La Merced : quatre males, juillet et decembre 1890 et Janvier 
et mars 1891. "Iris brun rougeatre, bee et pattes uoirs." 

Les oiseaux du Perou (Iquitos, La Merced et Cosnipata) exa- 
mines par Berlepsch presentent des dimensions un peu plus 
fortes que les specimens typiques de la Guyane anglaise. lis se 
distinguent notamment par le bee plus fort. 

121. Spoeophila luctuosa, Lafr. 

Spermophila luctuosa, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 10. 

La Gloria et La Merced (juillet et aout 1890, decembre 1890, 
fevrier et mars 1891): plusieurs exemplaires. " Iris brun fonce." 

122. Catamenia inoenata min-oe, Berl. 

C. inornata minor, Berl. P. Z. S. 1885, p. 115. 

C. rufirostris (Landb.), Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 21. 

Maraynioe : quelques exemplaires, decembre 1891, aout 1892 
et juin 1893. 

Les oiseaux du Perou central presentent des dimensions un peu 
plus fortes que ceux de I'Ecuador, mais les individus ecuadoriens 
compares par nous se trouvent en plumage use. 

cJ ad. Aile 69, queue 60|, culm. 9| tarse 21| mm. 
$$. „ 65|-70^, „ 57i-63. „ 91-9^, „ 21^ „ 



350 GEAF TON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN OK [Mar. 3, 

123. Catamenia homochroa, Scl. 

Maraynioc : trois males adultes et un jeuae, decembre 1891 et 
novembre 1892. " Iris brun fonce, bee d'ua blanchatre carne, 
pattes brunes." 

Get oiseaa (le male) s'accorde avec un male adulte de I'Ecuador 
du Musee Berlepsch. 

124. Catamblyehtnchus diadbma citrinifrons, subsp. nov. 
C. diadema, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 24. 

C. 0. diademati, Lafr., simillimus, sed fronte jmllidiore fere 
citrino- nee aurantlo-flavo, corpore subtus lateribitsqiie capitis 
clare rufo-b runnels nee intense castaneis distinyuendus. 

c? . Al. 69|, caud. 73^, culm. 9^, tarse 22^ mm. 
9 fifii 713 111 oil 

Hob. in Peruvia centrali (Mus. Branicki et Berlepsch). 

Maraynioc : cinq individus, decembre 1891, septembre 1892 
et Janvier 1893. 

Les individus de C'atamblyrliynchus de Perou central se distiu- 
guent au premier coup d'ceil des oiseaux de Bogota et de I'Ecuador 
par le jaune du front beaucoup plus pale, presque citron, au lieu 
d'un jaune d'or orange. Les parties superieures et les cotes de 
la tote sent d'un roux brun clair au lieu d'un brun chatain 
obscur, II n'y a pas d'autres caracteres distinctit's. 

125. Spodiornis jardinbi, Scl. 

Spodiornis jelskii, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 42 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. 
Brit. M. xii. p. 798. 

Garita del Sol : une paire, fevrier et mars 1893. " Iris brun 
fonce ; bee chez le mille noir, chez la femelle noir a mandibule 
inferieure d'un plombe bleuutre fouce ; pattes chez le male noires 
brmultres, chez la femelle carnees." 

Oes oiseaux nous pennettentdede'clarer I'identite de \aS. Jelskii 
avec la S. jardinei. On sait que la description de Taczanowski du 
S. jelskii etait basee sur la femelle unique de Ropaybamba. Nos 
oiseaux viennent d'une localite tres voisine de Ropaybamba, et 
pourtaut ils ne different presque point des oiseaux ecuadoriens 
(S. jardinei). II faudra done supprimer I'espece de Taczanowski, 

126. Phrygilus chloronotus, sp. nov. 

Ph. (jayi, Tacz. (nee Eyd. & Grerv.) Orn. Perou, iii. p. 32. 

1 Ph. punensis, Sharpe (nee Ridgway), Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xii. 
p. 785 (Tinta). 

Ph. Ph. punensi, Ridgw., affinis, sed dorso pure fiavescenti-olivaceo 
{nee brunneo) pectore abdomineque Jlavescentiore {minus brunneo 
lavato), cnpite ffulaque pallidiu^ scJiistaceis, necnon rostro lon- 
giore et crassiore (in hoc genere maximo) distinguendus. 

S . Al. 95|, caud. 68|, culm. 17|-18, tars. 26| mm. 
?• » "^42, „ 6/, „ 172J 1) 25^ „ 



1896.] THE OENlTHOLOer OP CENTUAL PEEtr. 351 

Ingapirca : trois individus, juiii 1890 ; Tarma : six oiseaux, 
octobre 1892, aoufc et septerabte 1893. " Iris brun fonce, bee 
noir corne a mandibule inferieure et a bord de la machoire pres 
de la base d'uu plombe bleiiatre, pattes d'ua carne brimatre." 

II parait que les oiseaux de Tinta ducrits par le Dr. .Sharpe sous 
le noiii de Ph. j)uncnsis appartiennent a la iiienie forme que celui 
du Perou central, car il dit que le dos est " rich olive-yellow " 
tandis que llidgwav^ dans sa descriptioa du Ph. imnensis, basee 
sur des echautillon.s du Lac Titicaca, a remarque que le dos est 
plus brunatre (ou "rufescent ") que cliez le Ph. (jayi. C'est pour- 
quoi nous presutnons que le Ph. saturatus, Sliarpe, est le meme 
que le Ph. punensis, Kidgsvay. 

127. Phetgilcs uxicolor (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

" Ph. rusiicus, Tscli.," Tacz. Oru. Perou, iii. p. 38. 
Ingapirca (juin 1890), Maraynioc (novembre 1892 et fevrier 
1 893). » Iris brun fonce." 

128. Phetgilus plebeius, Tsch, 

Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890), Maraynioc (novembre 1892): huit 
individus. " Iris brun fonce." 

129. Phetgilus feuticeti (Kittl.). 

Une femelle de Chicla (27 avril 1890) et deux miiles de Tarma 
(dccembre 1891 et octobre 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

130. Pheygilus alaudixus (Kittl.). 

Tarma (1 septembre 1893) et Jauja (19 juillet 1893): deux 
males jeunes. 

131. DiucA speculifeea (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Une femelle de Barios (29 avril 1890). " Iris brun." 
Get oiseau ne diffore des echautilloas de la Bolivie que par le 
bee un peu plus long et plus epais. 

132. Pseudochloeis shaepei, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Ps. sharpei, Berl. et .Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 386. 

Si/calis uropyriialu<s, Tacz. (nee I/afr.) Orn. Perou, iii. p. 58. 

Nombreux individus d'lugapirca (mai et juin 1890) et de Tarma 
(juillet et septembre 1893). " Iris brun elair, bee noir a mandi- 
bule inferieui-e d'un plombe bleuatre avec la poiute noiratre, pattes 
d'un carne brunatre." 

133. Psefdochloeis littba (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Sycalis lutea, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 56. 

Sycalis chloris, Tschudi, Paun. Peruan., Orn. p. 216. 

Tarma (octobre 1892 et aout 1893) et Jauja (juillet 1893): six 
individus. " Iris brun fonce, bee d'un gris brunatre a mandibule 
inferieure plus claire, pattes d'un carne brunatre." 

Al. 82-81i, caud. 59-56, culm. 11|-10|, tars. 19i-18| mm. 



352 GRAF TON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent parfaitement avec des specimens re- 
cueillis par Garlepp dans la Bolivie occidentale. 

134, Spintjs iCTERiCTJS PERUANUS, subsp. nov. 

Chrysomitris capitalis, Tacz. (nee Cab.) Orn. Perou, iii. p. 49 ; 
Berl. et Stolztn. P. Z. S. 1892, p. 377 (Lima et lea). 

Intermedia quad inter S. ictericum et S. capitalem. 

cJ huic S. icterici simillimus, sed rostro paullo breviore, colore 
corporis flavo paullo ohscuriore, uropygioque minus jlavo perfuso, 
necnon remigibus tertiariis griseo-albo nee flavo marginatis, a 
mari S. capitalis coloribus vividioribus, colli lateribus distincte 
Jlavis {nee dorso coiicoloribus), dorso Jiavidiore viridi, uropygio 
magis flavo perfxiso, pectore abdomineque purius jlavis, necnon 
colore rectrieum basali Jlavo magis extenso distin.guendus. 

2 afemina S. icterici simillima, rostro breviore distinguenda. 

Hob. in Peruvia centrali orieutali (circum La Merced et Garita 
del Sol) et in occidentali (circum Lima et lea). 



Long. alse. 


Caudae. 


Culm. 


Tarsi. 


71 -661, 


45 -42, 


10-9.^, 


141-13^ mm. 


651-65, 


41i-40, 


10-91, 


151-14 „ 



6 6 ■• 
5$ .• 

Nombreux individus de La Merced (Janvier) et de Garita del Sol 
(juillet 1891). 

Nous avons de'ja montre {I. c.) quelques differences entre les 
oiseaux de Lima et lea et ceux de I'Ecuador {capitalis. Cab.). Les 
oiseaux de La Merced et de Garita del Sol s'accordent avec les 
specimens de Lima et d'Ica. lis n'en different qu'en ce que le 
miroir alaire parait toujours moins etendu. Dans ce dernier 
caractere ils s'accordent mieux avec les oiseaux de I'Ecuador. 

L'examen d'une belle serie d'oiseaux peruviens et ecimdoriens 
nous a couvaincu qu'il y a des races locales constantes, qu'il faudra 
separer. La race peruvienne parait plus proche du iS^. ictericus 
(Licht.) du Bresil, dont elle ne diifcre que par le bee generale- 
ment plus court, par le jaune d'or des parties inferieures un peu 
plus terne, par le croupion moins lave de jaune d'or et par les 
bordui-es des remiges tertiaires, qui sont generalement d'uu blanc 
grisatre au lieu d'un jaune verdatre. 

Du 8. capitalis de I'Ecuador la race peruvienne difEere par la 
couleur des cotes du cou, qui est d'un jaune semblable a celui des 
parties inferieures au lieu d'etre verte semblable a celle du dos. 
Le jaune des parties inferieures est plus clair, moins verdatre, le 
croupion plus lave de jaune, tandis qu'il est presque semblable au 
dos cbez le S. capitalis ; le dos aussi d'un vert plus jaunatre. Le 
jaune de la base des rectrices externes plus etendu, de sorte 
que le tiers noiratre de ces pennes est plus court que cbez le 
S. capitalis. 

La femelle de la forme peruvienne, quant a sa coloration, ne 
parait pas differente des femelles des deux races voisines, mais on 
pourrait la distinguer de la femelle du S. ictericus par son bee un 
peu plua court. 



1896.] THE OEJfJTHOLOGY Or CENTRAL tEBtJ. 353 

135. Spintjs olitaceus, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Spinus olivaceus, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 387. 
Garita del Sol: trois males acliiltes et uue t'emelle, 2-4 juillet 
1892 et 13 fevrier 1894. 

136. Spinus sclateri (Sharpe) ? 

Une femelle de Garita del Sol, 27 juillet 1891 . 

Cet oiseau differe des femelles du 8. ictericus pentanits par la 
couleur des parties itiferieures, qui est blanche grisatre melee un 
peu de jaune olivatre. 

II s'accorde en general avec la description de la femelle du 
S. sdateri, Sharpe (Cat. B. xii. p. 200), et aA'ec une femelle de 
Mapoto (Ecuador or.) — nommee capitalis par Taezanowski, P. Z. S. 
1885, p. 85 — et ne differe que par les parties superieures plus 
lavees de grisatre. On ne pent resoudre la question avant d'avoir 
examine le male provenant de la meme localite. 

137. Spinus atbatus (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 
Chrysomitrls atrata, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 53. 

Ingapirca (juin 1890), Maraynioc (fevrier 1893), Jauja (juillet 
1893) et Tarma (juillet 1893) : six specimens. " Iris bruii foncc."' 

Un male examine par Berlepsch a les ailes et la queue plus 
courtes que les oiseaux typiques do La Paz, Bolivie. 

138. Ammodromus pebtjanus (Bp.). 
Coturniculus peruanus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, iii. p. 43. 

La Merced : quatre specimens, juillet 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 

Fam. ICTERIByE. 

139. Ostinops alfredi (Des Murs). 

Trois males et une femelle de La Merced (juillet 1890 et avril 
1891) et de Borgano (mai 1891). " Iris gris bleuatre, bee blanc 
jaunatre." 

140. Ostinops atbotibens (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Deux males de La Gloria (9 aout 1890) et de Garita del Sol 
(juin 1891). " Iris cendre bleuatre ou brun, bee d'un jaune olivatre 
pale, pattes noires." 

141. Ostinops decumanus (Pall.). 

La Merced (19 juillet 1890) : une femelle. " Iris bleu de ciel." 

142. Cassicus albibostris (L.) '. 

Tanagra albirostris, Linn. Mus. Ad. Frid. ii. prodr. (1764) p. 31 
(typ. ex America, Mus. Ad. Frid.). 

^ Les regies aiuericaines d'apres lesquelles on commence la nomenclature 
zoologique k partir de I'an 1758 nous permettent de changer le nom impropre de 
"persicus" en " albirostris" le dernier nom etant impost par Linne k la meme 
espece deux ans plus tot. Le Cassicus albirostris, VieilL, devra done porter la 
nom de C. chrysopterus (Vig.).— Bbrl. et Stolzm. 

Pboo. Zoot. Soc— 1896, No. XXIII. 23 



354 GAaf TOif BEttLBPScil A^D M. s. stoi<^m:ats"N ON [Mar. 3, 

Oriolus persiciis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. xii. (1766) p. 161. 
Cassicus persi'Ms, auct., Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 411. 
La Merced (juillet et aout 1890) : six oiseaux. " Iris bleu de 
ciel, bee jaune bleuafcre pale." 

143. CaSSICITS LEXJCOElL^LiMPHUS (Bp.). 

Chilpes (juillet 1891), Maraynioc (juillet et septembre 1892 et 
1893) : cinq oiseaux. 

144. Amblicekcus solitaeius (Vieill.). 
Cassicus solitarius, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 415. 

Une femelle de La Merced (24 aout 1890). "Ms rouge sale, 
bee d'un jaune olivatre pale, pattes noires." 

145. ICTEEUS CATANENSis (Linn.). 

Un male de La Merced (23 juillet 1890). " Iris brun." 

Al. 99|, caud. 98|, culm. 22, tars. 23| mm. 

L'oiseau envoye se distingue, d'un individu du Musee Berlepsch, 
qui provenait probablement de Cayenne, par le jaune des epaules 
beaucoup plus pale, presque citron au lieu d'orange brunatre, par 
les tibias melanges un pen de jaune et par le bee beaucoup plus 
long et distinctement courbe. 

146. DoLiCHONTx OEYZiTOErs (Linn.). 

Un male non completement adulte et un jeune oiseau en plumage 
de transition. La Merced (1891 — mars). 

Fam. CoETiD^. 

147. Xakthouea tncas (Bodd.). 
Cyanocorax yncas, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 396. 

Un male et quatre femelles de Garita del Sol (juillet, aout et 
septembre 1891). 

148. XaNTHOUEA JOLYiEA (Bp.). 

Deux paires de Tambo de Aza (Maraynioc), septembre 1892 et 
fevrier 1893. " Iris noiratre, bee et pattes noires." 

Ces oiseaux ne different d'un male adulte de Tamiapampa, Perou 
du nord (coll. Stolzuiann), appartenant au Musee Berlepsch, que 
par le dos et la poitrine plus laves d'un bleu violatre ou pourpre. 

Pam. Tteannid^. 

149. Ageioenis iNSOiiENs, Scl. et Saly. 

? Agriornis solitaria, Tacz. (nee Scl.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 183. 

Agriornis insolens, id. ibid. ii. p. 183. 

Ingapirea (mai et juin 1890), Tarma (juillet 1892) et Maraynioc 
aout 1892 et tevrier 1893) : sept specimens. " Iris blanc sale, 
bee et pattes noirs." 



cJ . Al. 137|, 


caud. 104 , 


culm. 24|, 


lars. 34| mm 


$. „ 132 , 


„ lOli, 


,, 241, 


„ 33J „ 



1896.] THE OEKITHOLOGY OF CElTTEAX PEEtf. 355 

150. Mtiotheeetes eettheoptgius, Scl. 

Pariayacu (Maravnioc), aoiit 1892 : une paire. " Iris brun fonce, 
bee et pattes noirs." 

S . Al. 139|, caud. 105^, culm. 18, tars. 31| mm. 

Ces oiseaux ne difEerent des oiseaux de I'Ecuador, d'ou venait le 
type, que par les ailes et la queue un peu plus courtes et par le 
dos plus noiratre, moins brunatre. 

151. Mtiotheeetes steiaticollis (Scl.). 

Garita del Sol (13 aout 1891) et Pariayacu (juillet et aout 
1892) : trois males. 

152. OCHTHODIvETA FUMIGATU5 (BoisS.). 

Un male de Culumachay (Maravnioc), 21 juillet 1892. " Iris 
brun cafe, bee et pattes noirs." 

Al. 113, caud. 91 §, culm. 21, tars. 24| mm. 

Les oiseaux du Perou central s'accordent avec les ecbantillons 
de Bogota et de I'Ecuador, et ne difEerent que par les rectrices 
externes a bordures extemes plus pales ou plus blanchatres et 
par les bordures des tectrices sus-alaires plus obscures et moins 
roussatres. 

153. OCHTHOfiCA (EXAJfTHOIDES BEUKNEIFRONS, subsp. nOV. 

Ochthoeca fumicolor, Tacz. (nee Scl.), Orn. Perou, ii. p. 191. 

Ochihoeca cenanihoides (pt.), Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. (1888) 
p. 20 (Ecuador et Perou centr.). 

0. O. cenanthoVdi simillima, sed paulo major, pileo anteriore 
bninneo, dorso fere concolore (uec olivac^o-griseo lavato), gula 
fmcescentiore, neciion stna s^iperciliari post oculum distincte 
rafescente (nee sordide JJavescenti-alba) distinguenda. 

Hah. in Peruvia centrali et septentrional! et in Ecuadoria. 

Long. alie. Caudse. Culm. Tarsi. 

$ (Maraynioc — Perm- ia centr.). 86^ 76^ — 24 mm. 

2 (Cutervo— Peruvia centr.) . 81 ' 71| 14 22| „ 

Oiseaux de I'Ecuador 94-85| 8U-74 15-13| 24-23A „ 

Maraynioc (octobre et decembre 1891, aout et septembre 1892): 
cinq oiseaux. " Iris brun fonce, bee et pattes noirs." 

Mr. Sclater a deja demontre que les oiseaux de I'Ecuador ne 
peuvent pas etre reunis avec VO. fumicolor, Scl., de Bogota, qui est 
plus pale en dessous avec la gorge blanchatre, la poitrine d'un brun 
grisatre fauve, le ventre d'un brun roussatre pale, et les sous- 
caudales d'un blanc sale. 

La forme qui habite I'Ecuador et le Perou du nord et central a 
presque la meme coloration des parties inferieures que I'O. oenan- 
thdides, Lafr. et d'Orb., de la Bolivie et du Perou meridional 
(Cachupata). Elle differe neanmoins de I'O. cenanihoides par la 

23* 



356 GRAF VON BEULEPSCtt AlfD M. J. STOL^MAlS^lf OU [Mar. 3, 

couleur du pile'u a ante'rieur, qui est presque la merne que celui du 
dos au lieu d'olive grisatre comme chez TO. oenanthdides. La 
difference la plus tranchante consiste dans la coloration de la strie 
surciliere, qui chez VO. cenantJioides est d'un blanc jaunatre sale 
uuiforme, tandis qu'elle est t'ortement lavee de roussatre dans la 
partie postoculaire chez la forme que nous venons de decrire. 
Celle-ci a aussi les dimensions geueralement plus fortes. Par la 
coloration du dessus du corps la forme nouvelle ressemble plutot a 
r 0, fwmicolor qu'a 1' 0. oenanthdides. 

154. OcHTHOECA POLIONOTA, Scl. et Salv. 

Une paire d'Ingapirca (juin 1890) et un male de Queta pres de 
Tarma (29 juillet 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

Al. 92, caud. 80, culm. 13|, tars. 23| mm. 

Nous n'avons pas eu I'occasion de comparer des oiseaux typiques 
de Pitumarca, Perou du sud, mais il faut remarquer que nos oiseaux 
out le dos d'un brun terreux, tandis que nous Hsons dans la 
diagnose de MM. Sclater et Salvin " supra cinerea." 

155. OcHTHOECA liEUCOMEioPA, Scl. et Salv. 

Acobamba (11 juillet 1890) et Tarma (decembre 1890, juillet et 
aout 1893) : quatres exemplaires. " Iris brun fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec un specimen typique de Paucartambo 
(Perou du Sud) du Musee Berlepsch. 

156. OcHTHOECA JELSKII SPODIONOTA, Subsp. nOV. 

0. O. jelskii (ex Peruv. septentr. occ.) simillima, sed differt dorso 
obscure olivaceo-brunneo (nee castaneo-brmmeo), f route etiam 
awreo-Jlavo mulfo latiore et Icetiore ut videtur. 

Hob. in Peruvia centrali (typus in Mus. Branicki). 

6 6. Al. 69-664, caud. 60i-57i, culm. lli-10|, tars. 21| mm. 

Un male adulte du 22 juin 1892 de Maraynioc, Pariayacu,"et un 
jeune male du 17 septembre 1892 de Maraynioc, Culumachay. 
" Iris brun, bee et pattes noirs." 

C'est par meprise que Mr. Sclater, dans le Cat. Brit. Mus. xiv. 
p. 22, YQwaiVO.jelslc^i, Tacz., avec VO. pidchdla, Scl., dela Bolivie, 
car la derniere u'a pas de jaune au front. 

Les oiseaux du Perou central paraissent egalement diffcrents de 
VO.jelsl'ii, Tacz. (dont le type venait de la Montana de Nancho au 
nord-ouest du Perou), ayant le dos d'un brun d'olive a peine 
roussatre (encore plus obscur que chez VO. citrinifrons de TEcuador, 
tandis que VO. jelshii est dit etre parfaiteiaent distincte de 
VO. citrinifrons par le dos plus roux. Les oiseaux de Maraynioc 
different aussi de VO. citrinifrons par le jaune du front beaucoup plus 
large et plus intense (plutot d'un jaune d'or que d'un jauue citron 
pale), dont Taczanowski ne fait pas mention dans la description de 
VO.jeMii. En outre les oiseaux de Maraynioc different de VO. 
citrinifrons par le cendre de la gorge et de la poitrine un peu plus 
obscur, par les sous-caudal es blanches, par des bordures d'un brun 
roussatre des tectrices alaires et des remiges tertiaii-es, eufin par 



1896.] THE OENTTHOLOGT OF CEKTBAL PEBTT. 357 

les dimensions plus grandes. Par ces derniers caracteres elle 
parait s'accorder avec 1' 0. jelshii. 

157. OCHTHOECA LESSONI, Scl. 

Maraynioc (octobre 1891, juillet, aout et septembre 1892): 
cinq oiseaux. 

Al. 674, caud. 61, culm. 11|, tars. 19| mm. 

158. Ochthoeca thoeacica, Tacz. 

TJne paire de Maraynioc (juillet et aout 1892). 
L'oiseau typique du Musce Universitaire de Varsovie venait de 
Chilpes — localite ties voisine de Maraynioc. 

d . Al. 68|, caud. 64 , culm. 12^, tars. 19| mm. 

159. Ochthoeca ectimaegiitata, La\^T. 

Maraynioc (novembre 1891, aout et septembre 1892) : trois 
exemplaires. 

160. Satoenis cineeacea AXorsTiEOSTEis, subsp. nov. 
Sayornis dneracea, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 204. 

S. S. cineracese (Lafr.) e Venezuela simillima, differt rostro mnlto 
ancjustiore et breviore, capite, dorso, fjida, pedore ventrisque 
laterihus intensius nigris {nee niyro-hrunneis), uropytjio quoque 
obscurius scMstaceo, tectricibns subcandalibus nigro-brunneis 
sordide albo marginatis {nee majore e.v parte albescentibus). 
Hah. in Permia centrali (et in Ecuadoria ?). 
(S . Long alse 94|, caud. 84, culm. 15, tars. 18 mm. 
Deux males et une femelle de La Merced (juillet 1890, Janvier 
et mars 1891). 

La Sayornis du Perou central se distiugue des oiseaux de Caracas 
{S. cineracea typique) par le bee beaucoup plus etroit et plus court, 
par la couleur noiratre du corps plus intense (moins brunatre), et 
par les tectrices sous-caudales d'un noir brun et bordces d'un gris 
blanchatre au lieu d'etre presque blancbes en entier comme c'est le 
cas chez les oiseaux du Venezuela. 

Un oiseau de I'Ecuador du Musce Berlepsch a le bee petit comme 
le specimen de La Merced et parait appartenir a la meme forme. 
Les individus de la Bolivie du Musee Berlepsch {S. latirostris, 
Cab. et Heine) ont le bee large comme la S. cineracea typique 
et ne s'en distinguent que par les tectrices sous-caudales noiratres 
et les tectrices sus-alaires et les tertiaires plus largement bordees 
de blanc. Un oiseau de Bogota (Musee Berlepsch) ne parait 
pas different des oiseaux de la Bolivie. 

161. COPUETJS COXONUS FtJSCICAPILLUS (Scl.). 

Copurus colonus (VieilL), Tacz. Orn. Pe'rou, ii. p. 209. 
Dix individus, dont quatre males, une femelle et deux jeunes 
oiseaux (en plumage completement noir) de La Merced, de La Gloria 



358 GEAF VON BEBLEPSCH ATH) M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

Cjuillefc et aoiit 1890, Janvier et avril 1891) et de Garita del Sol 
(juillet 1891). " Iris 'brun fonce.'" 

Les oiseaux de Bogota ( C. /wscifo/jt'Hws typique), de I'Eciiador, 
du Perou et de la Bolivia ont toujours les deux rectrices medianes 
beaucoup plus longues que ceux du Bresil. La Muscicapa colonus, 
Vieill., repose sur la forme du Paraguay, qu'il faudra examiner. 

La femelle de La Merced se distingue des males adultes par le 
pileum plus brunatre dans sa partie posterieure et par le ventre 
melange de blanchatre. 

162. MUSCISAXICOLA ALBIFRONS (Tsch.). 

Deux males. Cordilleres du Perou central (avril 1890). " Iris 
brun clair." 

163. MusciSAXicoLA ciNEBEA, Phil, et Landb. 

Ingapirca (juin 1890) : deux males. " Iris brun." 
Al. U2i, caud. 77|-76|, culm. 14|, tars. 28| mm. 

164. MusciSAXicoLA FiiAviKTTCHA, Lafr. 
Ingapirca (juin 1890) : six individus. " Iris brun." 

165. MUSCISAXICOLA KUBRiCAPiLLA, Phil, et Landb. 

Un male de Maraynioc, 23 juillet 1892. M. KaUnowski avait 
envoy e cet individu sous le nom de M.Juninensis, mais cette derniere 
est une espece tout-a-fait distincte. 

166. MUSCISAXICOLA juNiNENSis, Tacz. 

Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890), Pariayacu et Tarma (juillet et 
septembre 1892, juillet 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

167. MUSCISAXICOLA EUPivEETEX, Lafr. et d'Orb. 

Chiela (avril 1890), hacienda de Queta pres de Tarma (juillet et 
septembre 1893). " Iris brun clair." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent tout^^-fait avec les echantillons recueillis 
par Garlepp a La Paz, Bolivie. 

168. MUSCISAXICOLA MACULiEOSTEis, Lafr. et d'Orb. 
Ingapirca (mai 1890), Queta (juillet 1893) et Maraynioc (sep- 
tembre 1892). " Iris brun fonce." 

cJ ad. Al. 8Qi, caud. 63|, culm. 13^, tars. 25 mm. 

Le type de la'ii. maculirostris venait de La Paz, Bolivie, et ayant 
compare une belle serie d'oiseaux recueillis par Garlepp a Chicani, 
dans la Bolivie occidentale, Berlepsch a pu coustater que les oiseaux 
du Perou central n'en different par aucun detail. 

Une femelle deTocon, Ecuador occ. (coll. Stolzmann), du Musee 
Branicki, comparee a I'oiseau de Junin (Ingapirca) presente des 
differences considerables. Cet oiseau a le bee plus court et plus 
large a la base, et les ailes et la queue plus courtes. Les parties 
inferieures sont fortement lavees et melangees de roussatre, tandis 
que chez I'oiseau de Junin elles sont d'un blanc sale lavees un peu 



1896.] THE OENITHOLOGY OF CENTEAL PEET7. 359 

de brun grisatre sur la poitrine et d'un rose tendre sur I'abdomen. 
Les teetrices sous-alaires et les bords internes des remiges sont d'un 
ochreux vif au lieu d'un blanc roussatre. 

Pour cette forme de I'Ecuador occ. nous proposons le nom de 
M. macvUrostris rufescens, Berl. et Stolzm. 

$ de Tocon. Long. al. 80^, caud. 62|, culm. 12, tars. 25| mm. 

169. Mttscisaxicola flutiatilis, Scl. et Sal v. 

Trois femelles de La Merced (juillet, aout et septembre 1890). 
" Iris brun fonce," 

Nous n'avons pas pu comparer nos oiseaux avec les exemplaires 
ty piques de I'lJcayali. lis s'accordent parfaitement avec un oiseau 
recueilli par Garlepp a Juntas, Bolivia. II parait que les oiseaux 
typiques de I'lJcayali auraient les bandes alaires plus marquees. 

170. MusciSAXicoLA iiuFiPE>-Nis, Tacz, 

Un jeune oiseau de Maraynioc, Pariayacu, de 15 aout 1892. 

Al. 128|, caud. 94, culm. 20|, tars. 29| mm. 

Cette espece nous parait plutot une Tcenioptera, ayant le bee plus 
large que les especes de Musdsaxlcoln. Peut-etre £audra-t-il en 
former un genre nouveau. 

171. Centrites oreas, Scl. et Salv. 

Nombreux individus d'Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890). " Iris brun 
fonce." Le type venait de Tinta, Perou du sud. 

172. Platyrhyxchits flatigularis, Scl. et Salv. 

Un oiseau en mue, sans indication du se.xe, de La Gloria (6 fevrier 
1891). " Iris brun clair." 

Espece nouvelle pour la faune peruvienne. 

L'oiseau envoye par Kalinowski s'accorde bien avec les individus 
typiques de Bogota. 

II faut cependant remarquer que le pileum parait un peu plus 
lave de brun roussatre, et que la gorge est d'un jaune plus ochreux 
ou plus sature. Les dimensions sont peut-etre un peu plus fortes : 
aile 64, queue 33|, culmen 11, tarse 13| mm. 

173. TODIEOSTRTIM CINEREUil (L.). 

La Merced (juillet et septembre 1890, fevrier et avril 1891), La 
Gloria (aout 1890) et San Emilio (mai 1893). " Iris jaune pale." 

Ces oiseaux ont les ailes un peu plus longues, et la queue beau- 
coup plus longue, qu'un oiseau de Cayenne. Toutes les parties 
superieures sont plus noiratres, surtout le noir du pileum plus 
intense et plus prolonge vers la uuque. Le type du T. cinereum 
venait de Surinam. Les oiseaux de Bogota paraissent inter- 
mediaires. 

Les deux oeufs recueillis par M. Kalinowski a Chanchamayo sont 
d'une forme ovale typique, arrondis au gros bout et graduellement 
attenues vers le petit bout. La coque, d'un blanc pur, est assez 
lisse, mais sans lustre. Dinjensions : 16i x 12, 16 x Hi mm. 



360 GEAF VON BEHLEPSCH AND M, J. STOIZMANN OK [Mtir. 3, 

174. EUSCAKTHMUS PYEEHOPS, Cab. 

line feraelle de Culumachay (Maraynioc), 17 septembre 1892. 
Al. 44|, caud. 41|, culm. 10|, tars. 15| mm. 
Les oiseaux typiques du Musee Universitaire de Varsovie 
venaient de Maraynioc et de Tambopata. 

175. EuSCAETHMirS LATIEOSTEIS, Pelz. 

La Merced : un male du 27 juillet 1890. " Iris brun foncc." 
■ Cet individu differe un peu des oiseaux typiques par les couleurs 
en general plus intenses et par les tibias roux au lieu de verd- 
atres. Ces differences pourraient etre individuelles, car I'oiseau a 
le plumage tres frais. 

Cette espece etait omise dans V ' Oruithologie du Perou ' de 
Taczanowski, quoiqu'elle etait trouve par Hauxwell a Chamicuros 
et par Bartlett a Nauta (Perou or.). 

176. EUSCAETHMUS MAEGAEITACEIYENTEE (Lafr. et d'Orb.), 

subsp. ? 

Euscarihmus luuchereri, Tacz. (nee Scl. et Salv.) Orn. Perou, ii. 
p. 233. 

Deux paires de La Merced (juillet 1890 ; Janvier, fevrier et avril 
1891). " Iris jaune orange chez les deux males et chez une 
femelle, jaune pale chez I'autre ; bee brun a mandibule inferieure 
carne'e a la base, pattes d'un carne rose." 

Ces oiseaux different un peu des exemplaires typiques envoyes 
par Garlepp de la Bolivie (Musee Berlepsch). lis ont le milieu 
de I'abdomen un peu lave de -jaunatre, tandis que cbez 1'^. mar- 
(jaritaceiv enter typique il est d'un blanc pur. En outre ils ont le 
dos d'un vert olive plus clair, et cet olive est plus etendu vers la 
nuque, tandis que chez les oiseaux bolivieus le cendre noiratre du 
pileum se prolonge presque jusqu'au dos superieur. Enfin les 
individus de La Merced ont le bee un peu plus long et la macboire 
d'un brun rougeatre au lieu de noiratre. Les ailes et la queue sont 
generalement un peu plus courtes. En cas que ces differences 
seraient constantes, il faudrait peut-etre nommer les oiseaux peru- 
viens Euscarthmns margaritaceiventer rujijjes (Tsch.), car VE. rnjipes 
de Tschudi parait s'appliquer a cette forme. UE. jjelzelni, Scl. et 
Salv., de Matogrosso, est peut-etre peu distinct des oiseaux du 
Perou. 

177. C^NOTEICCUS ETJFICEPS (Lafr.). 

SerpJiophcu/a riificeps, Tacz. (nee Lafr.), Orn. Perou, ii. p. 237. 

Un male adulte de Sarnapaycha (Maraynioc), 22 fevrier 1893. 
" Iris brun rougeatre, bee noir a mandibule infe'rieure jaune, 
pattes d'un gris olivatre." 

L'oiseau envoye a des dimensions plus fortes que trois individus 
de Bogota examines par Berlepsch. L'aile est un peu, la queue 
considerablement plus longue, le bee plus etroit que chez les 
oiseaux auxquels ils ont ete compares. 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGY OF CENTRAL PERU. 361 

Les tectrices sus-alaires sont d'un brun olivatre presque uniforme, 
au lieu d'etre bordees d'unroux chataiu vif comme cbez les oiseaux 
de Bogota. Les remiges et les rectrices sont bordees d'un brun 
olive roussatre au lieu dun brun cbatain. Euiin le roux de la tete 
est plus terne, le vert olive du dos plus lave de bruutitre, et le 
milieu de I'abdomen d'un jaune verdtitre au lieu d'un jaune soufre 
pur. La' mandibule inferieure est d'lm jaune plus dair sans 
melange brunatre. 

II parait done que I'oiseau du Perou merite d'etre separe, mais 
avant de le decrire comme sous-espece nomelle il faudra examiner 
plusieurs eobantillons de cette region. En attendant nous lui 
reservons le nom provisoire C. rujiceps hapJopteryx, Berl. et 
Stolzm. 

cJ . Maraynioc .... Al. 62.|, caud. 49|. culm. 10^, tars. 23| mm. 
Specimina de Bogota. „ 60|, „ 464, „ 10|, „ 22| „ 

178. LoPHOTRiccus SQUAMicRiSTATUs (Lafr.). 
Garita del Sol: une femelle du 1 juillet 1891. 

179. Oechilus axbitentrts, Berl. et Stolzm. 
Orchilus albiventris, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 389. 
Male unique de La Merced (10 septembre 1890). 

180. Hapalocercus acutipennis, Scl. et Salv. 

La Merced : un jeune male du 20 juillet 1890. " Iris brun 
fonce." 

iS juv. Al. 48, caud. 49, culm. 10|, tars. 18| mm. 

181. Seephophaga cineeea, Strickl. 

La Merced: deux femelles du 25 fevrier 1891 et du 25 aout 
1890. 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent tout-a-fait avec des individus de 
I'Ecuador, de la Bolivie etc. Les oiseaux de Lima ne different que 
par le dos un peu plus obscur. 

182. An^eretes parulus .'equatorialis, Tacz. et Berl. 
Anceretes jparulus, Tacz. Orn. Pe'rou, ii. p. 239. 

Acobamba (juillet 1890), Tarma (decembre 1890) et Maraynioc 
(octobre 1891 et aout 1892). » Iris brun fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec les spe'cimens de I'Ecuador et du 
Perou du Nord, separcs par Taczanovrski et Berlepsch sous la 
denomination d'A. parulus cequatorialis (P. Z. S. 1884, p. 296). 

183. CyANOTIS RDBRIGASTRA ALTICOLA, Subsp. nov. 

Cyanoiis azarce \ Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 243 (partim). 
C. C. rubrigastrse ( Vieill.) ex Argentina, C'hilia et Brasilia simillima, 
differt alis caudaque longioribus et nigredine in parte hasali 

' Le nom le plus ancien pour cette espece est Sylvia ruhrigastra (Vieill.) 
(tvpus ex Paraguaj). 



55 


9^, 


ij l^a V 


Aile. 


Queue. 


Culm. 


Tars. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


47i 


42 


lOi 


191 


51| 


451 


Hi 


19| 


50 


43 


101 


194 


52 


46a 




19| 


48| 


42i 


9* 


18 


50 


38| 


Hi 


194 



362 GRAF VON BERLEPSCH AND M, J. STOLZMANIf ON [Mat. 3, 

vexilli iaterni rectricwa externarum mayis extensa, dimidium 
hasale fere occupante. 

rS . Long. tot. 136-128, alae 57, caudse 49|, culminis 9|, tarsi 19 mm. 
$. „ 128, „ 55-541,,, 48, 

Dimeusions de la C. rubrlf/astra typique :- 

2 • Chonchitas, Argentina, 25 oct., Mus. Scl. 
d . La Plata, „ 10 nov., „ 

d- ,, „ 6 nov., „ 

J . „ „ 4 nov.. 

Ad. Chili, Musee Berlepsch 48i 

„ Lima (Nation), Mus. Scl 50 

Hab. in Peruvia centrali alta. 

Huit individus d'lngapirca (24 a 26 mai 1890). "Iris brun 
bleuatre ; envergure du male 1 77-174, de la femelle 173-168 mm." 
Compares aux oiseaux de la rep. Argentine, du Chili et du 
Bresi! meridional, nos exemplaires d'lngapirca (Junin) presentent 
une difference considerable dans la longueur des ailes et de la queue, 
qui sont beaucoup plus longues que chez les oiseaux typiques. En 
outre le noir sur la partie basale de la barbe interne des rectrices 
externes est considerablement plus etendu, occiipant presque la 
moitie de la longueur, tandis que chez les oiseaux d'autres contrees 
on ne voit qu'une petite tache a I'extreme base de cette barbe. 
Les remiges, surtout les secondaires, sont plus distinctement 
bordees de blanc a la pointe. II parait aussi que le rouge de la 
huppe interne et le jaune des sourcils et du dessous du corps sont 
un peu plus clairs. Le bee parait aussi plus mince. 

C'est un fait remarquable qu'un individu de Lima du Musee 
Sclater recueilli par le Prof. Nation appartient a la vraie C. ruhri- 
gastra. II parait done que la forme que nous venous de decrire 
serait propre aux regions tres elevees du Perou. 

. 184. MECOCEE.CTJLTJS STICTOPTEEUS T^NIOPTEEIJS (Cab.). 

Mecocerculus stictopterus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 201. 

Maraynioc (novembre 1891, juillet et septembre 1892) : trois 
males et une femelle. 

Les oiseaux du Perou se distinguent des oiseaux de I'Ecuador et 
de la Colombie par le dos d'un olive verdatre au lieu d'un olive 
brunatre (c/. Tacz. I. c). 

185. PoGONOTfilCCUS OPHTHALMICUS, TaCZ. 

La Gloria : une femelle du 21 fevrier 1891. 

186. MioNECXES STEiATicoLMs (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Une femelle de Garita del Sol (septembre 1891), un jeune male 

de La Gloria (fevrier 1891), et un male adulte de Puyas-Tacu 
(15 juillet 1892). 

Les oiseaux du Perou, de I'Ecuador et de la Colombie paraissent 
differwts des oiseaux typiques de la Bolivie par le plombe de la 



1896.] THE OBNITHOIiOGY OF CENTEAL PERTT. 363 

tete et de la gorge plus restreint, iiioins pur et plus melange de 
verdatre, par les stries de la poitrine plus etroites et plus jaunatres 
(au lieu de blanchatres) sur un fond olivatre moins fonce, enfin par 
les tectrices sus-alaires grandes et moyennes bordees a la pointe d'un 
roussatre pale produisant une sorte de handes alaires dont I'oiseau 
bolivieu ne presente aucune trace. En cas que ces differences 
seraient constantes, on pourrait distinguer la forme septentrionale 
comme M. striaticollis polioceplialus (Tsch.). 

187. LePTOPOGON AMAtTROCEPHALtrS PEETTVIANUS (Scl. et Salv.). 

Leptopogon peruvianus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 248. 
Un male de La Merced (26 aoufc 1890). " Iris brun bleuatre." 
Dimensions : Aile 66, queue 56|, culmen 13, tarse 14| mm. 
Cet oiseau a les dimensions un peu plus fortes qu'un male de 
Samiria (Amazone sup. — coll. Hauxwell) du Musee Berlepsch. 

188. Leptopogon supeeciliabis, Tscb. 

La Merced : un male du 16 septembre 1890. " Iris brun clair." 

189. Leptopogon EtrFiPECTUS, Tacz. 

Un male de Maraynioc du 24 octobre 1892. " Iris brun fence, 
bee noir, pattes d'un gris bleuatre." 

Al. 69A, caud. 64, culm, llj, tars. 14| mm. 

C'est une espece tout-a-fait distincte, peut-etre plus voisine du 
L. erythrops, Scl., que de toute autre. 

190. Phtllomtias semiftjsca wag^ (Tacz.). 
Myiopatis ivagce, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 253. 

Deux males et une femelle de La Merced (septembre 1890, 
fevrier et mars 1891). " Iris brun fonce." 

Aile 59|, queue 57, culmen 9|, tarse 18| mm. 

Ces oiseaux paraissent un peu intermediaires entre la Ph. ivagce 
du Perou du nord et la forme de Bahia, qui doit probablement 
porter le nom de Ph. semifusca superciliaris (Eeinh.). lis ne se 
distinguent des specimens de Eahia que par le dos plus lave 
de grisatre et d'olivatre au lieu de roussatre. 

191. TxEANTfiscus FEONTALis, Berl. et Stolzm. (Plate XIV.) 
Tyranniscus frontalis., Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 390. 
Garita del Sol (juillet, aout et septembre 1891) et San Emilio 

(Vitoc) (mai 1893) : trois males et une femelle. 

192. Tyeankisccs pltjmbeiceps (Lawr.). 

Pogonotriccus plumbeiceps, Lawr. ; Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. 
p. 99. 

Deux femelles : La Gloria (24 Janvier 1891) et Garita del Sol 
(8 novembre 1892). " Iris brun, bee noir, pattes plombees." 

Aile 59-58|, queue 59-53^, culmen 8i-7|, tarse 15 mm. 

EUes s'accordent avec les oiseaux de I'Ecuador oriental recueillis 
par Stolzmanu. 



364 GEAP TON BEBLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMAKN ON [Mar. 3, 

193. ElAINEA PALLATANGiE, Scl. 

Une femelle de Pariaj^acu, Maraynioc (1 aout 1892). 
Al. 74|, caucl. 69i, culm. 9|, tars. 16^ mm. 

194. Elainea albiceps (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Un male adulte de Garita del Sol (14 juillet 1891). 

Aile 77|, quei;e 67, culmeii 8|, tarse I7i, " long, totale 166, 
envergure 254 " mm. 

Avant d'avoir examine les types de VJiJ. aVAceps, Lafr. et d'Orb., 
et de YE. modesta, Tseh., il est impossible de dire avec certitude a 
quelles formes ces denominations s'appliqueront en realite. Quant 
a M. alhiceps, Lafr. et d'Orb., il nous parait que les individus de 
Tacna (qiii sont peut-etre identiques a ceux de Lima) et non 
ceux de Eio Janeiro (qui appartenaient ou a I'-E". alliceps parvi- 
rostris, Pelz., ou hV E. ■pagana) ont servi de types a la description. ' 

II se peut aussi que les oiseaux de Tungas aient servi de 
types. Dans la description dela il/. modesta, Tsehudi fait mention 
de larges pointes blanches aux tectrices sus-alaires, ce qui s'appli- 
querait mieux aux oiseaux de 1' orient qu'a ceux de I'occident, mais 
les mesures donnees par Tsehudi s'accordent bien avec celles des 
oiseaux occidentaux. 

En tout cas il faudra separer les oiseaux de I'orient de ceux de 
I'occident du Perou. L'oiseau de Garita del Sol se distingue de 
ceux de Lima et d'Ica par les dimensions beaucoup plus petites, le 
bee beaucoup plus etroit et plus faible, et par les bandes alaires 
formees par les bordures terminales des tectrices les plus longues 
et des mediaires plus larges et plus blanchatres, enfin par les 
plumes de la huppe plus allongees et plus termine'es en pointe. 

L'oiseau de Garita ressemble plus a l'oiseau de Chili qu'a celui 
de Lima, mais celui de Chili a le bee egalement plus large etdiffere 
par la couleur des parties superieures du corps un peu plus pale et 
plus uniforme et non variee par des disques plus fences an milieu 
des plumes ; la gorge et la poitrine sont plus grisatres, moins 
blanchatres ; enfin les ailes sont un peu plus longues. Un male de 
Fuerte d'Andalgala, Catamarca (coll. "White), du Musee Berlepsch, 
s'accorde le mieux avec l'oiseau de Garita, mais differe neanmoins 
par les ailes plus longues et le bee plus long et moins comprimc. 

195. Elainea gigas, Scl. et Salv. 

La Merced : une femelle (29 aout 1890). " Iris brun." 
Aile 88|, queue 741, tarse 18| mm. 

Cet oiseau s'accorde bien avec les individus de Huayabamba 
(Perou du nord et de Bogota) du Musee Berlepsch. 

196. Elainea obscuea, Lafr. et d'Orb. 

Garita del Sol (juillet et aout 1891) : deux males. 
Ces oiseaux s'accordent avec des specimens recueillis par Garlepp 
dans la Bolivie occidentale. 



1896.J TttE ORTSTTSOLOGY OF CENTEA.L PERU. 365 

197. SUBLEGATUS BEEVIROSXRIS (Tsch.). 

Elainea hrevirostris, Tsch. Arch. x. 1 (1844), p. 274; id. Faun. 
Per., Aves, p. 272 ; Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 272. 

Empvlwjra hrevirostris, Cab. ; Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. 
p. 155. 

Le Merced : une femelle du 29 aout 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 

Long, totale 153, envergure 226, aile 69, queue 66, culmen 8, 
tarse 16| mm. 

Cette espece est assez proche du S. plafi/rhfnchus (Scl. et Salv.) 
du Bresil. Elle ne di£Eere que par les ailes et la queue plus 
longues et les couleurs plus vives. On peut supposer que le 
S. griseocidarix, Scl. et Salv., est identique a I'espcce de Tseliudi, 
dont MM. Cabanis et Sclater out malheureusement fait une 
Empidayra. 

198. Legatus albicollis (Vieill.). 

La Merced : un mAle, octobre 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 
Al. 81|, caud. 61, culm. 13|, tars. 15| mm. 

199. MyiozETETES siMiLis (Spix). 

La Merced: cinq individus, juillet 1890. " Iris brun olivatre." 
Ces oiseaux ont le dos un peu plus verdatre, et les remiges moins 
bordees de roussatre, que les oiseaux de Baliia. lis sont presque 
intermediaires entre le M. shnllis du Bresil et le M. texensis 
colomhianus (Cab. et Heine) de Bogota, raais ressemblent plus au 
premier. 

200. Ehynchocyclus viridiceps, Scl. et Salv. 

RhyncJiocyclus viridiceps, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 280 (typus 
e Pehas). 

La Merced: deux males (27 juillet et 12 septembre 1890). 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordeut en general avec la description du 
Rh. viridiceps, dont le type, jusqu'a present unique, venait de Pebas, 
Haut-Amazone. lis different cependant ])ar les dimensions plus 
fortes et par le manque de la strie surciliere d'un jaune orange, 
qui se trouve chez le type de Pebas examine par Berlepsch il y a 
quelques annees. 

Aile. Queue. Oulmen. Tarse. 

c? dde la Merced.. 63i-60i 53i-49| 12|-11| 17|-16| mm. 

- ~ 11 16| „ 



c? de Pebas 57 44 11^ 16^ 



201. Mtiodxnastbs solitaries (Vieill.). 

La G-loria (aout 1890), La Merced (septembre 1890 et mars 
1891), Borgoria (avril 1891), et Garita del Sol (octobre 1891). 
" Iris bi'un fonce." 

Ces oiseaux s'accordeut bien avec les oiseaux ty piques de Para- 
guay du Musee Berlepsch. 



366 GEAF XO"!^ BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

202. MXIODYNASTES CHETSOCEPHALtTS (Tsch.). 

Grarita del Sol : une femelle du 14 fevrier 1893. 
Al. 105|, caud. 89, culm. 23|, tars. 17| mm. 

203. HiEUNDiNEA scLATEEi, Kcinh. 

Deux individus : d de Chanchamayo (7 fevrier 1891), et § de 
Garita del Sol (28 aout 1891). 

204. Mtiobius N.ETIUS (Bodd.) ? 

La Merced : un jeune male du 20 juillet 1890. " Iris bnin 
fonce." 

AUe 59, queue 55, culmen 10|, tarse 14| mm. 

Cet oiseau s'accorde bien avec des femelles ou jeunes males de 
Bahia. II a la huppe interne rousse. 11 faudra voir le male adulte 
a huppe jaune. 

205. Myiobius cinnamomeus (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Garita del Sol: deux femelles, juin et septembre 1891. S'ac- 
cordent avec les oiseaux typiques de la Bolivie. 

206. Myiobius fulvigularis, Salv. et Godm. 

Mi/iobius fulvigularis, Salv. et Godm. Biolog. Centr.-Amer., Aves 
(1889), p. 58 (typus ex Am. centr.). 

Myiobius eryihrurus, Tacz. (nee Cab.) Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 301. 
Borgona : une femelle du 21 avril 1891. 

207. Pyeocephaxus eubixeus (Bodd.). 

La Merced : un jeune male, aout 1890. " Iris brun fonce." 

208. Empidochakes pcecilurus peruanus, subsp. nov. 
Empicloclianes pcecilurus, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 314. 

E, E. poeciluro ex Bogota affinis, divert rectricibus cluabug 
extemis — macula anteapicali fusca excej)ta — fere omnino pallide 
rujis, ceteris — duabtts intermediis omnino fuscis exceptis — 
pogonio externo solummodo fitscis, interno omnitio rujis, necnon 
ahdomine ochraceo saturatiore, rostro etiam longiore. 
$ de Garita : al. 70|, caud. 02, culm. 11 :j, tars. 17| mm. 
Hab. in Peruvia septeutr. (Tambillo), centrali (Garita del Sol), 
et in meridionali (Cosnipata). Garita del Sol : une femelle du 23 
juillet 1891. 

La femelle envoyee par Kalinowski, de meme qu'une jeune 
femelle de Tambillo du Musee Berlepsch (recueillie par Stolzmann), 
se distingue d'un oiseau de Bogota par la coloration de la rectrice 
externe. L'oiseau de Bogotii la presente en grande partie noiratre 
avec les deux tiers de la barbe interne brun roussatre, tandis que 
chez les oiseaux du Perou cette rectrice est d'un roux pale presque 
uniforme a I'exception d'une petite tache noiratre dans la portion 
terminale. Les rectrices suivantes chez les oiseaux du Perou ont 
la barbe externe noiratre, rinterne d'un roux brun uniforme, tandis 



1896.] IHE OnXITHOLOGT OF CEXTBAL fEHTT. 367 

que chez I'oiseau de Bogota la barbe interne est en grande partie 
noiratre. Enfin les oiseaux du Perou presentent I'abdomen d'un 
ochreux plus intense et ont le bee plus long. Mr. Sclater (Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 218) avait deja mentionne la difference 
entre les oiseaux du Perou et de la Colombie, 

209. M1TKEPHANE8 OCHEACEITEXTRIS (Cab.). 
Mitrephorus ochraceiventris, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 315. 
Maraynioc: deux males adultes, dont un du 17 novembre 1891 

et I'autre du 1 decembre 1892. " Iris brun fonce, bee et pattes 
noirs.' 

210. MiTBEPHAXES OLiVACECS, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Mitrephanes olivaceus, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 391. 
Male unique de Garita del Sol (3 septembre 1891). 

211. CoNTOPrs AHDESiAcrs (Lafr.). 

Chanchamayo (juillet 1890) et Garita del Sol (septembre 1891): 
una paire de jeunes oiseaux. " Iris brun fonce," 

212. CoxTOPCS viEENS EiCHAKDSONi (Swains.) ? 

La Merced, un male adulte du 27 fevrier 1891, et La Gloria, 
una femelle plus jeune du 19 fevrier 1891. 

cf . Aile 88, queue 68, culmen 14, tarse 13| mm. 

$. „ 8ii, „ m, „ i3i, „ 111 „ 

213. Mtiaechus cephaxotes, Tacz. 

La Merced (decembre 1890) et Garita del Sol (juillet 1891 et 
avril 1893) : cinq oiseaux. 

214. Mtiaechus tbicoloe, Pelz. 

Mijiarchus niyriceps., Tacz. (nee Scl.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 324 
(partim). 

Une paire de Borgona (27 a^Til 1891) at deLa Gloria (17 Janvier 
1891). 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent en general avec un specimen de Bahia, 
Bresil, du Musce Berlepsch (J/, tricoloi- t3'pique) et different du 
M. nigriceps, Scl., de I'Ecuador occidental et de Tambillo, Perou du 
nord, ayant le pileum d'un brun noiratre au lieu d'un noir intense, 
lis ressemblent le plus aux oiseaux de I'Ecuador oriental, de 
Bogota et de Bucaramanga du Musee Berlepsch. 

215. Tyeaitn'us MELA>-CHOLiciJS (Vieill.). 

La Merced : cinq oiseaux du juillet 1890. *• Iris brun clair." 

Fam. PiPRiD^. 

216. PiPEiTES xscHUDii, Cab. 

La Gloria (Janvier et fevrier) et La Merced (mars 1891) : deux 
males et une femelle. 



368 GRAF \OS BERLEPSCH AKD M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

Ces oiseaux s'accordeiit avec les individus de I'Ecuador or. et de 
Bogota du Musee Berlepsch. II parait neanmoins qu'ils different 
constammeut en ayant les tectrices sus-alaires bordees a la pointe 
d'un blanc olivjitre au lieu de vert, ce qui forme une seconde raie 
sur I'aile, tandis que les oiseaux des autres localites n'en ont qu'une. 

217. Chloropipo ttnicolor, Taca. 

Garita del Sol : une femelle du 8 juillet 1891. " Iris brun 
fonce, bee brun a raandibule inferieure d'un brun bleuatre, pattes 
d'un brun bleuatre." Envei'gure 252, long. lat. 143, aile 7oi, 
queue oO|, culmen 14^-, tarse 11 1 mm. 

Mr. ScTater dans le Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiv. p. 286 a place le 
Ch. unicolor, Tacz., comme synouyme du Oh. uniformis (avec point 
d'interrogation), mais I'espece de Taczanowski est toiit-a-fait dis- 
tincte. Berlepsch a compare la femelle de Garita del Sol avec un 
male et deux femelles du Ch. uniformis de la Guyane anglaise et a 
trouve qu'elle en differe par le bee totalement different, beaucoup 
plus comprime et plus droit a I'arete dorsale de la machoire tres 
saillaute et non arrondie comme cliez le Ch. uniformis, par la 
mandibule inferieure en partie blauchatre, par le vert du plumage 
beaucoup plus fonce, le pileum d'un vert noiratre un peu luisant. 
La difFereuce la plus frappante consiste dans la couleur et dans la 
forme des tectrices sous-alaires posterieures, qui ciiez le Ch. unicolor 
sont allongees, soyeuses et lisses et d'une couleur blanc de neige, 
tandis que chez le Ch. uniformis elles sont de la forme ordinaire et 
d'une couleur blanchatre lavee de jaune verdatre. II y a aussi chez 
le Ch. unicolor un fascicule de lougues plumes soyeuses aux cotes 
du corps sous I'aile d'un blanc de neige qui mauquent au Ch. uni- 
formis. Du reste le Ch. unicolor est plus petit dans toutes ses 
dimensions. 

218. PiPRA CHLOROMEROS, Tsch. 

La Gloria (aout 1890, Janvier et fevrier 1891), La Merced 
(septembre 1890 et mars 1891) et Borgona (juin 1891). " Iris 
blanc jaunatre." 

219. PiPRA COKATA, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Pipra comata, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 392. 
La Gloria (aout 1890) et Garita del Sol (juin et aout 1891, avril 
1893). 

220. Pipra c^rtileocapilla, Tsch. 

La Gloria et La Merced : cinq oiseaux, aout 1893 et fevrier 
1891. " Iris brun fonce." 

221. Heteropelsia amazontim, Scl. 

La Gloria : un male du 11 aout 1890. " Iris brun clair." 
Envergure 299, long, totale 185, aile 89, queue 70§, culmen 12|, 
tarse 20| mm. 

L'oiseau envoye par Kalinowski differe un peu d'un specimen da 



1896.] THE OBIflTHOLOGT OF CEKTEAL PEEtT. 369 

H. amazonum, Scl., de I'Ecuador oriental du Musee Berlepsch. 
Dans la coiileur des parties iaterieures il n'y a pas de differences, 
mais les parties superieures sont plus rerdatres, presque comme 
chez le H. vjollacei, a I'exception du pileum, qui est presque aussi 
roussatre que chez le H. turdinum. Les ailes sont courtes, comme 
chez le H. luallacei, la queue plus longue que chez le H. ivallacei et 
le H. amazonum, mais plus eourte que chez le H. turdinum. Le 
bee est mince, comme chez le H. amazonum. 

II faudrait voir plusieurs individus avant de decrire la forme 
peravienne comme espece ou sous-espece nouveUe. 

Fam. CoTiNGiD^E. 

222. TiTYEA SEMIFASCIATA FOETIS, Subsp. nOV. 

Tityra semifasciata, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 353. 

T. T. semifasciatae simillima, sed alls caudaque longioribus, necnon 
pictura rectricum externaruni maris distinguenda. 

Hah. in Peruvia centraU et in Bolivia. 

La Gloria (aout 1890) et La Merced (Janvier 1891). " Iris chez 
le male rouge-brique sale, la base du bee et le tour de Tceil d'un 
rouge sale ; chez la femelle I'iris est rosatre sale." 

c? . Aile 131, queue 80|, culmen 284, tarse 2\k mm. 
?. ,. 131, „ 80|, „ 29|, „ 25' „ 

Les oiseaux du Perou central et de la Bolivie ( $ du Mus. Berl.) 
compares a un male de Tocantins {T. semifasciata typique) et 
un cT d'lquitos du Musee Berlepsch ont les ailes et la queue 
eonstamment plus longues et le male differe encore par le blanc plus 
etendii sar la barbe interne des deux paires des rectrices externes. 
Chez la T. semifasciata typique ces reetnees presentent une large 
bande noire occupant les deux barbes sans interruption, tandis que 
chez le male de la T. semifasciata fortis il n'a qu'une petite tache 
sur la barbe interne qui n'atteint pas le rachis. II parait aussi que 
chez nos oiseaux le blauc du corps est plus lave de grisatre. 

223. PACHiEHAiiPHrs jfiGEE (Spix). 

TJq male adulte et un jeuue male. La Merced (aoiit 1890). 
" Iris brun fonce." 

Le jeune male a les parties inferieures plus claires et ressemble 
baaucoup a des individus du P. polychropterus (Yieill.), mais il 
possede deja quelques plumes noiratres a la gorge, prouvant qu'd 
porte le plumage de transition. 

224. Pachtehamphus tep.sicoloe (Hartl.), 

Un jeune male de Yitoc, Huacras, du 22 Janvier 1893. Iris 
brun noii'atre. 

Al. 65|, caud. 52|, culm, llg, tars. 16^ mm. 

225. ErpicoLA PEEUTiAyA (Lath.). 

La Gloria (juillet 1890 et Janvier 1891), Garita del Sol (juillet 
Peoc. Zool. Soc.~1896, Xo. XXIY. 24 



370 GEAP YON BERLEPSCH AlfD M. J. STOLZMAITN OST [Mar. 3, 

1891) et San Emilio (1892) : huit males et deux jeunes. " Iris 
blanc avec un anneau autour de la pupille jaunatre, bee et pattes 
d'un jaune citron." 

226. PiPEEOLA VIE.IDIS INTEEMEDIA, TaCZ. 

Un male de Chilpes (30 juillet 1891) efc une paire de Culu- 
machay (juillet et septembre 1892). " Iris d'un olive bleuatre, 
bee d'un rouge corail, pattes de la meme couleur mais plus claires." 

227. PiPREOLA ELEGANS (Tsch.). 

Deux males et une femelle de Garita del Sol (juillet, aout et 
septembre 1891). " Ii'is jaune olivatre, bee d'un rouge orange, 
pattes d'un brun olivatre ; chez la femelle le bee est d'un rouge 
orange sale." 

228. PiPEEOLA PEONTALIS, Scl. 

Un male adulte, Garita del Sol (16 aout 1891). " Iris jaune 
olivatre, bee orange, pattes de la meme couleur, mais plus claires." 
Espoce nouvelle pour la faune peruvienne. 

229. Ampelio aecuatus (Lafr.). 

Mara3'nioe : quatre males et deux femelles, novembre 1891, 
aoiit, septembre et novembre 1892, et mars 1893. 

230. Heliocheea eubeoceistata (Lafr, et d'Orb.). 

Marayuioc : trois males, deux femelles et un jeune oiseau, 
novembre 1891, juin, juillet et septembre 1892. 

231. Heliocheea eufaxilla (Tsch.). 

Une femelle de Garita del Sol du 12 mars 1893. 

232. Cephalopteeus oenatfs, Geoffr. 

Cbanchamayo (juillet 1890) et Borgoiia (mai 1891). " Iris 
blanc." 

Fam. Dendeocolaptid^. 

233. Geositta cuniculaeia juninensis, Tacz. 

Quatre oiseaux de Baiios (avril) et d'Ingapirca (juin 1890). 
" Iris brun fouce." Compares avec les oiseaux typiques du Musee 
Universitaire de Varsovie. II est tres probable que la G. cimicu- 
laria juninensis, Tacz., sera identique avec la G. frobeni, Phil, et 
Landb., mais avant de la reunir a cette espece il serait recom- 
mandable d'examiner le type de la G. frobeni de Putre, Perou, qui 
est dit avoir la moitie basale de la queue blanche au lieu de 
roussatre. 

234. Geositta saxicolina, Tacz. 

Ingapirca (mai 1890) et Macabamba pres de Tarma (juillet 
1893). " Iris brun." S'accordent avec les oiseaux typiques du 
Musee Universitaire de Varsovie. 



1896.] THE OEKITHOLOGT OF CENTTEAI. PBEU. 371 

235. Geositta tenuieostbis (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890), environs de Tarma (decembre 1892 
et juillet 1893). 

Ces oiseaux paraissent etre identiques a un male de Vacas, 
Bolivie ; peut-ctre ont-ils les ailes un pen plus courtes, le dos un 
peu plus fonce, et la barbe externe des rectrices eiternes plus 
blanchatre. 

236. TJPFCEETHIA JELSKII (Cab.). 

Sept oiseaux d'Ingapirca (mai 1890) et un male de 1 'hacienda de 
Queta (8 juillet 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

Compares aux oiseaux typiques du Musee Universitaire de 
Varsovie. 

237. IJPUCEETHIA SEEEANA, TaCZ. 

Deux males de Palcamayo (juillet 1390) et quatre exemplaires 
de I'hacieuda de Queta (decembre 1892, juillet et septembre 1893). 
" Iris brun fonce." 

S'accordent avec les types du Musee Universitaire de Varsovie. 

Mr. Sclater a place YU. serra.ia, Tacz., comme synonyme de 
r^^. andecola, Lafr. et d'Orb., mais selon nous elle est bien dis- 
tincte. II nous parait que VU. hridyesi, Scl., est identique a 
VU. andecola. 

238. CiNCLODES EIVULAEIS, Cab. 

Cinq oiseaux d'Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890) et un male de 
Canchacso (17 mai 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

Compares aux oiseaux typiques du Musee Univei'sitaire de 
Varsovie. 

Espece bien distincte du Cinclodes fuscus (Vieill.). 

239. Cinclodes bifasciattts, Scl. 

Acobamba (aout 1890) et hacienda de Queta (decembre 1892) : 
deux males. " Iris brun fonce.'' 

Al. 112, caud. 83|, culm. 21|, tars. 31| mm. 

240. SCHIZ(EACA PALPEBEALIS, Cab, 

Synallaxis palpehralis, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 130. 

Maraynioc (novembre et decembre 1891, aout 1892) : trois 
males adultes et un jeune. " Iris brun clair, bee noir a mandibule 
inferieure d'un plombe bleuatre, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

Al. 61, caud. 124-1131, culm. 13|-13, tars. 24^-24 mm. 

241. PniiCEOCEYPTES MELANOPS (Vieill.). 

Trois males d'Ingapirca (mai 1890). " Iris brun fonce." 
Al. 61|, caud. 57|, culm. 16|, tars. 21| mm. 
II n'y a pas de difference entre ces oiseaux et d'autres de Eio 
Grande do Sul, BresH du sud. 

24* 



372 GEA! V03f BERLBPSCH ATSB M. J. STOLZMAWN ON [Mar. 3, 

242. Synallaxis elbgantiob, Scl. 

Synallaxis frontalis, Tacz. (nee Pelz.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 122. 

Une paire de G-arita del Sol (juin et juillet 1891). " Iris bruii 
rougefltre, bee brun a mandibule inferieure d'un plombe bleuatre a 
la base, pattes d'un ploinbe olivatre." 

Ces individus different des oiseaux typiques de la <S^. elegantior, 
ScL, de I'Ecuador par I'abdomen presque uniformement gris, au 
lieu de blanchatre au milieu, et par le haut de la gorge plus 
noiratre. 

243. Synallaxis beunneicauda cabanisi (Berl. et Lev.). 

Synallaxis cabanisi, Berl. et Lev. Ornis, 1890, p. 21. 
Synallaxis hrunneicauda, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 124. 
Uu male de La INIerced (septembre 1890). " Iris rouge-brique 
sale." 

244. Synallaxis (Julaeis eubiventeis, subsp. nov. 

Synallaxis gularis (pt.), Scl. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 192 (Ecuador) ; 
id. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 89 (Nanegal, Ecuador) ; id. P. Z. S. 1894, p. 16, 
pt. (specimina ex Ecuador); id. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xv. p. 55, pt. 

S. S. gulari (Lafr.) e Colombia simillima, differ f corpore inferiore 
collique laterihus saturate cinnamomeo-riijis (jnec griseo-fuscis), 
alhedine gidce magis restricta et inferius minus conspicue nigra 
marginata, corpore superiore im23ri7nis in pileo rufescentiore, 
tectricibus subalaribiis rufescentius tinctis. Long. tot. 143, al. 
60|, caud. 55|, culm. 12|, tars. 20| mm. 

Hah. in Peruvia ceutrali et in Ecuadoria or. (?). 

Un male adulte de Marayuioc (16 novembre 1891). "Iris 
brun fonce, bee noir a mandibule inferieure jauuatre a la base, 
pattes d'un plombe olivatre." 

Mr. Sclater a demontre (P. Z. S. 1874, p. 16) que les oiseaux de 
I'Ecuador oriental se distinguent des oiseaux typiques, de Bogota, 
du S. gidaris par les parties inferieures d'un brun cannelle plus 
pale que le dos, tandis que les exemplaires de Bogota Font plus ou 
moius ceudre. Mr. Sclater remarque aussi que de quatre peaux 
de Bogota une ressemblait aux oiseaux ecuadoriens. 

Notre oiseau de Maraynioc se distingue au premier coup d'ceil 
d'une peau de la S. gularis de Bogota du Musee Berlepsch par 
les parties inferieures et les cotes du con d'un brun cannelle clair 
tres vif au lieu d'un olive grisatre lave de roussatre ; par le blane 
de la gorge beaucoup plus restreint (au menton) et moins borde 
de noiratre en dessous, par les parties superieures d'un brun 
roussatre un pen plus vif, surtout au pileum, et par les tectrices 
sous-alaires roussatres au lieu de blancbatres. Nous nous croyons 
done justifies d'en faire une sous-espece nouvelle. Les oiseaux de 
I'Ecuador oriental appartiennent probablement a la meme forme. 
Espece nouvelle pour la fauna peruvienne. 



1896.] THE OENITHOLOGT 0¥ CENTEAL PEEF, 373 

245. SiPTORNIS HTJMILIS (Cab.). 

Quatre oiseaux d'Ingapirca (mai et juin 1890). "Iris brun clair." 
La description originale de Cabanis est basee sur les oiseaux 

fournis par M. Jelski de Junia, d'ou viennent aussi les peaux 

envoyees par M. Kalinowski. 

246. SlPTOENIS MAEATNIOCENSIS, sp. DOV. 

Synallaais humilis, Tacz. (nee Cab.) P. Z. S. 1874, p. 527 ; id. 
Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 138 (descr. specim. e Maraynioc). 

S. S. humili, Cab. {e Junin), valde affiuis, sed patdo major, 
corpore supra obscunore, dorso pnleoque disfincte nigro- 
brunneo maculatis, tectricihtts alarum si(2)erioribt(S minime 
fulvo marcjinatis, wacida mentali mayis extensa castaneo- {nee 
fulvo-) hmnnea, redricibus externis ap)ice minus ftdvo variis 
fuscescentioribus,necnon mandibula basi obscuriore distingvenda. 

Hob. in Peruvia centrali (Maraynioc, Tarma, Cancbacso). Mus. 
Branicki et Berlepsch. 

cf . Al. 70:^, caud. 67, culm. 15|, tars. 26^ mm. 
$ $ . „ 691-681, „ 68i-67|, „ 15i, „ 25^, 25| „ 

Un male et deux femelles de I'hacienda de Queta (Tarma) et de 
Canchacso (mai et juillet 1803). " Iris brun noiratre, bee noir 
corne a mandibule inferieure d'un cendre fonec dans sa plus 
grande partie bnsale ; pattes noiratres teintees de verdatre." 

C'etait par mcprise que feu Taczanowski avait docrit les oiseaux 
de Maraynioc sous le nom de ^S'. humiUa, Cab. Heureusement 
il existe au Musee Berlepsch un individu typique de cette der- 
niere espece recueilli par Jelski a Junin, regu directeraent par 
Cabanis, et qui nous permet de constater qu'il y a deux especes 
tres Yoisines mais bien distinctes, I'uue (S. humilis) venant des 
environs de Junin, I'autre de Maraynioc, de Tarma etc. Cette 
derniore differe de la S. humilis par la couleur plus foncee des 
parties superieures, a taches noiratres sur le dos et le pileum 
bien marque'es qui manquent presque completement aux oiseaux de 
Junin, par la surface de I'aile beaucoup plus fonce et sans bordures 
roussatres, les tectrices sus-alaires presque uniformes et pas du 
tout bordees de fauve roussatre ; par les parties inferieures moins 
roussatres, par la tache rousse au menton plus etendue et plus 
foncee ; par la gorge et la region jugulaire plus distinctement 
striees de noiratre, par les rectrices medianes non bordees de 
roussatre et par les externes plus uniformes et plus noiratres, 
moins variees de roussatre dans la partie terminale ; enfin par le 
bee un peu plus court et plus large. 

247. SiPTORNis TACZANOWSKii, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Siptornis taczanowsJcii, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 393. 
Synallaxis Jlammulata, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 139. 
TJn oiseau de Maraynioc (2 decembre 1891) et una paire de 
Pariayacu, pres de Maraynioc (aout 1892 et Janvier 1893). 



374 GEAF VON BERLBPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

248. SiPTOENIS GEAMINICOI/A, Scl. 

Une femelle cTe I'hacienda de Queta (25 juillet 1893). 

Al. 67, caud. 77i, culm. 13, tars. 24 mm. 

La S. grcminicola se distingue de la S'. wyatti surtout par 
I'extension de la coiileur cannelle a la surface de I'aile, dont les 
tectrices superieures sent d'un canuelle vi£ et uniforme, par la 
presence d'une strie cannelle aux barbes internes des deux rectrices 
medianes dans leur moitie basale, par la couleiir roussatre des 
parties inferieures du corps, par le bee plus court, la queue plus 
longue, etc. 

249. SiPTOENIS ALBICAPILLA (Cab.). 

Deux males adultes et un jeune femelle de Pariayacu (juillet et 
aout 1892). " Iris brun ochrace, bee d'un brun clair, plus clair en 
dessous, pattes d'un gris olivatre. 

250. PSEUDOCOLAPTES BOISSONNEAUI PLAVESCENS, Subsp. DOV. 

Pseuclocolaptes hoissonneaui, Tacz. (nee Lafr.) Orn. Perou, ii. 
p. 145. 

Ps. Ps. boissonneaui e Columbia simillimus, sed gula juguloque 
flaveseenti-albis {nee pure albis), dorsi maculis latioribus et rostro 
breviore distinguendus. 
c? ad. Al. 116, caud. 104, culm. 20|, tars. 26| mm. 
2 ad. „ 97, „ 95|, „ 23f, „ 23^ „ 
Hab. in Peruvia centrali (Maraynioc) et septentrionali (Cutervo) 
et in Bolivia. 

Maraynioc, Pariayacu : trois males et uu femelle du novembre 
1891 et d'aout 1892. 

Les oiseaux du Pcrou central et septentrional (d'ou il y a une 
femelle au Musee Berlepscb, recueillie a Cutervo le 9 mai 1879 
par Jean Stolzmann) different des oiseaux de Bogota par la gorge 
et les joues d'un blanc jaunatre au lieu d'un blanc pur, pas les 
taches du dos un pen plus larges et prolongees jusqu'au milieu 
du dos (qui est presque immacule chez les oiseaux de Bogota), 
enfin par le bee plus court dans les deux sexes. Chez les oiseaux 
de la Bolivie les plumes allongees de la region auriculaire sont 
egalement lavees de jaunatre, tandis qu'elles sont d'un blanc pur 
chez les oiseaux du Perou comme chez les oiseaitx typiques de la 
Colombie. 

Le jeune male envoye a le pileum d'un noir uniforme et le bee 
tres-court et noir en entier. Nous n'avons pas vu d'oiseaux 
pareils d'Antioquia et de la Bolivie. II parait que les males 
Pseudocolaptes ont toujours le bee plus court que les femelles. 

251. Philtdoe strBPLAVESCENS, Cab. 

Une femelle de La Gloria (23 Janvier 1891). " Iris brun fonce', 
bee brun en dessus, d'un corne clair en dessous, pattes d'un olive 
sale." 

L'oiseau envoye par Kalinowski a la strie surciliere et une 



1896.] THE. OBJ^ITHQIOST OP CENTRAL PERU. 375 

bande qui s'etend de la base de la mandibule inf erieure jusqu'aiix 
couvertures auriculaires d'un roux ochreux vif. Le dessus du 
corps est d'un olive plus pale et plus grisatre, et les parties infe- 
rieures sont d'un blanc jaunatre sale plus pale que chez le Fh. 
ruficaudatus. Le bee et les ailes sont un peu plus courts que chez 
cette espece. 

MM. Cabanis et Taczanowski ont dccrit ces oiseaux a sourcil d'lm 
roux ocbreux comme des jeunes du Ph. subflavescens ce que est peut- 
etre un erreur. Notre oiseau parait completement adulte. En 
outre Vadulte du Ph. suhjiavescens, Cab., est dit-on le meme que le 
Ph. ruficaudatus (Lafr. et d'Orb.). Dans ce dernier cas il faudra 
probablement separer les oiseaux a sourcil roux comme espece 
distincte (Ph. euojo7irt/s, nob.). 

Dimensions de I'oiseau de La Grloria : aile 83, queue 72^, culmen 
15|, tarse 18| mm. 

252. Philtdor subfultus, Scl.? 

Une femelle de La Gloria (22 Janvier 1891). "Iris brun fonce." 

Aile 84, queue 67, culmen 15|, tarse 19| mm. 

Nous ne possedons pas d'exemplaires authentiques du Ph. sub- 
fulvus, Scl., pour comparer a notre femelle. Celle-ci a les petites 
tectrices des epaules d'un roux brun semblable a celui des tectrices 
sous-caudales, ce qui n'est pas mentionnc dans la description de 
Mr. Sclater. En outre notre oiseau prcsente des dimensions plus 
petites que celui decrit par cet auteur. 

253. Anabazenops steiaticollis (Scl.) 

Garita del Sol : un male du 22 juillet 1891. S'accorde en 
general avee un oiseau de Bogota, mais le dessnus du corps est 
plus olivatre, moins roussatre, et la couleur du pilcum est presque 
la mcme que celle du dos, tandis qu'elle est plus foncee et differente 
de ceUe du dos chez I'oiseau de Bogota. II faudra examiner le 
type de VAnabates montamts, Tsch., qui est peut-ctre la meme 
que VA. stnaticolUs. 

254. Xenops genibarbis appeoximans (Pelz.). 

La Gloria: une femelle du 19 fevrier 1891. 

Al. 62, caud. 47, culm. 13^, tars. 14| mm. 

Peut-etre pourrait-on nommer cette forme X. genibarbis mexi- 
canus, Scl. C'est la forme occidentale plus grande du X. genibarbis, 
m., du Bresil oriental. 

255. Xenops rutilus heteruetjs (Cab. et Heine). 
Xenojps rutilus, Tacz. Orn. du Perou, ii. p. 160, 

La Gloria (aout 1890), Borgoiia (avril 1891) et Garita del Sol 
(septembre 1891) : deux males et une femelle. " Iris brnn." 

256. SiTTASOMTjs amazontjs, Lafr, 

Une femelle de Garita del Sol (18 aout 1891) et un male de 
San Emilio (24 mai 1893). 



376 GEAF VON BBBLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

257. Maegaeoenis peelata (Less.)- 

Six exemplaires de Maraynioc du decembre 1891, aout, octobre 
et decembre 1892, et mai 1893. 

Ces oiseaux ont le blanc de la gorge, de la strie surciliere et 
des gouttes plus distinctement lave de jaunatre que les_ oiseaux de 
Bogota. Les oiseaux de I'Ecuador paraissent intermediaires. 

258. Gltphoehtnchus cttneattjs castelnatji (Des Murs). 
La Gloria : un male du 18 Janvier 1891. 

Al. 81^, caud. 7o|, culm. 12|, tars. 16| mm. 

L'oiseau envoye est un peu plus grand (a ailes et bee sensible- 
ment plus longs) et il a le plumage plus pale (le dos moins brun- 
atre) que des ecbantillons du Haut-Amazone. 

259. Dendeoenis eosteipalleks, Des Murs ? 

line femelle de La Merced (12 mars 1891). " Iris brun fonce, 
bee blanc olivatre sale, pattes d'nn bleuatre sale." 

Aile 112, queue 98|-, culmen 36|, tarse 25| mm. 

Cette femelle se distingue des oiseaux du Haut-Amazone par 
la gorge et le fond du cou inferieur blanchatre (au lieu de 
roussatre). II y a pourtant sur la gorge de nouvelles plumes qui 
commencent a pousser d'une nuance roussatre corame chez les 
oiseaux de I'Amazone. Get oiseau presente aussi de lines bordures 
apicales noiratres aux plumes du cou inferieur qui manquent chez 
les oiseaux de I'Amazone. Enfin les ailes sent un peu plus courtes. 
Ces differences sont probablement individuelles, car la femelle de 
La Merced nous parait jeune. 

260. Dendeoenis teiangulaeis (Lafr.), subsp. 

Une paire de Garita del Sol (juillet et octobre 1891). 

(S . Aile 120|, queue 102, culmen 32|, tarse 21 mm. 
$. „ 111, „ 93, „ 29i, „ 21 „ 

Ces oiseaux ressemblent le phis aux specimens de la Bolivie 
(D. triangularis, Lafr., typique) que Berlepsch a regus du voyageur 
Garlepp. lis ne s'en distinguent que par des dimensions plus 
fortes, notamment par le bee plus long. 

La forme colombienne, noramee D. triangularis par Mr. Sclater, 
differe de la vraie D. triangularis par le croupion moins varie de 
roux et par les taches du dessous du corps beaucoup plus grosses a 
bordures noiratres. Nous nommerons cette forme D. triangularis 
bogotensis, Berl. et Stolzm. 

La D. triangularis erythrojyygia, Scl., a les tacbes du dessous du 
corps aussi grosses que la D. t. bogotensis, mais elle presente des 
taches plus larges sur le haut du dos et le roux du croupion est 
plus etendus. 

261. Dendeoenis chunchotambo (Tseh.). 
Bendrornis ocellata, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 179. 
Un male et une femelle de La Gloria (aout 1891 et Janvier 
1891). 



1896.] THE ORNITHOLOGT OF CENTRAL PBBTJ. 377 

Dimensions : — 

cJ . Aile 99, queue 90, culmen 33, tarse 21 mm. . 
$. „ 99, „ m, „ 33, „ 20A „ 

Avant d'avoir examine le type de la D. ocellata, Spix, nous pre'- 
ferons la denomination donnce a cette espece par M. de Tsohudi, 
savoir D. cJmnchotamho, dont Berlepsch a examine un specimen 
typique appartenant au Musee de Kiel. 

L'oiseau de La Gloria s'accorde avee un individu de Huayabamba, 
Perou du nord (coll. Garlepp) et n'en diffive que par son bee un 
peu plus long. 

262. XiPHocoiiAPTES PBOMEEOPIRHYXCHUS (Less.), subsp. ? 

La Gloria : une femelle d'aofit 1890. "Iris brun fonce." 

Long, totale 331, envergure 441, aile 141 j, queue 115, 
culmen 49|, tarse 32| mm. 

L'oiseau envoye par Kaliniiwski se distingue des individus du 
X. promeropirhynchu^ de Bogota par le bee plus long, plus fort et 
blanchatre, par les stries du sommet de la tete plus larges, par le 
dos plus olivatre, moins roussatre, par le roux brun du croupion 
plus clair, par la couleur des parties inferieures plus olivatre et 
par le menton plus blanchatre. Les stries fauves des parties 
inferieures sont plus larges. Pre?que pas de maculature noiratre 
au milieu du ventre. 

Par la couleur du bee il se rapproche au X. p. compressirostris 
(Tacz.), mais s'en distingue par les stries du pileum plus larges. 

263. XiPHOCOLAPTES PHiEOPYGTJS, Sp. nOV. 

X. X. lineatocephalo (Gray et Mitch.) ex Bolivia forsan maxime 
affinis, cUffert uropygio rufescente olivaceo-hrunneo {nee castaneo), 
pileo dorso concolore minime striata, gula sordicNore rufescenti- 
alhafusco variegata, alis caudaque fere hreviorihus. 
d". Al. 138i, caud. 120, culm. 42|, tars. 30| mm. 
$. „ 134: ,, 118, „ 47|, „ 30i „ 
Hah. in Peruvia centrali circum Maraynioc (typus in Mus. 
Branicki). 

TJne paire de Culumachay, Maraynioc, du 24 aout 1892. 
Cette espece nouvelle est tout-a-fait distincte du X. promeropi- 
rhynchus (Less.) de la Colombie, dont elle diflfere par la couleur 
presque uniforme des parties superieures, qui est d'un brun olive 
tres pale, presque grisatre. Le pileum est tout-a-fait de la meme 
couleur que le dos et non pas noiratre comme chez le X. prome- 
ropirJiynchiis. II n'y a pas trace de stries claires ni sur le pileum 
ni sur le dos. La difference la plus frappante consiste dans la 
couleur du croupion qui est d'un brun olivatre un peu plus obscur 
que le dos au lieu d'un brun chatain. Ce ne sont que les tectrices 
sus-caudales qui presentent un brun chatain pale melange d'un 
brun olivatre. Les parties inferieures sont d'un brun olive au 
Heu d'un brun roussatre sature ; les stries claires de la poitrine 
sont bordees lateralemeut de noiratre, ce qui n'est pas le cas chez 



378 GBAF TON BEELEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

le X. promeropirliynchns. La gorge est d'un blanc roussatre plus 
terne et plus variee de stries bruuatres. Le bee est corne comma 
chez I'autre espece. 

Le X. plueopygus parait le plus proche au X. lineatocepTialus, 
Gray et Mitch., de la Bolivie, dont H. simpliciceps, Lafr., est pro- 
bablement synonvrae. 

Compares a plusieurs individus de la Bolivie du Musee 
Bei'lepscli, les deux oiseaux de Maraynioc ne different que par le 
croupiou d'un brun olive au lieu de chatain, par le pileum tout-a- 
fait semblable au dos au lieu d'etre plus obscur ou noiratre, par le 
manque complet de stries au pile'um, par la couleur du dessus et 
du dessous un peu plus pale, par la gorge d'un blanc roussatre 
plus terne et plus variee de brun olivatre, enfln par les ailes et la 
queue generalement phis courtes. 

264. PiCOlAPTES FTJSCICAPILLTJS, Pelz. 

Un male adulte de Borgona (29 mai 1891). " Iris brun clair, 
bee corne clair, pattes oliA'es." 

Aile 961, queue 86|, culmen 29|, tarse 181 mm. 

L'individu envoye par Kalinowski s'accorde avec la description 
de M. de Pelzeln basee sur des oiseaux de Matogrosso. 

Espece nouvelle pour la faune peruAaenne. 

265. PicoLAPTES LACETMiGEE wABSzEwiczi (Cab. et Heine). 
Picolaptes u'arszewiczi, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 173. 

Une paire de Maraynioc du 10 aout 1892. 

(5 . Al. 106, caud. 98|, culm. 264, tars. 20 mm. 
$. „ 104, „ 89*, „ 26|, „ 19| „ 
Ces oiseaux ne different d'une femelle de Tambillo, Pe'rou du 
nord (coll. Stolzmann, Mus. Berlepsch), que par les parties supe- 
rieures et inferieures d'un olivatre plus obscur, moins roussatre, 
par le bee plus court et la machoire un peu plus ptxle. II faudra 
reexaminer le type du P. ivarszewiczi dans le Musee Heineanum 
envoye du Perou par Warszewicz. 

266. Dendeocolaptes vaxidus, Tsch. 

Borgoiia : un male adulte du 23 avril 1891. "Iris brun fonce, 
bee brun a mandibule inferieure d'un brun plombe, pattes d'un 
plombe olivatre." 

Aile 136^, queue 123|, culmen 39|, tarse 27g mm. 

Cet oiseau parait appartenir au vrai D. validus, Tsch., dont le 
type provient de la meme region. Un oiseau de Bogota et un autre 
d'Antioquia du Musee Berlepsch different par les ailes un peu 
plus courtes, par le bee un peu plus mince et plus noiratre, par 
les bandes noiratres de I'abdomen, des sous-caudales et des sous- 
alaires plus etroites et par les plumes du cou infcrieur marquees de 
macules laterales noires au lieu de bordiu-es. L'oiseau du Perou 
a le chatain du croupion plus restreint et presente des bandes 
noiratres sur le croupion et les scapulaires, bandes qui manquent 



1896,] THE OEIflTHOLOGT OF CENTRAIi PERU. 379 

completement anx oiseaux de la Colombie. Enfin les stries sea- 
pales roussatres du dos superieur et median sont mieux marquees 
chez I'oiseau du Perou. 

Fam. FoEincAEiiD.E. 

267. THAiES-OPHILrS MELANrRUS DEETLIS, Subsp. DOV. 

Til. Th. melanuro, Gld., simillimus, differt rostro debiliore, tarsis 
attamen longioribus, rectncifms dunhus utrinqtie extemis tectrici- 
busque (darum supenonhus mmns ajncihus latins alho marginatis, 
necnon colore femince corpoins superioris brunneo obscitriore. 

Long. alsB. Caudae. Culminis. Tarsi. 

c? . . . . 96 804 28| 35i mm. 
2 2 '■■■ 921-92 791-781 27|-27| 351 „ 

Eab. in Peruvia centrali. 

La Merced (aout 1890 et decembre 1891): un male et trois 
femelles. " Ii-is rouge ochreux, bee noir, pattes d'un plombe bleu- 
atre." 

Ces oiseaux se distinguent d'lm male et d'une femelle de 
Samiria, Haut-Amazone (coll. Hauxwell), du Muse'e Berlepsch, 
par le bee moins large et plus court, les tarses au contraire plus 
longs. Le male a les deux rectrices externes et les tectrices sus- 
alaires bordces plus largement de blanc. II prcsente aussi des 
bordures blanches aux petites tectrices de I'cpaule ee qui n'est pas 
le cas chez le TJt. melanuriis de Samiria. Les femelles de La 
Merced different cgalement d'une femelle de Samiria par le roux 
brun du dessus du corps plus fonce. 

268. THAiiNOPHiLES MELANOCnEous, Scl. et Salv. 

ThamnopMlns melanocJirous, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1876, p. 18, 
pi. iii. (typus ex Huiro Peruvise mer.); Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 11. 

ThamnopMlvs suhandhius, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1882, p. 29 (Chacba- 
poyas, Chirimoto, Tamiapampa) ; id. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 6. 

ThamnopMlus suhandinns major, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 7 
(Paltaypampa). 

Six individus ( cJ (^ et $ 2 ) de Garita del Sol (juillet, aout et 
septembre 1891). " Iris brun fonce, bee noir a mandibule infe- 
rieure bleuatre, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

cJ. Aile 73, queue 674, culmen 164, tarse 224 mm. 
2- „ 69, „ 66; „ 16|, „ 23' „ 

Nous n'avons pas trouve des differences constantes entre les 
oiseaux de Chachapoyas (TJi. subandinus, Tacz.), de Vitoc (17i. s. 
major, Tacz.) et un male de Huiro du Musee Berlepsch, recueilli 
par Mr. Orton {TJi. melanoch-ous, Scl. et Salv.). 

269. Thamnophilus taeiegaticeps, sp . nov. 

? ThamnopMlus radiatus, Tacz. (nee Vieill.), Orn. Perou, ii. 
p. 20, part. 

J mari Th. nigricristati subradiati, Berl., ex Amazonia sup. 



380 GRAF TON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

simillimiis, sed divert pilei crista hreviore, pilei medii plumis 
veocillo interno (nonnidlis etiam veccillo externo) alho marginatis 
vel maculatis, fasciis dorsi Jatiorihus et cequalioribus, necnon 
differt rostro hreviore et debiliore. 

Long. alse. Caudse. Culminis. Tarsi. 

d d ■... 76|-73| 67-62 20|-19| 25i-24| mm. 
.? 791 67| 19| 26i 

JIab. in Peruvia centrali. 

Huit individus ( c? cJ et $ $ ) de La Merced (juillet et aout 1890, 
Janvier et avril 1891). " Iris jaune olivatre, bee noir a mandibule 
inferieure bleiiatre a la base." 

Cette espece nouvelle est tres proche du Th. nigricrisfatus, Lawr., 
ou plutot de la forme plus grande nomme'e par Berlepsch Th. si(b- 
7'adiatus (du Haut-Amazone). Le male differe du male de cette 
espece par la huppe de la tete beaucoup plus courte et variee au 
milieu par des bordures ou macules laterales blanches vers la base 
des plumes. Les raies blanches du dos sont plus regulieres, plus 
larges et plus rapprochees entre elles. C'est pourquoi le dos parait 
moins noiratre. Enfin les bandes des rectrices sont plus etendues 
vers la tige (presque completes et non en forme de taches). 

La femelle parait distincte des femelles du TJi. nigricristatus et 
du Th. doliatus par le roux brun de la huppe et du dos plus 
fonce, et par le roux de rouille de I'abdomen plus intense. 

On pent dire que cette espece nouvelle est a peu pres inter- 
mediaire entre le Th. nigricristatus et le Th. doliatus. Peut-etre 
I'oiseau de Moyobamba de'crit par Taczanowski sous le nom de 
Th. tenuifasciatxts, Lawr., appartient-il a notre TJi. variegaticeps. 

270. Thamnophilus palliatus puncticeps (Scl.) ? 

Thamnaphilus ])alliatus, Tacz. (nee Licht.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 17. 
? Thamnophilus puncticeps, Scl. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xv. (1890) 
p. 17 (Bolivia et Ecuador). 

Grarita del Sol : une paire (aout 1891). " Iris chez le male d'un 
bleu cendre, chez la femelle d'un cendre jaunatre, bee noir a 
mandibule inferieure bleuatre, pattes bleuatres. 

d" . Al. 74, caud. 68|, culm. 20|, tars. 24^ mm. 
+ • 5» '45, ,, by, ,, 175, ,, 24^ „ 

Les diffe'rences indiquees par Mr. Sclater entre son Th. puncti- 
ceps (de la Bolivie et de I'Ecuador) et le Th. palliatus (du Bresil) 
ne paraissent pas constantes. Notre male adulte de Garita ne 
differe des oiseaux de Bahia que par le brun du dos et des ailes 
plus pale et par la re'gion jugulaire moins varie'e de blanchatre ou 
d'un noiratre presque uniforme. II a le pileum d'un noir uniforme 
comme un male de Bahia, taudis qu'un autre male de Bahia du 
Musee Berlepsch y presente des taches blanches qui, selon Sclater, 
seraient caracteristiques du Th. puncticeps. Les bandes noires et 
blanches de I'abdomen sont de la meme largeur que chez les 
oiseaux de Bahia. 



1696.] THE OKNITHOIiOGT OF CENTRAL PERU. Sftl 

271. Thamnistes rupescens, Cab. 

Un male et une femelle de La Grloria (Janvier et fevrier 1891). 
" Iris rouge, bee noir en dessus, plombe clair en dessus, pattes 
d'uu plombe olivatre." 

cJ . Aile76i, .queue 73, culmen 17|, tarse 181 mm. 

2- „ 72,~ ,1 ''2, „ m, „ 18| „ 

Cette espece tres rare se distingue du Th. cequatorialis, ScL, 
par le bee plus petit et les parties inferieures, les cotes de la tete et 
les sourcils plus roussatres, le brun des parties superieures egale- 
ment plus lave de roussatre, enfin par le pileum moins roussatre. 

272. Dtsithamiots semicinereus, IScl. 

Trois individus de La Gloria (Janvier) et de Garita del Sol 
(septembre 1891). 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent bien avec le oiseaux typiques de Bogota, 
mais ils presentent des bordures blanchatres un peu plus larges a 
la pointe des rectrices. 

273. DrsiTHAMNUs dubius, Berl. et Stolzm. 
Di/sithamnus dubius, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 393. 

Un male adulte de La Merced du 26 aout, 1890. " Iris rouge 
sale." 

274. Mxrmothehula longicauda, sp. nov. 

Myrmotherula longicauda, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 394. 

Mip'motlierula surinamensis, Tacz. (nee Gmel.) P. Z. S. 1882, 
p. .30. 

Myrmotherula multostriata, Tacz. (nee Sol.) Orn. Perou, ii. p. 39. 

Un male adulte de Cbontabamba (Vitoc) du 28 aout 1891 et 
deux femelles de La Merced et de La Gloria du 21 juillet 1890 et 
du 14 novembre 1891. " Iris brun noiratre." 

275. Myrmotherula sororia, Berl. et Stolzm. 

Myrmotherula sororia, Berl. et Stolz. Ibis, 1894, p. 396. 

Myrmotherula gutturalis, Tacz. (nee ScL et Salv.) Orn. Perou, 
ii. p. 72. 

La Gloria (juillet 1890 et Janvier 1891) et La Merced (septem- 
bre 1890) : un male et trois femelles. 

276. Herpsilochmus motacilloides, Tacz. 

La Gloria (8 aout 1890) et Garita del Sol (18 juillet et 15 
aout 1891) : trois males et une femelle. 

Dans la description originale de cette espece (P. Z. S. 1874, 
p. 137) feu Taczanovv^ski disait : " Cette espece est tres voisine du 
H. atricapillus, mais elle s'en distingue principalement par la 
tacbeture de I'occiput." Au contraire, les trois males envoyes par 
Kalinowski ne presentent aucune trace de taches blanches sur 
I'occiput noir, c'est pourquoi nous presumons que Taczanowski 



382 GRAF VON BERLEPSCH AND M. J. STOLZMANN ON [Mar. 3, 

a decrit comme male adulte un jeune male, ou puet-etre meme 
line femelle. Berlepsch, ayant fait des notes d'apres un specimen 
typique du U. atricctpillus, Pelz., du Musee de Vienne, il y a quel- 
ques annees, a pa constater les differences suivantes entre cette 
espece et le If. motacillokles : cette derniere a la queue beaucoup 
plus longue (53 a 59 au lieu de 43 mm.), les ailes egalement 
plus longues (54 a 56| au lieu de 51 mm.). Le male a les parties 
iuferieures d'unblanc fortement lave de jaunatre au lieu d'un blanc 
grisatre. Les deux rectrices externes sont presque entierement 
blanches a I'exception du tiers basal qui est noir. Au contraire 
cliez le H. atricapillus ce n'est que le tiers apical de ces rectrices 
qui est blanc. Les autres rectrices externes presentent egalement 
plus de blanc et les subexternes ont la barbe exteme presque 
entierement blanche. 

La femelle parait distincte de celle du H. atrkapillus par le 
front roussatre et par les parties inferieures d'un blanc jaunatre 
au lieu d'un blanc ochreux. 

II nous parait done utile de donner une nouvelle diagnose du 
H, motacilloides : — 

If. S ad. pileo ad nucham usque striaque lata ante- et post- 
oculari nigris unicoloribus, superciliis capitisque lateribus griseo- 
albis, marginibus plumarum nigrescentibus ; dorso toto cinereo in 
aduUis uigro maculate, plumis nonnullis basi interdum niveis ; cor- 
pore subtus tectricibusque alarum caudaeque inferioribus flave- 
scenti albis, gula pectorisque lateribus griseo lavatis ; tectricibus 
alarum nigris late albo terminatis, remigibus nigricantibus, primariis 
secundariisque extus anguste griseo albo, tertiariis scapularibusque 
latius albo marginatis ; rectricibus externis — basi extrema nigra 
excepta — albis, caeteris nigi-is albo terminatis, subexternis diraidio 
apicali et vexillo externo — nisi in basi — albis, mediis fere omnino 
nigris, vexillo externo subtiliter griseo, interno anguste albo apice- 
que latius albo marginatis. 

$ mari similis, sed fronte late rufescente pilei plumis ante 
apicem albo marginatis, dorso olivaceo griseo, necnon remigibus 
olivaceo-griseo marginatis distinguenda. 

Long. tota. Al. exp. 
cJ d. 142-140 192-185 
2 . 145 183 

Hab. in Peruvia centraU. 

277. FOEMICITOEA CAUDATA, Scl. 

Une paire de Grarita del Sol du 12 mars 1893. 

(f . Al. 54|^, caud. 74, culm. 14|, tars. 19| mm. 
$ • » 53, „ 75, „ 15^, „ 19| „ 

Espece nouvelle pour la faune peruvienne. 
Le male adulte se distingue d'un c? ad. d'Antioquia par le t|gc 
et la queue sensiblement et les ailes un peu plus courtes, par les 
stries noiratres de la gorge plus larges et plus marquees, les stries 
des cotes de la tete et du cou egalemeut plus larges. Nous n'avons 



Alffi. 


Caudte. 


Culm. Tars. 


62-54 


59-53 


15|-14 17| mm, 


55| 


53| 


Ui 17i „ 



1896.] THE OUNMHOLOGT OF OENTKAL PEEtT, 383 

pas examine d'individus de Bogota, d'ou provient le type' de 
Mr. Sclater. 

Compare a trois males adultes de Surupata et Cayandeled 
(Ecuador occ. — coll. Stolzmann et Siemiradzki) le male de La Grloria 
s'accorde presque dan>s tous les details et ne difiere que par le bee 
un peu plus court, la queue un peu plus lougue et les rectrices 
d'une couieur plus schistacee moins olivatre, enfin par le blanc de la 
gorge et de la poitrine plus pur et par les stries noiratres de la 
gorge un peu plus lai-ges et plus prononcees. 

La femelle de Garita del Sol ne ditfcre d'une femelle de Chaquar- 
pata, Ecuador (coll. Stolzmann), que par le roux du pileum plus 
intense et plus ctendu vers la nuque et par les couleurs generalement 
un peu plus vives. 

La premiere a les dimensions generalement plus fortes et le bee 
plus fort et plus long que celle de Chaquarpata. 

Avant de caracteriser cette forme il faudrait examiner plusieurs 
individus. 

278. Cercomacba appeoximans, Pelz. ? 

? Cercomacra ti/rannina, Tacz. (nee Scl.) Oru. Pcrou, ii. p. 54. 

Garita del Sol (juillet, aoCit efc septembre 1891): trois males et 
une femelle. 

J ad. Aile 69, queue 66, culmen 17|, tarse 22| mm. 

Nous n'avons pas d'individus typiques de la 0. approximans 
de Matogrosso pour comparer, mais les males de Garita different 
par plusieurs details des males de Mapoto, Ecuador or. (coll. 
Stolzmann), que Mr. Sclater (Cat. B. Brit. Mas. xv. p. 266) a 
places sous la G. approoci'mans. Les oiseaux de Garita out le plu- 
mage plus noiratre en dessus et en dessous, les bordures blanches 
a la pointe des teetrices sus-alaires beaucoup plus etroites (presque 
en forme des petits points sur les teetrices les plus graudes) et ne 
prcsentent aucuue trace de bordures blanches apicales aux rectrices 
externes. Les cotes du basventre, les teetrices, les sous-caudales et 
le croupion ne sont pas du tout laves d'olive. Les ailes et la 
queue sont un peu plus longues. Peut-etre faudra-t-il separer les 
oiseaux du Pcrou central comme forme distincte. 0. liypomekBnaf 
Sol., de Cosnipata, parait voisine ou peut-etre identique. 

279. Pyeiglena mattea picea (Cab.). 
Pyriglena picea, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 56. 

La Gloria (juillet et aoiit 1890 et Janvier 1891) et Garita del 
Sol (juillet 1891): trois males et une femelle. 

cJ 6 . Aile 79-77, queue 80|-78, culm.l8|-18, tarse 32-30ji mm. 

Les oiseaux de Garita ne se distinguent des oiseaux de Mato- 
grosso que par la queue un peu plus longue et le bee un peu plus 
large. Le type de la P. maura provient de Minas Geraes. 

280. Myemeciza spodiogastea, Berl. et Stolzm. 
Myrmeciza spodiogastra, Berl. et Stolzm. Ibis, 1894, p. 397. 
Un male et une femelle de Borgona du 29 avril 1891. 



3S4 GKAT XOS BERLEPSCH AXD M. J. STOIZMJCSS OX [Mar. §, 

281. Htpocjs'emis subflata, Cab. 

Deux males de La Merced (26 aout et 12 septembre 1890). " Iris 
brun fonce. " 

c? . Aile 58, queue 41 1, culmen 16, tarse 20 mm. 

Ces individus se distinguent du male qui a servi de type a M. 
Cabauis (Musee de \'arsovie) par la couleur du dessous, qui est 
beaucoup plus intense, presque jaune de sout're au lieu de blanc 
jaunatre. Berlepsch a aussi regu cette espece de la Bolivie par 
Garlepp. 

282. HTPOcifEMis LBPiDosoTA, Scl. et Salv. 

La Merced (10 avril 1891) : une femelle. " Iris brun fonce, bee 
noir, pattes d'un plombe bleuatre." 

283. Hypocnemis schistacea, Scl. 

Trois males de La Merced (aout 1890), de La Gloria (Janvier) et 
de Borgoiia (mai 1891). " Bee et pattes noirs." 
Aile 68-67, queue 54^-54, culmen 19|-19^, tarse 25-24^ mm. 

284. Hxpoci^EMis leucophets (Tsch.). 

La Merced : trois males d'aout 1890 et du mars 1891. " Iris 
chez un male, rouge-cerise sale ; chez I'autre, brun fonce." 

Aile 72f-71, queue 53|, culmen 17i-18J, tarse 24f-23f mm. 

Les oiseaux de Bogota ont I'abdomen un peu plus fonce et le dos 
cendre moins bleuatre ; ceux de la Guyane anglaise ont I'abdomen 
beaucoup plus clair, le front moins largement blanchatre et les ailes 
et la queue un peu plus courtes. 

285. Cham^za olivacea, Tsch. 

Deux mjiles adultes de La Gloria (16 aout 1890) et de la Esper- 
anza, Yitoc (26 mars 1893). " Iris brun fonce." 

Aile 97j, queue 62|-65, culmen 19|-27i, tarse 36|-38| mm. 

Ces oiseaux s'accordent parfaitement avec la description de 
Tscbudi de la Ch. olivacea, mais non pas avec la diagnose de cette 
espece donnee par Mr. Sclater (Cat. Brit. Mus. xv. p. 307), qui 
est probablement basee sur des individus de Bogota ou de la Bolivie. 

L'oiseau de La Gloria differe au premier coup d'oeil des individus 
de Bogota du Musee Berlepsch par la couleur de la gorge et de la 
poitrine, qui est d'un roux-ochreux vif au lieu de blanche. Les cotes 
de la poitrine sont laves d'olive et les flancs laves d'un roux ochreux, 
ce qui n'est pas le cas chez les oiseaux de Bogota. Les bordures 
noiratres des plumes de la poitrine et des flancs sont un peu plus 
etroites. Les parties superieures sont d'un vert olive au lieu 
d'un brun olivatre. La strie surciliere bien marquee chez les 
oiseaux de Bogotti manque presque completement chez l'oiseau de 
La Gloria. La baude noiratre anteapicale qui, chez les oiseaux de 
Bogota, se manifeste sur toutes les rectrices, manque completement 
sur les rectrices medianes chez l'oiseau de La Gloria tandis qu'elle 
est tres-bien marquee sur les rectrices externes. 



18^6.] THE OBNITHOLOGX OE CENTBAL PERU. 3feO 

L'oiseau peruvien a les ailes, la queue et les tarses plus longs, le 
bee au contraire un peu plus court que celui de Bogota. 

II faudra done donner un nouveau nom a l'oiseau de Bogota, et 
par consequent nous proposons celui de C. Columbiana, sp. nov. 

286. Gkallaeia eeguxtts, Scl. 

La Q-loria : une femeDe du 6 fevrier 1891. 

287. Geai/Laeia etifxtea obscuea, subsp. nov. 
Grallaria ricfula, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 88. 

G. G. rufulae (Lat'r.) simillima, sed colore supra obscui-iore, magis 
olivacco vel minus rufo-hrunneo,f route imprimis mirius rufescente, 
necnon alis caudaque paulo longiorihus distinguenda. Loiig. alee 
90, caudcB 46g, culminis 19|, tarsi 44^ mm. 
Hah. in Peruvia eentrali (Mus. Branicki), 
Une femelle de Maraynioc (24 novembre 1891). 
Cette femelle unique presente la eouleur du dessus du corps 
plus olivatre, moins roussatre, que les oiseaux de Bogota et de 
I'Ecuador. Cette difference se manifeste surtout au front et sur 
les cotes de la tete. Les aUes et la queue sout aussi un peu plus 
longues que chez les oiseaux de Bogota et de I'Ecuador qui nous 
ont servi de compai-aison. 

288. Gbail-vria a>'dicola (Cab.). 

Une femelle d'Ingapirca (juin 1890) et un male de Pariayacu 
(7 aout 1892). " L-is brun ionce." 

S . Al. 93|, caud. 43^, culm. 22f , tars. 4o| mm. 
$. „ 96i „ 4.5i „ 21f „ 461 „ 

On dit que les oiseaux typiques du Musee UniTcrsitaire de 
Varsovie proviennent de la meme eontree que nos specimens. 



289. CoifOPOPHAGA CASTANEICEPS BEIIMTErNTJCHA, Subsp. nOT. 

Conopophaga castaneicejys, Tacz. Orn. Perou, ii. p. 88 (partim). 

0, (S huic C. castaneicipitis {Scl.) similUmus, sed dorso alisjue 
extus obscure rufo-brunneis fere unicoloribus (dorso ininhne 
griseo et nigro variegato), pileo nuchaque dorso concoloribus (nee 
rufis), f route solummodo rufa ; abdomine medio purius albo, gula 
capitisque lateribus nigresceutioribus, rostro breviore et angustiore, 
mandibula fere omnino alba {nee dlmldlo apicali fuscescente), 
necnon alis caudaque longioribus distinguendus. 

2 a fcemina C castsLTieici^itls pileo p)osteriore nuchaque brunneis 
nee rufis forsan distinguenda. 



Lonar. ala. 


Cauda. 


Culminis. 


Tarsi, 


78 


49 


12| 


28i 


75|-72i 


47|-43^ 


17^13i 


29|-28i 



S 78 49 12| 2iS^ mm. 

Hah. in Peruvia central!. 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1896, No. XXV. 25 



386 GEAP vow BERLEJSCH A^^D AT, J. SXOLZMAKK OJf [Mar. 3, 

Tin male et deux femelles de Garita del Sol et de La G-loria 
(aout 1890, aout et octobre 1891). " Iris bruu fonce, bee noir a 
maudibule inferieure blauchatre, partes d'lin ceudre bleuatre." 

Le male de La Garita se distingue au premier coup d'oeil d'un 
male de Bogota (Mus. Berlepseh) par le dos et les ailes d'un brun 
sature et fonce, tandis que cbez I'oiseau de Bogota ces parties 
sont d'un olive terue ou moins brunatre et le dos varie de grisatre 
a larges bordures apicales noiratres. Chez I'oiseau de Garita le 
front seul est d'un roux vif, mais la partie posterieure du pileum 
et la nuque sont d'un brun fonce roussatre, de meme que le dos. 
Chez I'oiseau de Bogota au contraire presque tout le pileum est 
roux, seulemeut un peu plus fonce dans la partie posterieuxe, avec 
bordures apicales des plumes noiratres. Ensuite chez I'oiseau de 
Garita le milieu de I'abdomeu est presque blauc pur seulement un 
peu A-arie de grisatre, tandis que chez celui de Bogota cette partie 
de I'abdomeu est d'uue coulem- d'ardoise un pen plus pale que 
la poitrine. La couleur d'ardoise de la gorge et des cotes de la 
tete est plus noiratre. Les ailes et la queue sont plus longues, le 
bee plus petit. Enfin la mandibule inferieure est presque uni- 
formement blanchatre, tandis que chez I'oiseau de Bogota le ti